Nieuws


balk2.jpg (42734 bytes)

Google


TV advertenties beïnvloeden drankgedrag van kinderen 

Hoe meer reclame kinderen voor bepaalde merken van alcohol te zien krijgen, hoe meer ze ervan consumeren, volgens een nieuwe studie. Het onderzoek, gepubliceerd in het septembernummer van het Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, versterkt de stelling dat alcohol reclame het alcoholgebruik bij minderjarigen beïnvloedt.

Lees verder


Alcohol kan het risico op borstkanker verhogen

Een team aan de universiteit van Houston hebben een belangrijke schakel ontdekt tussen alcohol en borstkanker door het identificeren van een kankerverwekkende gen getriggerd door alcohol. “In de Verenigde Staten komt alcoholconsumptie vaker voor bij vrouwen en is een risicofactor voor borstkanker," zegt UH kankerbioloog Chin-Lin Yo. "Ons onderzoek toont aan dat alcohol de werking van oestrogeen verhoogt in het stimuleren van de groei van borstkankercellen en de effecten van het kankermedicijn Tamoxifen op oestrogeen blokkering vermindert door het verhogen van de niveaus van een kankerverwekkend gen genaamd BRAF."

Lees verder


Alcoholgebruik tijdens de zwangerschap heeft gevolgen voor meerdere generaties

Als een moeder tijdens haar zwangerschap alcohol drinkt, zelfs een kleine hoeveelheid, kan ze daarmee de kans vergroten dat de volgende drie generaties alcoholisme kunnen ontwikkelen, volgens een nieuwe studie van Binghamton Universiteit.

Lees verder


Kinderen van overmatig drinkende ouders drinken zelf ook meer

Uit onderzoek blijkt dat wanneer ouders van pubers zelf overmatig drinken, hun kinderen in de puberleeftijd zich ook eerder te buiten gaan aan overmatig alcoholgebruik. Dit bleek onlangs uit een presentatie van dr. Ina Koning, universitair docent aan de Universiteit Utrecht tijdens een werkconferentie voor preventiewerkers van GGD en verslavingszorg.

Lees verder


Stop met sterke drank: gezondheidsvoordelen alcohol een fabeltje

Drinkers hebben lang geproost op de gezondheidsvoordelen van matige alcoholconsumptie, maar een nieuwe studie, vandaag gepubliceerd in het British Medical Journal (BMJ, trekt de beschermende effecten van alcohol in twijfel. De studie zet vraagtekens bij de heersende overtuiging dat matig drinken goed is voor de gezondheid en laat zien dat alle bescherming biedende voordelen van matig alcohol gebruik uit eerder onderzoek overschat of overdreven is.

Lees verder


Het hormoon ghreline zet aan tot het drinken van alcohol

Ghreline is een hormoon vrijgegeven door de maag en stimuleert de eetlust en de voedselinname. Alcohol wordt algemeen gezien als een psychoactieve stof die voornamelijk de hersenfunctie affecteert maar het is ook een zeer calorierijk voedsel. Deze kennis, gecombineerd met resultaten van dierstudies leidden onderzoekers tot de hypothese dat ghreline het alcoholmisbruik stimuleert. Dr. Lorenzo Leggio en zijn collega's testten dit bij mensen en vonden, zoals ze hadden verwacht, dat het alcoholmisbruik bij zware drinkers toenam na toediening van ghreline. 

Lees verder


Minderjarigen zeer kwetsbaar voor advertenties van alcoholmerken 

Minderjarige drinkers tussen 18 en 20 krijgen meer tijdschriftadvertenties te zien van alcoholmerken die ze het meeste drinken dan elke andere leeftijdsgroep, en roept daarmee een belangrijke vraag op of de huidige zelfregulerende gedragscodes voor alcohol met betrekking tot adverteren wel genoeg bescherming bieden voor jonge mensen. Dit is de conclusie van een nieuwe studie van het Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY) van de John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, dat onderzocht welke leeftijdsgroep de meeste tijdschriftadvertenties te zien kreeg van de 25 meest populaire alcoholmerken bij minderjarige jongens en meisjes, in vergelijking met 308 minder populaire alcoholmerken bij minderjarige drinkers.

Lees verder


Het meerdere malen per week drinken van alcohol verhoogt het risico op overlijden door een beroerte

Het vaker dan twee keer per week consumeren van alcohol verhoogt het risico op sterven door een beroerte bij mannen, volgens een studie uitgevoerd aan de Universiteit van Oost-Finland. De resultaten tonen aan dat de effecten van alcohol niet beperkt blijven tot de verbruikte hoeveelheid, maar ook de frequentie van het drinken doet er toe. De resultaten werden op 8 maart gepubliceerd in Acta neurologica Scandinavica. Overmatig alcoholgebruik is geassocieerd met een verscheidenheid van verschillende ziekten. De relatie tussen alcoholgebruik en ischemische beroerte toont een J curvepatroon, wat betekend dat bij mensen die matig alcohol gebruiken het risico op een beroerte het laagst is, terwijl zware alcohol consumptie het risico op beroerte doet toenemen.

Lees verder


Binge drinken verstoort vermogen tot concentreren en geheugen

Bekende Amerikaanse hersenonderzoeker Tapert presenteert nieuw onderzoek aan Nederlandse onderzoekers en preventiewerkers. Volgens de bekende Amerikaanse prof. Susan Tapert verstoort regelmatig in korte tijd drinken van enkele glazen alcohol aantoonbaar de hersenontwikkeling. Ze presenteerde haar wetenschappelijk onderzoek tijdens een expertmeeting in Utrecht. Longitudinaal hersenonderzoek toont aan dat jongeren die gedurende langere tijd regelmatig ‘binge drinken’ significant slechter scoren op verschillende cognitieve testen. Van ‘binge drinken’ spreken we bij meisjes als ze 4 of meer glazen binnen 2 uur drinken en bij jongens als ze 5 of meer glazen in 2 uur drinken.

Lees verder


Alcoholafbraak molecule kan een rol spelen in de ontwikkeling
van borstkanker

Nieuw onderzoek kijkt naar het biologische proces betrokken bij de ontwikkeling van borstkanker met mogelijk verband tussen alcoholgebruik en de ziekte. Wetenschappers van de Universiteit van Manchester - afdeling 'Manchester Cancer Research Centre' en van de Universiteit van Salford onderzochten een bepaald enzym, een biologische molecule die chemische reacties versnelt - bekend als CYP2E1.

Lees verder


Stoppen van alcoholmisbruik door stimulatie hersencellen

Resultaten suggereren dat het mogelijk moet zijn om gentherapie te gebruiken in de hersenen bij alcohol- en drugsmisbruik, neurologische ziekten en behandeling van psychische aandoeningen. Onderzoekers aan de Universiteit van Buffalo hebben een manier gevonden om alcoholisch drinkgedrag bij knaagdieren te veranderen met behulp van de nieuwe techniek van optogenetica dat licht gebruikt om hersen neuronen te stimuleren.

Lees verder


Alcohol laat sporen na in DNA bij jongeren

Een voorlopige studie onder leiding van een onderzoeker van de UPV/EHU van de Universiteit van Baskenland in samenwerking met de Autonome Universiteit van Nayarit , Mexico, ontdekt dat weekend alcohol drinken invloed kan hebben op het DNA. Een studie begonnen in Mexico in samenwerking met universitaire studenten analyseerde het effect van alcoholconsumptie tijdens het weekend op de celmembraanlipiden en het genetische materiaal of DNA. Tot nu toe is de schade aan de cellen in de vroege stadia van alcoholmisbruik nooit gedocumenteerd. De meeste van de studies werden uitgevoerd in een later stadium met mensen die al verslaafd waren aan alcohol. De resultaten zijn gepubliceerd in het tijdschrift 'Alcohol'.

Lees verder


Studie suggereert dat visolie kan helpen alcoholverslaafden te beschermen tegen dementie

Een studie aan de Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine suggereert dat omega3 visolie kan helpen bij het beschermen tegen alcohol gerelateerde dementie. Eerdere studies hebben aangetoond dat langdurig alcoholmisbruik het risico op dementie verhoogt . De Loyola studie vond dat in de hersencellen van ratten blootgesteld aan hoge niveaus van alcohol een visolieverbinding beschermde tegen ontsteking en celdood. De studie uitgevoerd door Michael A. Collins , PhD en collega's werd op 8 september meegedeeld tijdens het 14e congres van de European Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholisme in Warschau .

Lees verder


Alcohol verbreekt verbindingen in hersenen die nodig zijn om sociale signalen te verwerken

Onderzoekers identificeren hoe alcohol het vermogen belemmert om te lezen en te reageren op gezichtsuitdrukkingen.

Volgens onderzoekers van de Universiteit van Illinois in Chicago College of Medicine vermindert alcoholintoxicatie de communicatie tussen de twee gebieden van de hersenen die samenwerken om goed te interpreteren en te reageren op maatschappelijke signalen. Hun resultaten werden gepubliceerd in het septembernummer van Psychopharmacology .

Eerder onderzoek heeft aangetoond dat alcohol de activiteit onderdrukt in de amygdala, het deel van de hersenen dat verantwoordelijk is voor het waarnemen van sociale signalen zoals gelaatsdrukkingen. "Omdat emotionele verwerking zowel de amygdala en de gebieden van de hersenen in de prefrontale cortex omvat die verantwoordelijk zijn voor cognitie en modulatie van gedrag wilden we zien of er nog veranderingen in de functionele connectiviteit en communicatie tussen deze twee hersengebieden bestaan waaraan de effecten van alcohol zouden kunnen ten grondslag liggen", zei K. Luan Phan , UIC hoogleraar psychiatrie.

Lees verder


Genetische link tussen pancreatitis en alcoholgebruik

Uit een nieuwe studie, vandaag online gepubliceerd in Nature Genetics, blijkt dat er een genetische link is tussen chronische pancreatitis (ontsteking aan de alvleesklier) en alcoholgebruik. Onderzoekers van de University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine en meer dan 25 andere gezondheidscentra in de Verenigde Staten vonden een genetische variant van chromosoom X naast het claudin-2 gen (CLDN2) dat voorspelt welke van de mensen die zware drinkers zijn een hoog risico lopen op het ontwikkelen van een chronische pancreatitis. Door deze vinding kunnen artsen mensen identificeren met vroege tekenen van pancreatitis of een aanval van acute pancreatitis, die een zeer hoog risico geeft op vorming van een chronische pancreatitis, waardoor ze preventieve maatregelen kunnen nemen om de ontwikkeling van de ziekte te vertragen en de alvleesklier een kans te geven om te helen. Wanneer een individu pancreatitis ontwikkelt duurt het enkele jaren voor de alvleesklier verslechterd.

Lees verder


Alcohol kan de effecten van sommige geneesmiddelen in het
lichaam versterken

Wetenschappers melden een andere reden- naast mogelijke schade aan de lever, maagbloedingen en andere bijwerkingen- het drinken van alcohol tijdens het gebruik van bepaalde medicijnen te vermijden. Hun rapport in het ACS' journal Moleculaire Farmacie beschrijft laboratorium experimenten waarbij alcohol verschillende medicijnen tot drie keer meer beschikbaar maakte voor het lichaam, effectief verdrievoudiging van de oorspronkelijke dosis.

Lees verder


Onderzoekers vinden mogelijk verband tussen het drinken van
alcohol en borstkanker

Een onderzoeksteam zal deze week bevindingen die ze zeggen te leggen presenteren tussen het verband van alcoholconsumptie en borstkanker. "Cellen hebben verschillende mechanismen om giftige stoffen , zoals ethanol, de chemische naam voor alcohol, te verwijderen, dat een mogelijk risico voor hen is:, verklaart Maria de Lourdes Rodriguez-Fragoso, professor van farmacologie en toxicologie op de univerteit Autonoma del Estado de Morelos in Mexico.  "Jammer genoeg, maken deze mechanismen soms andere giftige stoffen, waaronder een aantal die in verband worden gebracht met de ontwikkeling van verschillende vormen van kanker." Alcoholgebruik is al lang gezien als een risicofactor voor borstkanker. Maar het vinden van de directe link dat maakt het zo tot nu toe bleek ongrijpbaar. Nu, Rodriguez -Fragoso en haar medewerkers denken dat ze het antwoord hebben gevonden, een eiwit genaamd CYP2E1.

Lees verder


Alcohol reclame op TV kan een rol spelen bij het alcoholgebruik
door minderjarigen

Nieuwe studie toont aan dat minderjarigen die advertenties herkennen voor bier en sterke drank meer kans hebben om te gaan drinken.

Boston- Minderjarigen die bekend zijn met alcoholreclame op televisie grotere kans maken alcoholische dranken en overmatig drinken te hebben geprobeerd dan mensen die zichnhet zien van dergelijke advertenties niet konden herinneren blijkt uit een nieuwe studie. Alcoholgebruik door minderjarigen blijft een belangrijk risico voor de gezondheid in de VS, aldus hoofdauteur Susanne E.Tanski, MD, MPH, Faap, assistent-professor bij de afdeling kindergeneeskunde aan Children's Hospital in Darthmouth, Darthmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center. "In deze studie hebben we een verband laten zien tussen de erkenning van nationale televisie alcoholreclame en aanvang van alcoholgebruik door minderjarigen en patronen van zwaarder gebruik."

Lees verder


De rol die alcohol zou kunnen spelen in het risico op kanker

Een grote groep van voorname wetenschappers publiceerde een heel gedetaileerd en nogal complex artikel die de associatie beschrijft tussen alcoholconsumptie en kanker in het tijdschrift Britisch Medical Journal. Het is gebaseerd op data van het EPIC (Electronic Privacy Information Center) onderzoek in Europa. Deelnemers werden 8.8 jaar gevolgd . De auteurs beschrijven een toename in kans op verschillende soorten kanker door het drinken van alocohol , maar geven geen gegevens over de drempel van alcoholinname die het negatieve effect op het risico op kanker vergroot. De onderonderzoekers concluderen dat, " In West-Europa een groot gedeelte van kankergevallen zijn toe te schrijven aan alcoholconsumptie, in het bijzonder de consumptie van grotere hoeveelheden dan de bovenlimiet"

Lees verder

Seth


Alcohol 'more harmful than heroin'

Alcohol is more dangerous than illegal drugs like heroin, ecstasy and crack cocaine, a new study has said

Link


Alcohol schadelijker dan heroïne en crack

Alcohol is schadelijker voor mens en samenleving dan heroïne of crack, als de maatschappelijke kosten van het gebruik worden meegerekend. Dat maakten Britse onderzoekers maandag bekend.

Lees verder

Gerrit


Anderhalf glas alcohol per dag vergroot kans op borstkanker

Een anderhalf glas alcohol per dag drinken, vergroot de kans op borstkanker met zeven procent. Dat heeft de stichting tegen kanker zopas meegedeeld tijdens een infodag over borstkanker.

Lees verder


Glas wijn per dag juist ongezond

De mythe dat een glas wijn per dag gezond is moet worden doorgeprikt. Dat zegt directeur van het Nederlands Instituut voor Alcoholbeleid Stap Wim van Dalen donderdag in het Nederlands Dagblad.

Lees verder


Ouders en kinderen praten langs elkaar heen over roken en alcohol

Uit onderzoek, uitgevoerd door TNS NIPO in opdracht van STIVORO, blijkt dat 80% van de ouders aangeeft wel eens met hun kind over (niet gaan) roken gesproken te hebben. 91% van deze ouders praat minimaal 1 keer per 12 maanden met hun kind. Terwijl uit onderzoek onder jongeren, eveneens uitgevoerd door TNS NIPO, blijkt dat 35% van 10 t/m 16 jarigen beweert het afgelopen jaar nooit een dergelijk gesprek te hebben gehad.

"Blijkbaar beleven veel ouders gesprekken over roken anders dan de kinderen zelf", zegt Lies van Gennip, directeur van STIVORO. "Daarom voeren we samen met het Trimbos-instituut campagne om communicatie over middelengebruik (tabak en alcohol) tussen ouder en kind te verbeteren. Met de start van het nieuwe schooljaar is het belangrijk aandacht te besteden aan het voorkomen van roken. De invalshoek van dit deel van de campagne is: 'Kind naar de brugklas? Praat nu over roken'. Doel is zowel rokende als niet-rokende ouders te bewegen tot een goed en openhartig gesprek met hun kind."

Uit het TNS NIPO-onderzoek onder jongeren blijkt verder dat er op de basisschool nog weinig wordt gerookt, maar dat in het voortgezet onderwijs vaker een sigaret wordt uitgeprobeerd. Zo heeft 1 op de 4 brugklassers wel eens gerookt. Daarnaast geeft 36% van alle jongeren van 10 t/m 16 jaar aan wel eens een keertje gerookt te hebben, maar zijn hun ouders daarvan niet op de hoogte. "Wat betreft communicatie tussen ouder en kind is er dus nog heel wat te winnen", aldus Van Gennip. "Ouders kunnen een belangrijke rol spelen bij het voorkomen van roken door hun kind. Ze willen bijna allemaal dat hun kind niet gaat roken. De campagne wil ouders bewust maken van hun invloed en helpen om het gesprek hierover op een effectieve manier te voeren. Heldere afspraken maken. Daar gaat het om. Dan weten kinderen waar ze aan toe zijn. Op de website www.uwkindenroken.nl kunnen ouders het gesprek met oefenpuber 'Tom' aangaan en kunnen ze er terecht voor informatie en tips. Daarnaast organiseren de GGD en de instellingen voor verslavingszorg op verzoek van scholen of buurtcentra ouderbijeenkomsten."

Sigarettenverslaving voorkomen
Onschuldig experimenteren met roken bestaat niet. Van Gennip: "Als kinderen roken eenmaal hebben uitgeprobeerd, is de kans vervolgens groot dat ze minder goed luisteren naar de bezwaren van hun ouders. Het niet zonder nicotine kunnen, is een belangrijke drempel voor stoppen met roken. Het is daarom raadzaam om een sigarettenverslaving te voorkomen. Hierbij kunnen de ouders een belangrijke rol spelen, bijvoorbeeld door zelf niet te roken in het bijzijn van hun kinderen en over roken te praten op een moment dat het kind nog niet experimenteert met roken."

Ook duidelijke afspraken maken over alcoholgebruik
Als jongeren van de basisschool naar het voortgezet onderwijs gaan, neemt niet alleen het uitproberen van sigaretten toe, maar ook het uitproberen van alcohol. Uit het Peilstationsonderzoek Ouders van het Trimbos-instituut blijkt bijvoorbeeld dat 'maar' 1 op de 15 ouders het goed vindt dat hun kind (jonger dan 16 jaar) op feestjes alcohol drinkt, terwijl een kwart van de kinderen zegt te weten dat dit wel mag. Ook hier kunnen ouders invloed uitoefenen door vroegtijdig met hun kind te praten over alcoholgebruik en het maken van duidelijke afspraken met hun kind over wat wel en wat niet mag. Om ouders daarin te ondersteunen voeren STIVORO en Trimbos-instituut samen campagne. Deze samenwerking zal in 2011 leiden tot een nieuwe gezamenlijke campagne voor ouders over roken-, alcohol- en cannabisopvoeding.


Nieuw bewijs ondersteunt verband tussen lichaamsvet, alcohol en darmkanker

Het wereldwijde World Cancer Research Fund netwerk heeft twee belangrijke onderzoeksanalyses naar de oorzaken van darmkanker gepresenteerd op een internationale conferentie over voeding, lichaamsbeweging, gewicht en kankerpreventie in Londen. Beide analyses ondersteunen de bestaande kankerpreventie-aanbevelingen van het internationale World Cancer Research Fund netwerk, waar het Wereld Kanker Onderzoek Fonds deel van uitmaakt.

Het wetenschappelijke rapport over kankerpreventie van het netwerk uit 2007: Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective stelt dat zowel overgewicht als alcoholgebruik het risico op darmkanker vergroten. De eerste onderzoeksanalyse toont aanvullend bewijs dat het hebben van overtollig vet rond de taille bijzonder schadelijk is. De tweede analyse bevestigt dat alcoholconsumptie het risico op darmkanker verhoogt. Dit verhoogde risico is groter voor mannen dan voor vrouwen.

Beide analyses zullen worden toegevoegd aan het grootste, meest omvattende rapport ter wereld over de relatie tussen voeding, leefstijl en de preventie van kanker. De bevindingen van dit rapport worden periodiek bijgewerkt per type kanker als onderdeel van het 'Continuous Update Project'. Vorig jaar werd een update over borstkanker vrijgegeven.

Grotere rol lichaamsvet bij darmkankerrisico
Professor Martin Wiseman, medisch en wetenschappelijk adviseur voor het Wereld Kanker Onderzoek Fonds: "De laatste bevindingen bevestigen het bewijs dat overtollig lichaamsvet een belangrijke risicofactor is voor darmkanker. Sterker nog, wetenschappers beweren dat, na niet roken, een gezond gewicht de belangrijkste rol speelt bij kankerpreventie. Het Wereld Kanker Onderzoek Fonds adviseert mensen om naar een zo slank mogelijk postuur te streven, maar ondergewicht te vermijden."

Dr. Teresa Norat, hoofdonderzoeker: "Daarnaast versterkt deze studie de aanwijzingen dat de plaats waar het vet gedragen wordt ook belangrijk is. Dit betekent dat mensen met een brede taille gewichtverlies moeten overwegen, zelfs als hun gewicht binnen de normale BMI-grenzen valt. De studie geeft ons een beter beeld over hoe lichaamsvet het risico op darmkanker beïnvloedt. Er is echter meer onderzoek nodig om te begrijpen hoe buikvet kan worden voorkomen bij mensen met zowel een normaal gewicht als overgewicht."

Alcohol heeft grotere invloed op darmkankerrisico bij mannen
De uitkomsten van de onderzoeksanalyse naar alcohol en darmkanker zijn zorgwekkend, omdat mannen in Nederland aanzienlijk meer alcohol drinken dan vrouwen. Alhoewel de studie duidelijk laat zien dat mannen belang hebben bij het minderen van hun alcoholconsumptie, benadrukken wetenschappers dat alcohol ook een belangrijke risicofactor is voor vrouwen. Er bestaat namelijk overtuigend bewijs dat alcohol het risico op borstkanker verhoogt. Nu toont deze nieuwe studie aan dat alcohol ook het risico op endeldarmkanker bij vrouwen verhoogt.

"Deze onderzoeksanalyse bevestigt dat alcoholconsumptie een risicofactor voor kanker is", zegt Wiseman van het Wereld Kanker Onderzoek Fonds. Ondanks de sterke bewijzen zijn veel Nederlanders nog niet op de hoogte van dit verband. Onze taak is mensen hiervan bewust te maken zodat zij zelf weloverwogen keuzes kunnen maken die de kans op kanker verkleinen. Het Wereld Kanker Onderzoek Fonds adviseert dat als mensen al alcohol drinken, zij het aantal glazen per dag beperken tot 2 voor mannen en 1 voor vrouwen."

Norat vervolgt: "Het verband tussen alcohol en darmkanker is een gebied waar de laatste jaren veel onderzoek naar is gedaan. Hoewel het bestaande bewijsmateriaal minder consistent is over de link tussen alcohol en darmkanker bij vrouwen, stelt deze nieuwe studie dat het effect van alcohol op endeldarmkanker vergelijkbaar is bij mannen en vrouwen."

Jaarlijks krijgen meer dan 12.000 mensen in Nederland darmkanker. Meer informatie op www.wereldkankeronderzoekfonds.nl.


Waarschuwing op alcohol voor zwangeren

Verloskundigen geven niet altijd informatie over alcoholgebruik tijdens de zwangerschap of ze lichten zwangeren verkeerd voor.

Lees verder


Meer aandacht noodzakelijk voor de relatie alcohol en kanker

Alcohol is een kankerverwekkende stof. Voor het Agentschap voor Kankeronderzoek van de WHO (Wereldgezondheidsorganisatie) is dat een uitgemaakte zaak. Toch houden veel deskundigen in Nederland nog geen rekening met deze relatief nieuwe kennis. Niet zelden wordt onterecht beweerd dat vooral het drinken van wijn bijdraagt aan een gezonde leefstijl. En dat terwijl de WHO heeft vastgesteld dat er geen volledig veilige ondergrens is voor alcoholgebruik. Ieder glas alcohol verhoogt het risico op kanker. Het Nederlands Instituut voor Alcoholbeleid (STAP) organiseert op 23 september a.s. in Amsterdam een congres over alcohol en gezondheid. Drie kankerspecialisten leggen tijdens het congres uit wat de precieze relatie is tussen alcohol en kanker. Ook wordt ingegaan op het belang van eerlijke en duidelijke publieksinformatie over de gezondheidsrisico's van alcohol.

Relatie alcohol en kanker wetenschappelijk onderbouwd
Jaarlijks sterven in de EU ongeveer 50.000 mensen aan kanker die is toe te schrijven aan alcoholgebruik (Anderson & Baumberg, 2006). Desondanks is het thema kanker nog niet prominent aan de orde in het publieke debat over de gezondheidsrisico's van alcohol. Uit tal van studies blijkt echter dat alcoholgebruik ondubbelzinnig in verband gebracht kan worden met het ontstaan van kanker. Voorbeelden daarvan zijn kankers aan hoofd, nek, slokdarm, dikke darm en borst. Het Internationale Agentschap van de WHO voor onderzoek naar kanker (IARC) geeft aan dat zowel alcohol als het belangrijkste afbraakproduct van alcohol, aceetaldehyde, kankerverwekkend (carcinogeen) is.

Alcohol en borstkanker
Volgens het RIVM is borstkanker één van de belangrijkste doodsoorzaken onder vrouwen tussen de 30 en 59 jaar oud. KWF Kankerbestrijding heeft vastgesteld dat vrouwen in Nederland een kans hebben van één op de acht om in hun leven borstkanker te krijgen. Het is daarmee de meest voorkomende soort kanker onder vrouwen. Borstkanker wordt in belangrijke mate beïnvloed door diverse hormonale en reproductieve factoren. Echter uit onderzoek blijkt dat ook alcoholgebruik een aantoonbare rol speelt bij het ontstaan van borstkanker. Ongeveer 4% van alle borstkanker kan verklaard worden door alcoholgebruik. In Nederland gaat het om ongeveer 500 van de 12.500 borstkanker gevallen die jaarlijks worden geconstateerd. Alcohol heeft geen beschermend effect op de ontwikkeling ervan, ook niet in kleine doseringen. Ieder glas alcohol draagt bij aan een verhoogd risico. Bij 1 à 2 glazen alcohol per dag neemt het risico toe met 10%, bij 3 of meer glazen per dag zelfs met 30%.

Drie kankerexperts op congres alcohol en gezondheid
Het Nederlands Instituut voor Alcoholbeleid organiseert op 23 september a.s. het eerste landelijke congres over alcohol en gezondheid in Pakhuis de Zwijger te Amsterdam. Tijdens dat congres zullen drie wetenschappers ingaan op de samenhang tussen alcohol en kanker. Dat zijn Prof. dr. ir. Ellen Kampman, hoogleraar Voeding en Kanker aan Wageningen Universiteit, de Duitse chemicus Dr. Dirk W. Lachenmeier van het Laboratorium voor Chemische en Veterinaire Analyse uit Karlsruhe en een deskundige van het Franse Nationale Instituut voor landbouwkundigonderzoek (INRA) in Parijs.

Voor meer informatie over het congres 'Alcohol en Gezondheid': zie www.stap.nl


Gematigd drinken, van wijn in het bijzonder, wordt geassocieeerd met een betere cognitieve functie

Een groot langdurig onderzoek onder 5033 mannen en vrouwen in de Tromsø Study in het noorden van Noorwegen laat zien dat gematigde consumptie van wijn onafhankelijk in verbinding staat met een betere prestatie op cognitieve tests.

Link

Xynthia Kavelaars


Radio - de alcohol lobby

Alcohol en jongeren is een gevaarlijke combinatie. Onder de 18 jaar kan drinken hersenschade tot gevolg hebben. Dat is wetenschappelijk bewezen. Even zag het er naar uit dat het kabinet Balkenende IV de leeftijdsgrens voor het kopen van alcohol zou verhogen naar 18 jaar. Of in elk geval een experiment daartoe in een aantal gemeenten.

Download MP3

ps: even doorspoelen naar 5 minuten....


Derde van jongeren extra gevoelig voor meedrinken

Jongeren met een genetische verandering in het dopaminegen DRD4 blijken extra gevoelig voor het meedrinken met anderen.

Link


Radio - Alcoholreclames in strijd met code

Minderjarige bioscoopbezoekers krijgen vaak indringende alcoholreclames te zien. De adverteerders handelen hiermee in strijd met hun eigen regels die zijn vastgelegd in de Reclamecode voor Alcoholhoudende dranken. Volgens het Nederlands Instituut voor Alcoholbeleid werden bij meer dan de helft van films voor bezoekers van zes jaar en ouder alcoholreclames vertoond.

Download MP3


'Binge drinking' vergroot risico op botontkalking en breuken

Tieners die op korte tijd veel alcohol consumeren om zo snel mogelijk dronken te worden, riskeren op latere leeftijd botontkalking en botbreuken. Dat blijkt uit een Amerikaanse studie op ratten.

Link


Groenlinks wil geen drank op schoolfeestjes


Radio - De Alcohollobby

Alcohol en jongeren is een gevaarlijke combinatie. Onder de 18 jaar kan drinken hersenschade tot gevolg hebben. Dat is wetenschappelijk bewezen.

Download MP3


Meer Urker meisjes met alcoholproblemen

De welzijnsstichting Waypoint ziet steeds meer meisjes op Urk met een alcoholprobleem. Zij zijn het ook vaak die met een alcoholvergiftiging in het ziekenhuis belanden.


Comazuipen tast de hersenen aan

Het zogenaamde comazuipen (drinken tot je er letterlijk bij neervalt) heeft kwalijke gevolgen voor de hersenen. Dit blijkt uit onderzoek van The Scripss Research Institute in Amerika.

Link

Bekijk hele uitzending


TV - Bier voor dakloze alcoholisten

Dakloze alcoholisten in Amersfoort hebben sinds een half jaar hun eigen bar in de daklozenopvang. Zij kunnen daar bier bestellen voor de kostprijs van 40 cent per halve liter. Het idee erachter: de daklozen zijn van de straat en worden beter verzorgd. Critici vinden het de goden verzoeken.

Bekijk uitzending


Alcohol, je kunt er maar beter van afblijven

Hans Keer

--

Alcohol is een hypnoticum: lees http://www.avoratio.nl/Research/Ziekte/Delirium

Leo Bakker


Eén op acht jongeren drinkt eenmaal per week zes glazen alcohol

Een op de acht jongeren tussen 15 en 24 drinkt een keer per week zes glazen alcohol per avond.

Link


Underage Drinking - A Zero-Tolerance Policy

A documentary made in Valparaiso, Indiana documenting the stories of students at Valparaiso University who have been arrested for underage drinking and some of the officers who arrested them. Produced by Taylor Bryan, Mark Schoeck, Mohammed Sendi and Ini Umana. Edited by Mark Schoeck.


Aantal jongeren met alcoholvergiftiging opnieuw gestegen

Het aantal jongeren dat in 2009 met een alcoholvergiftiging opgenomen is in het ziekenhuis, is maar liefst met 48% gestegen t.o.v. 2008. Dit blijkt uit cijfers die verzameld zijn door het Nederlands Signaleringscentrum Kindergeneeskunde. "Over de eerste helft van 2009 steeg het aantal al met 25%, maar de trend is dus nog zorgelijker dan we dachten," zegt kinderarts Nico van der Lely van de Reinier de Graaf Groep in Delft. In 2009 behandelden de kinderartsen 500 jongeren in de leeftijd van 11-17 jaar, waarbij sprake was van een ernstig alcoholgerelateerd incident. De stijging zit voornamelijk in de leeftijdscategorie 16 en 17 jaar. In de leeftijd 13,14 en 15 jaar is juist een lichte daling te signaleren. Van der Lely "We vermoeden dat de brede aandacht voor dit probleem en de aanpak van de alcoholpoli's in het land hieraan hebben bijgedragen." De ernst van de coma's neemt wel toe. Jongeren blijven langer in coma. De registratie van gegevens over alcoholintoxicaties bij jongeren is een initiatief van de Nederlandse Signaleringscentrum voor Kindergeneeskunde (NSCK), TNO Kwaliteit van Leven, het Reinier de Graaf Gasthuis te Delft, STAP (Nederlands Instituut voor alcoholbeleid) en de Universiteit Twente, afdeling Communicatiewetenschap.


Alcohol verergert allergieën, vooral bij vrouwen

Het gebruik van alcoholische dranken, met name witte en rode wijn, kan de symptomen van een allergie - zoals hooikoorts - verergeren, met name bij vrouwen.

Link

Jan Slemmer


TV - Nieuwslicht - Alcohol net zo gevaarlijk als harddrugs

Alcoholspecial met Javier Guzman. Matige drinker Menno Bentveld en ex-alcoholist cabaretier Javier Guzman onderzoeken de werking van alcohol. Javier Guzman: 'Ik ben een junk. Als Menno denkt dat hij genoeg drank op heeft, begint het voor mij pas leuk te worden.' Hoewel wetenschappers van mening zijn dat jongeren helemaal geen alcohol moeten drinken, omdat het hun hersenen beschadigt, verwierp de Tweede Kamer woensdag een voorstel om de minimumleeftijd voor het kopen van alcohol te verhogen tot 18 jaar. Nieuwslicht laat zien dat alcohol net zo schadelijk is als drugs. Cabaretier Javier Guzman was jarenlang verslaafd aan alcohol en dronk twee flessen wodka per dag. Sinds vier jaar is hij afgekickt maar hij vraagt zich wel af of zijn hersenen door zijn overmatige drankgebruik zijn beschadigd. Bentveld is een matige drinker, maar wil ook weten wat alcohol met het lichaam doet, aangezien zijn twee kinderen straks de puberteit in gaan en hij zich afvraagt wat er gebeurt als zij alcohol gaan drinken. Guzman ondergaat allerlei tests en hersenscans. Hij ontdekt dat hij de hersenen heeft van een typische verslaafde. En daar schrikt hij behoorlijk van.

Link


NOS Headlines - Zuipen in Strijen?

De gemeente Strijen (Zuid-Holland) is teleurgesteld in de Tweede Kamer. Die keerde zich gisteravond onverwacht tegen de nieuwe alcoholwet. Daarin stond dat gemeenten mogen experimenteren met het verhogen van de leeftijd waarop alcohol verkocht mag worden in supermarkten en de horeca.


Is wijn gezond of gevaarlijk?


Using Stem Cells to Study Alcohol Addiction


Alcohol en obesitas is dodelijke combinatie

Mannen met obesitas die regelmatig alcohol drinken, hebben 19 meer kans op een leverziekte en hieraan dan mensen met een gemiddeld gewicht.

Link

Maaike


TV - EénVandaag - Online alcoholverslavingshulp

Online alcoholverslavingshulp werkt echt. Goed nieuws voor mensen die willen stoppen met drinken, maar daarvoor niet de deur uit willen. Via een website kan er digitaal therapie gevolgd worden. Volgens de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen werkt deze manier van behandelen erg goed. Hoe gaat deze vorm van therapie voor alcoholverslaving in zijn werk? EenVandaag spreekt een hulpverlener en iemand die de fles niet kon laten staan en hulp zocht bij de website.

Link


16 en alcoholverslaafd


OLVG wil 'comazuipers' naar psycholoog sturen

Het Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis (OLVG) in Amsterdam wil jongeren die zoveel hebben gedronken dat ze een alcoholvergiftiging oplopen en op de spoedeisende hulp belanden, in de toekomst met hun ouders doorsturen naar een psycholoog.

Link


TV - Geluk in Uitvoering

Wat is geluk als je na een wild leven blijft worstelen met alcohol? Marianne probeert er vanaf te komen met behulp van paarden.

Link


VPRO Thema: Proost!

Jongeren drinken steeds meer en op steeds jongere leeftijd. Het aantal alcoholvergiftigingen bij jongeren tussen de tien en vijftien jaar is in de afgelopen jaren verzesvoudigd, koppen de kranten. Bijna alle misdrijven in het weekend zijn alcohol gerelateerd, scholen passen op maandagochtend hun lesprogramma's aan vanwege het geringe bevattingsvermogen van hun nog verdoofde leerlingen. Alcoholmisbruik door jongeren, een mediahype of echt een serieuze bedreiging voor de volksgezondheid en een maatschappelijk probleem?

Link


Drankwebsites gemakkelijk toegankelijk voor kinderen

STAP: "leeftijdscheck" op websites van alcoholproducenten belet minderjarigen niet deze aantrekkelijke, interactieve websites te bezoeken. Ongeveer 1 op de 5 minderjarigen heeft wel eens een website van een alcoholproducent bezocht. Vooral filmpjes, muziek en games maken de alcoholwebsites aantrekkelijk voor jongeren. Dit blijkt uit een onderzoek naar het bereik van alcoholreclame via internet. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd onder 527 minderjarigen van 12 t/m 17 jaar door STAP, het Nederlands instituut voor alcoholbeleid (1). In een tweede onderzoek werd de aantrekkelijkheid van 59 websites van alcoholproducenten gescoord. Een kwart van deze websites scoort bovengemiddeld op aantrekkelijkheid. De "leeftijdscheck" op de website van een alcoholproducent, die minderjarigen moet beletten de website te bezoeken, wordt door 78% van de minderjarigen als (helemaal) niet effectief beschouwd. Dr. Esther van den Wildenberg van STAP: "Blootstelling aan alcoholreclame heeft invloed op het drinkgedrag van jongeren (2). Gezien de oncontroleerbare aard van het internet en het toenemende belang van dit medium, lijkt een verbod op alcoholreclame via internet de enige mogelijkheid om deze invloed te keren".

Bijna 1 op 5 minderjarigen bereikt door alcoholreclame via internet (onderzoek 1)
Met behulp van online onderzoeksbureau PanelClix heeft STAP aan 527 minderjarigen van 12 tot en met 17 jaar gevraagd of zij wel eens een website van een alcoholproducent hebben bezocht. Op deze open vraag antwoordt 11% van de jongeren met 'ja'. Na het zien van screenshots van 13 verschillende startpagina's van websites van alcoholproducenten antwoordt 19,5% dat zij wel eens een bezoek hebben gebracht aan één of meer van deze websites (uitgesplitst naar de jonge kinderen van 12-14 jaar en de minderjarigen van 15-17 jaar komt dit percentage uit op 12,1% resp. 24,8%). De meest genoemde producenten zijn bij beide vragen Heineken en Bacardi.
Ook de neutraal klinkende website www.voetbal.nl van Heineken, waar op de startpagina (zonder verzoek tot leeftijdsvermelding) reclame wordt gemaakt voor het Amstel Superpingels spaarsysteem, wordt door 19,5% van de minderjarigen bezocht.


TV - Leven met Korsakov

Jos is Korsakov-patiënt, maar weet dat zelf niet. En dat is het probleem: niet meer weten dat je niet meer weet. Kruispunt volgt een jaar uit het leven van Jos.

Link


Wie veel bier drinkt, heeft meer kans op 7 kankers

Wie veel drinkt, heeft dubbel zoveel kans om 7 bepaaldse kankers te ontwikkelen: lever-, long-, slokdarm-, darm-, maag-, alvleesklier- en prostaatkanker.

Link


Alzheimer’s Starts Earlier for Heavy Drinkers, Smokers

Heavy drinkers and heavy smokers develop Alzheimer’s disease years earlier than people with Alzheimer’s who do not drink or smoke heavily, according to research that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology 60th Anniversary Annual Meeting in Chicago, April 12–19, 2008. “These results are significant because it’s possible that if we can reduce or eliminate heavy smoking and drinking, we could substantially delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease for people and reduce the number of people who have Alzheimer’s at any point in time,” said study author Ranjan Duara, MD, of the Wien Center for Alzheimer’s Disease at Mount Sinai Medical Center in Miami Beach, FL, and Fellow of the American Academy of Neurology.

Lees verder


Histamine affects alcohol-related behaviour

The histamine-3 receptor is important in terms of alcohol-related behaviour, and a drug affecting that receptor may have qualities that alter alcohol-related behaviour. This appears in the study headed by Pertti Panula entitled “Tuberomamillary nucleus neurons, histamine and H3 receptor in hypothalamic regulation of alcohol addiction” which is part of the Substance Use and Addictions research programme of the Academy of Finland. “Whether these histamine-3 receptor drugs help in the treatment of human alcoholism will probably be clear when the results of the currently ongoing clinical trials become public. The drugs are currently being tested for the treatment of conditions such as observation disorders, sleep disorders and narcolepsy,” says Professor Panula. In addition to the well-known dopamine and serotonin, neurotransmitters that are important to the functioning of the brain also include histamine, which is better known for the regulation of allergies and stomach functioning. The histamine system of the brain is important in the regulation of the sleep-waking rhythm. There is also an extensive histamine system in the human brain.

Lees verder


Alcohol dependence among women is linked to delayed childbearing

Alcohol use during the teen years can not only lead to subsequent alcohol problems, it can also lead to risky sexual behavior and a greater risk of early childbearing. An examination of the relationship between a lifetime history of alcohol dependence (AD) and timing of first childbirth across reproductive development has found that AD in women is associated with delayed reproduction. Results will be published in the November issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research and are currently available at Early View.

Lees verder


Cigarette smoke, alcohol damage hearts worse as combo

A new study shows that taking in smoky air and drinking alcohol basically nullify any potential heart benefit from drinking alcohol by itself. Researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham found that mice exposed to smoky air and fed a liquid diet containing ethanol, the intoxicating ingredient in alcohol, had a 4.7-fold increase in artery lesions, a key sign of advancing heart disease. The study appears in Free Radical Biology & Medicine.

Lees verder


Alcohol sponsorship linked to hazardous drinking in sportspeople

Researchers from The University of Manchester and the University of Newcastle in Australia quizzed nearly 1,300 sportspeople and found alcohol-related companies sponsored almost half of them. The sponsorship ranged from financial incentives, such as payment of competition fees and the supply of sports kit, but nearly half of the sponsorship deals included free or discounted alcohol for sporting functions and post-match celebrations. The study, published in the December edition of the journal Addiction, found that sportspeople sponsored by the alcohol industry were more likely to engage in binge drinking than those with no alcohol sponsor.

Lees verder


Genes' role expands in alcohol dependence

The influence of genetics increases as young women transition from their first drink to alcohol dependence. A team of researchers at the Washington University School of Medicine found that although environment is most influential in determining when drinking begins, genes play a larger role in advancing to problem drinking and alcohol dependence.

Lees verder


Alcohol consumption can cause too much cell death, fetal abnormalities

The initial signs of fetal alcohol syndrome are slight but classic: facial malformations such as a flat and high upper lip, small eye openings and a short nose. Researchers want to know if those facial clues can help them figure out how much alcohol it takes during what point in development to cause these and other lifelong problems. They have good evidence that just a few glasses of wine over an hour in the first few weeks of fetal life, typically before a woman knows she's pregnant, increases cell death. Too few cells are then left to properly form the face and possibly the brain and spinal cord. "It’s well known that when you drink, you get a buzz. But a couple of hours later, that initial impact, at least, is gone," says Dr. Erhard Bieberich, biochemist in the Medical College of Georgia Schools of Medicine and Graduate Studies. "But, your fetus may have experienced irreversible damage."

Lees verder


Analysis of alcoholics' brains suggests treatment target

An analysis of brain tissue samples from chronic alcoholics reveals changes that occur at the molecular level in alcohol abuse -- and suggests a potential treatment target, according to researchers from Wake Forest University School of Medicine.

Lees verder


Lower legal drinking age increases poor birth outcomes

mid renewed calls to consider reducing the legal drinking age, a new University of Georgia study finds that lower drinking ages increase unplanned pregnancies and pre-term births among young people. “Our findings suggest that a lower drinking age increases risky sexual behavior among young people, and that leads to more unplanned pregnancies that result in premature birth and low birth weight,” said study author Angela Fertig, assistant professor in the UGA College of Public Health. “The take-home message is that when it’s easier for young people to get alcohol, birth outcomes are worse.” Fertig, who is also a public service assistant in the university’s Carl Vinson Institute of Government, co-authored the study with Tara Watson, assistant professor of economics at Williams College in Massachusetts. Their results appear in the May issue of the Journal of Health Economics. The team examined birth records and survey data on alcohol use for the years 1978 to 1988, a period when state minimum drinking age laws were in flux. Fertig said the consensus among researchers is that a higher minimum drinking age reduces fatal car crashes and alcohol consumption among young adults, but there is little data on how drinking age laws influence infant health.

Lees verder


Alcohol Use Associated With Suicide, Especially in Minorities

Alcohol plays a significant role in suicide, especially among Hispanics and American Indian and Alaska Natives, according to new data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Lees verder


Imaging study provides glimpse of alcohol's effect on brain

New brain imaging research published this week shows that, after consuming alcohol, social drinkers had decreased sensitivity in brain regions involved in detecting threats, and increased activity in brain regions involved in reward. The study, in the April 30 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience, is the first human brain imaging study of alcohol's effect on the response of neuronal circuits to threatening stimuli.

Lees verder


Acetaldehyde in alcohol -- no longer just the chemical that causes a hangover

New evidence by researchers at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) and researchers in Germany shows that drinking alcohol is the greatest risk factor for acetaldehyde-related cancer. Heavy drinkers may be at increased risk due to exposure from multiple sources. Acetaldehyde is ubiquitous in daily life in Ontario. Widely present in the environment, it is inhaled from the air and tobacco smoke, ingested from alcohol and foods, and produced in the human body during the metabolism of alcoholic beverages. Research indicates that this organic chemical plays a significant role in the development of certain types of cancers (especially of the upper digestive tract), and it is currently classified as possibly carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization. New research from CAMH in Toronto and the Chemical and Veterinary Investigation Laboratory Karlsruhe (CVUA) in Germany recently provided the necessary methodology for calculating the risk for the ingestion of alcoholic beverages. The team found that risk from ingesting acetaldehyde via alcoholic beverages alone may exceed usual safety limits for heavy drinkers. Their risk assessment study found that the average exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages resulted in a life-time cancer risk of 7.6/10,000, with higher risk scenarios (e.g. contaminations in unrecorded alcohol) in the range of 1 in 1,000. As such, the life-time cancer risks for acetaldehyde from ingestion of alcoholic beverages greatly exceed the usual limits for cancer risks from the environment.

Lees verder


Alcohol 'flush' signals increased cancer risk among East Asians

Many people of East Asian descent possess an enzyme deficiency that causes their skin to redden, or flush, when they drink alcohol. Scientists from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and Japan's Kurihama Alcohol Center now caution that heavy alcohol consumption greatly increases the risk for esophageal cancer among such individuals, who comprise about 8 percent of the world's population. Their review of recent research on this topic appears in the March 24, 2009 issue of PLoS Medicine. NIAAA is part of the National Institutes of Health. "It is very important for clinicians who treat patients of East Asian descent to be aware of the risk of esophageal cancer from alcohol consumption in their patients who exhibit the alcohol flushing response, so they can counsel them about limiting their drinking," says NIAAA Acting Director Kenneth R. Warren, Ph.D. First author Philip J. Brooks, Ph.D., of NIAAA's Laboratory of Neurogenetics, and his colleagues note that a clinician can reliably determine whether a patient is at risk simply by asking about previous episodes of facial flushing after drinking alcohol. Considered from this perspective, the authors point out, the flushing response is a clinically useful biomarker of genetic susceptibility to esophageal cancer risk from alcohol.Dr. Brooks cites the high mortality from esophageal cancer and the large number of individuals with the deficient enzyme, known as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). "Cancer of the esophagus is particularly deadly, with five-year survival rates ranging from 12 to 31 percent throughout the world. And we estimate that at least 540 million people have this alcohol-related increased risk for esophageal cancer," he notes. "We hope that, by raising awareness of this important public health problem, affected individuals who drink will reduce their cancer risk by limiting their alcohol consumption." Dr. Brooks and his colleagues explain that ALDH2 plays an important role in alcohol metabolism. When alcohol is consumed, it is first metabolized into acetaldehyde, a chemical similar to formaldehyde, which causes DNA damage and has other cancer-promoting effects. ALDH2 is the main enzyme responsible for breaking down acetaldehyde into acetate, a non-toxic metabolite in the body. East Asians have two main variants of the ALDH2 gene -- one that produces an enzyme with normal activity, and another that results in an inactive enzyme. When individuals with the inactive variant drink alcohol, acetaldehyde accumulates in the body, resulting in facial flushing, nausea, and rapid heartbeat. For people with two copies of the inactive variant, these symptoms are so severe that they can drink very little alcohol. However, individuals with only one copy of the inactive variant can become tolerant to the unpleasant effects of acetaldehyde, which puts them at risk for alcohol-related esophageal cancer.

Lees verder


New study finds daily drinking is biggest risk factor in serious liver disease

Long-term daily drinking, rather than weekly binge drinking, is by far the biggest risk factor in serious liver disease, according to a new report from the University of Southampton. The study, published in Addiction journal this week, concludes that increases in UK liver deaths are a result of daily or near daily heavy drinking, not episodic or binge drinking, and this regular drinking pattern is often discernable at an early age. It also reccommends that several alcohol-free days a week is a healthier drinking pattern. In the study of drinking patterns, dependency and lifetime drinking history in 234 subjects with liver disease, 106 had ALD (Alcohol-related Liver Disease) – 80 of whom had evidence of cirrhosis or progressive fibrosis – the team found that 71 per cent of ALD patients drank on a daily basis. In contrast to the patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis or fibrosis, patients with other forms of liver disease tended to drink sparingly with only 10 subjects (8 per cent) drinking moderately on four or more days each week. The study also explored lifetime drinking histories of 105 subjects and found that ALD patients started drinking at a significantly younger age (on average at 15 years old) than other subjects and had significantly more drinking days and units than non-ALD patients from the age of 20 onwards. Lead author of the study Dr Nick Sheron, consultant hepatologist and senior lecturer at the University of Southampton, comments: "If we are to turn the tide of liver deaths, then along with an overall reduction in alcohol consumption – which means tackling cheap booze and unregulated marketing – we need to find a way to identify those people who are most likely to develop alcohol-related illnesses at a much earlier stage, and perhaps we need to pay as much attention to the frequency of drinking occasions as we do to binge drinking. "The transition from a late teenage and early 20's binge drinking pattern to a more frequent pattern of increased intake may prove to be a useful point of intervention in the future, and the importance of three alcohol-free days each week should receive more prominence."

Lees verder


The Alcohol Flushing Response - An Unrecognized Risk Factor for Esophageal Cancer from Alcohol Consumption

Approximately 36% of East Asians (Japanese, Chinese, and Koreans) show a characteristic physiological response to drinking alcohol that includes facial flushing (see Figure 1), nausea, and tachycardia [1] . This so-called alcohol flushing response (also known as “Asian flush” or “Asian glow”) is predominantly due to an inherited deficiency in the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) [2]. Although clinicians and the East Asian public generally know about the alcohol flushing response (e.g., http://www.echeng.com/asianblush/), few are aware of the accumulating evidence that ALDH2-deficient individuals are at much higher risk of esophageal cancer (specifically squamous cell carcinoma) from alcohol consumption than individuals with fully active ALDH2. This is particularly unfortunate as esophageal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide [3], with five-year survival rates of 15.6% in the United States, 12.3% in Europe, and 31.6% in Japan

Lees verder


Alcoholics underestimate the risk of bleeding

Gastrointestinal bleeding can be fatal -- something which is not known to many alcoholics. This was the conclusion reached by the Leipzig gastroenterologist Niels Teich and his colleagues, on the basis of a survey in the current edition of Deutsches Ärzteblatt International.

Lees verder


Study Suggests Migraine Drug Could Curb Alcohol Dependence

A drug used to treat migraines and epilepsy showed the potential to help heavy drinkers curb their alcohol use, according to research published in this week's Journal of the American Medical Association.

Lees verder


Culture greatly shapes young people's drinking habits

Whether young people get drunk as a purposeful behavior or as an unintended consequence depends on what country they live in, according to new research on young people in seven countries. The research finds that young people's views on alcohol and drunkenness were influenced more by culture than by factors such as age and sex. "Tragically, too many young people purposefully pursue drunkenness as a form of 'calculated hedonism' bounded by the structural and cultural factors that affect young people in different countries," says Fiona Measham, PhD, co-editor of the book and criminologist at Lancaster University. "We need to work to change this culture of extreme drinking," says Marjana Martinic, PhD, co-editor and vice president for public health at ICAP. "We need to look at cultures in countries like Italy and Spain where moderate drinking is an ordinary, every-day part of family life." Research on young people's drinking shows that rates of drunkenness and extreme drinking are significantly lower in the Mediterranean countries than in Northern European countries. For example, 49 percent of Swedish 17-year-olds report having been drunk, compared with around 10 percent of Italian, French, and Greek youth. "Changing the culture of extreme drinking requires looking beyond traditional responses and getting all relevant stakeholders involved," concludes Dr. Martinic. "This means governments, the public health community, the beverage alcohol industry, the criminal justice system, and civil society must have a role in reducing extreme drinking among young people."

Lees verder


Brain stress system presents possible treatment

A brain circuit that underlies feelings of stress and anxiety shows promise as a new therapeutic target for alcoholism, according to new studies by researchers at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, part of the National Institutes of Health. In preclinical and clinical studies currently reported online in Science Express, NIAAA Clinical Director Markus Heilig, MD, PhD, and colleagues from the NIH, Lilly Research Laboratories, and University College in London.

Lees verder


Gene Variant Predicts Medication Response in Patients with Alcohol Dependence

Patients with a certain gene variant drank less and experienced better overall clinical outcomes than patients without the variant while taking the medication naltrexone, according to an analysis of participants in the National Institutes of Health's 2001-2004 COMBINE (Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence) Study. About 87 percent of patients with the variant who received naltrexone. experienced good outcomes, compared with about 49 percent of those who received a placebo. About 55 percent of patients without the variant experienced a good outcome regardless of whether they received naltrexone or placebo. Good outcome was defined as abstinence or moderate drinking without related problems, according to an article in the Feb. 4 issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

Lees verder


Hospitality tops list of industries with highest rates of alcohol problems

According to a new report by Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Problems at the George Washington University Medical Center, alcohol-related problems are disproportionately represented in American business, with employees in the hospitality, construction and wholesale industries significantly more likely to be dependent on or abuse alcohol.

Lees verder


Alcohol Cost Calculator Updated with New Data from National Surveys

The Ensuring Solutions Alcohol Cost Calculator for Business is a free, online tool that business leaders, researchers, and consumers can use to track the costly effects of alcohol on U.S. businesses. The Calculator for Business, originally developed in 2003, has been updated with new data to provide a current analysis of the effects of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence on the workplace and employer-funded health care spending. Using data from the 2004 and 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the calculator estimates the cost of alcohol problems to individual businesses based on characteristics specified by calculator users.

Lees verder


Study shows 1 in 25 deaths worldwide attributable to alcohol

Research from Canada's own Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) featured in this week's edition of the Lancet shows that worldwide, 1 in 25 deaths are directly attributable to alcohol consumption. This rise since 2000 is mainly due to increases in the number of women drinking. CAMH's Dr Jürgen Rehm and his colleagues found that alcohol-attributable disorders are among the most disabling disease categories within the global burden of disease, especially for men. And in contrast to other traditional risk factors for disease, the burden attributable to alcohol lies more with younger people than with the older population. Dr. Rehm still takes an optimistic 'glass half full' response to this large and increasing alcohol-attributable burden. "Today, we know more than ever about which strategies can effectively and cost-effectively control alcohol-related harms," Dr. Rehm said today. "Provided that our public policy makers act on these practical strategies expeditiously, we could see an enormous impact in reducing damage." The study showed that Europe had a high proportion of deaths related to alcohol, with 1 in 10 deaths directly attributable (up to 15% in the former Soviet Union). Average alcohol consumption in Europe in the adult population is somewhat higher than in North America: 13 standard drinks per person per week (1 standard drink = 13.6 grams of pure ethanol and corresponds to a can of beer, one glass or wine and one shot of spirits) compared to North America's 10 to 11 standard drinks. The recent Canadian consumption rate is equivalent of almost 9 standard drinks per person per week age 15 plus, and has been going up, as has high risk drinking. Globally, the average is around 7 standard drinks per person per week (despite the fact that most of the adult population worldwide actually abstains from drinking alcohol).

Lees verder


Site for Alcohol’s Action in the Brain Discovered

Alcohol's inebriating effects are familiar to everyone. But the molecular details of alcohol's impact on brain activity remain a mystery. A new study by researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies brings us closer to understanding how alcohol alters the way brain cells work.

Lees verder


Glucose metabolism and recidivism of severe violent crimes in alcohol intoxications

It is commonly known that alcoholism and alcohol intoxications are connected with severe violent crimes such as homicides. For instance, in Finland even 80 per cent of these crimes happen in alcohol intoxications. It has not, however, been clear why only a minority of alcoholics in intoxications become irritated and impulsively aggressive or even commit severe violent crimes. A Finnish study now finds that low glycogen level – which means non-oxidative glucose metabolism – predicts forthcoming violent offending among antisocial violent offender males in a prospective 8-year follow-up study. "Usually, the new violent crimes happened already during 1-2 years after the release from prisons and with the new starting problems of alcoholism", says Professor Matti Virkkunen, the corresponding author for the study. Results of the study have been published in the June issue of the journal Psychiatry Research.

Lees verder


People with cancer caused by alcohol 'could fill Wimbledon's Centre Court'

More people are diagnosed with cancer caused by alcohol each year than can fit in Wimbledon's Centre Court an expert has warned.

Lees verder


New study finds "it's never too late to stop drinking"

Where there is life there is hope and it is never too late to stop drinking, even with the most severe case of alcohol-related liver disease, according to new research from the University of Southampton. However, the downside is that up a quarter of people with alcohol-related cirrhosis die before they get the chance to stop drinking. Alcohol-related cirrhosis develops silently but usually presents with an episode of internal bleeding or jaundice - which is often fatal. The study, led by Dr Nick Sheron, senior lecturer at the University of Southampton and consultant hepatologist at Southampton General Hospital, found that abstinence from alcohol is the key factor in long-term prognosis, even with relatively severe alcohol-related cirrhosis on a liver biopsy. The study 'Alcohol, cirrhosis and mortality' appears in this month's Addiction journal. Its aim was to determine the effect of pathological severity of cirrhosis on survival in patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis. Liver biopsies from 100 patients were scored for the Laennec score of severity of cirrhosis between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2000, and medical notes were reviewed to determine various clinical factors including drinking status.

Lees verder


Alcohol and smoking are key causes for bowel cancer

A new global study has found that lifestyle risk factors such as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are important risk factors for bowel cancer. Researchers have shown that people who consume the largest quantities of alcohol (equivalent to > 7 drinks per week) have 60% greater risk of developing the cancer, compared with non-drinkers. Smoking, obesity and diabetes were also associated with a 20% greater risk of developing bowel cancer - the same risk linked with consuming high intakes of red and processed meat. Approximately one million new cases of bowel (colorectal) cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, and more than half a million people die from this type of cancer. In Australia alone, it is the most commonly occurring cancer with more than 12,000 new cases diagnosed each year. According to lead researcher Associate Professor Rachel Huxley at The George Institute, the most startling finding of this study was, "The strong, and largely, unknown association between high intakes of alcoholic beverages with risk of colorectal cancer. Most people probably know that being overweight and having poor dietary habits are risk factors for the disease, but most are probably unaware that other lifestyle risk factors such as alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and diabetes are also important culprits." Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council recommend individuals shouldn't be drinking more than two standard drinks per day.

Lees verder


Discovery may provide new treatments for alcohol dependence

Researchers at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, have discovered a new brain mechanism involved in alcohol addiction involving the stomach hormone ghrelin. When ghrelin’s actions in the brain are blocked, alcohol’s effects on the reward system are reduced. It is an important discovery that could lead to new therapies for addictions such as alcohol dependence. The results will be published in the renowned American scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Ghrelin is a hormone produced by the stomach and, by signalling in the brain, increases hunger. The new finding, that it is also involved in alcohol addiction, highlights the reward system of the brain as a key target for ghrelin’s effects. "Ghrelin’s actions in the brain may be of importance for all kinds of addictions, including chemical drugs such as alcohol and even food" says Suzanne Dickson, Professor of Physiology, a leading expert in appetite regulation.

Lees verder


New study finds continued abstinence is key to increased survival from alcohol-related liver disease

However, the downside is that up a quarter of people with alcohol-related cirrhosis die before they get the chance to stop drinking. Alcohol-related cirrhosis develops silently but usually presents with an episode of internal bleeding or jaundice - which is often fatal. The study, led by Dr Nick Sheron, senior lecturer at the University of Southampton and consultant hepatologist at Southampton General Hospital, found that abstinence from alcohol is the key factor in long-term prognosis, even with relatively severe alcohol-related cirrhosis of the liver. The study appears in this month's Addiction journal. The aim was to determine the effect of pathological severity of cirrhosis on survival in patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis. Liver biopsies from 100 patients were scored for the Laennec score of severity of cirrhosis between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2000, and medical notes were reviewed to determine various clinical factors including drinking status. Using up-to-date mortality data from the National Health Service Strategic Tracing Service, Dr Sheron found that drinking status was the most important factor determining long-term survival in alcohol-related cirrhosis of the liver. He found that the degree of cirrhosis on biopsy had less impact on survival. Abstinence from alcohol at one month after diagnosis of cirrhosis was the more important factor determining survival with a seven year survival of 72 per cent for the abstinent patients against 44 per cent for the patients continuing to drink.

Lees verder


Brain DNA 'remodeled' in alcoholism

Reshaping of the DNA scaffolding that supports and controls the expression of genes in the brain may play a major role in alcohol withdrawal symptoms, particularly anxiety, that makes it so difficult to stop using alcohol by alcoholics, researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine and the Jesse Brown VA Medical Center report in a study in the April 2 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience.

Lees verder


Food for thought - report published into the UK's health

Medical scientists from Southampton have contributed to a major new report published today, setting out plans to enhance the nation's health by improving diet, increasing physical activity and cutting harmful drinking. Professor David Coggon and Dr Nick Sheron of the University of Southampton's School of Medicine, are among a panel of experts from health charities, consumer organisations, academia and the food and drink industry, commissioned to explore how business and government can work together to promote public health. The report found that deaths from alcohol have doubled in the last 15 years as consumption has increased and in two decades obesity has tripled, while just 1 in 4 women and 4 in 10 men do the recommended amount of exercise. Dr Sheron, a hepatologist at the University of Southampton and one of the UK's leading experts on alcohol misuse explains: "Alcohol-related liver deaths in the UK have outstripped France, Spain and Italy. This report highlights the need for proper funding of alcohol services and makes the point that the Government needs to think about both minimum pricing and fiscal measures that can reduce alcohol consumption. "We have reached the stage where hazardous and harmful drinkers are now drinking three-quarters of all the alcohol sold in the UK."

Lees verder


Zinc supplements during pregnancy may counteract damage from early alcohol exposure

Animal research has shown that binge drinking – even just once – during early pregnancy can cause numerous problems for the fetus, including early postnatal death. Fetal zinc deficiency may explain some of the birth defects and neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with alcohol exposure. New rodent findings are the first to show that dietary zinc supplements throughout pregnancy can reduce some alcohol-related birth defects. Results will be published in the April issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research and are currently available at Early View. "Alcohol's damage to the fetus depends not only on the amount and duration of alcohol exposure, but also on the timing of the exposure relative to the development stage of the cells and tissues involved," said Peter Coyle, associate professor at the Hanson Institute in Adelaide, and corresponding author for the study. "Earlier work had shown that prenatal alcohol, as well as other toxins, can result in fetal zinc deficiency and teratogenicity by inducing the zinc-binding protein, metallothionein, in the mother's liver. Since then, our group has confirmed the importance of metallothionein in alcohol-mediated birth defects." Coyle and his colleagues injected pregnant mice with either saline or a 25-percent solution of alcohol on gestational day (GD) eight; all mice received either a regular or zinc-supplemented diet from GD zero to 18. On GD 18, fetuses from all four groups – saline, saline plus zinc, alcohol, alcohol plus zinc – were assessed for external birth abnormalities. In addition, from birth to day 60, researchers examined the growth of survivors from all four groups. "There were three key findings," said Coyle. "One, fetal abnormalities caused by acute alcohol exposure in early pregnancy can be prevented by dietary zinc supplementation. Two, dietary zinc supplementation throughout pregnancy can protect against post-natal death caused by acute alcohol exposure in early pregnancy. Three, dietary zinc supplementation increases the mother's blood zinc to overwhelm the transient drop in zinc caused by alcohol, which we believe prevents the fetal zinc deficiency and subsequent fetal damage."

Lees verder


Binge Drinking May Hamper Information Relay System in Teen Brain

A study of adolescent binge drinkers has found that even relatively infrequent exposure to large amounts of alcohol during the teen years may compromise the integrity of the brain’s white matter, which is critical for the efficient relay of information within the brain. The preliminary findings – to be published online in advance of the July issue of the journal Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research – indicate that binge drinking may be detrimental to the developing adolescent brain. Heavy episodic or “binge” drinking is common among adolescents, with 55% of high-school seniors reporting having gotten drunk, and a quarter of them reporting having consumed five or more drinks in a row during the previous two weeks. “Because the brain is still developing during adolescence, there has been concern that it may be more vulnerable to high doses of alcohol,” said Susan F. Tapert, PhD, director of Substance Abuse/Mental Illness at the VA San Diego Healthcare System and associate professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine. “This study showed that teens with histories of binge drinking episodes have lower coherence of white matter fibers in a variety of brain regions.” “White matter” is the part of the brain made up of the axons of neurons – long filaments that extend from the cell bodies and carry the electrical signals that relay messages between neurons. The area appears white because of the axons’ protective myelin covering. Researchers know that the integrity of the brain’s white matter is compromised in adult alcoholics, but it is unclear when during the course of drinking white matter abnormalities begin to manifest themselves. However, white matter has been shown to continue developing throughout young adulthood.

Lees verder


Genetics can mediate vulnerability to alcohol's effects during pregnancy

Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can lead to teratogenesis, the development of embryonic defects. The estimated incidence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), referring to a wide array of alcohol-exposure effects, is approximately one percent of live births in the US. Yet not all women who drink during pregnancy give birth to children with observable deficits. A mouse study has found that genetics may help to explain alcohol-related susceptibility and resistance. Results will be published in the July issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research and are currently available at Early View. "Alcohol-related deficits include pre and/or postnatal growth retardation, craniofacial anomalies, central nervous system dysfunction, hand or finger malformations, a number of different skeletal malformations, and anomalies in a number of different organ systems, including the brain, eyes, and kidney," said Chris Downing, a research associate at the University of Colorado and corresponding author for the study. "Some women who drink during pregnancy don't give birth to children with any of these observable deficits, but later on their children develop a number of behavioral deficits including hyperactivity, attention deficits, learning problems, and deficits in impulse control," Downing added. "It is thought that these behavioral deficits are due to brain damage as result of in utero ethanol exposure, but correlating specific behavioral deficits with damage to specific brain areas is a work in progress. In addition, some women who drink during pregnancy have 'normal' children with no obvious deficits." Downing said that many factors have been shown to play a role in the development of FASD, including the amount, timing and pattern of maternal alcohol consumption, maternal age and parity, maternal ethnicity and socioeconomic status, cultural factors, maternal smoking and other drug abuse, and maternal diet/nutrition. In addition, he said, studies with humans and mice have shown that both maternal and fetal genotypes – in conjunction with the environment – play a role in susceptibility and resistance to the detrimental effects of in utero alcohol exposure.

Lees verder


Four pints 'increase health risk'

Men who drink four pints of beer a week could be increasing the risk of needing hospital treatment during their lifetime, a study has suggested.

Lees verder


Tobacco Smoke and Alcohol Harm Liver Worse as Combo

Exposure to second-hand smoke and alcohol significantly raises the risk of liver disease, according to researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). The finding adds to mounting evidence that tobacco smoke and alcohol are worse for health as a combination, beyond the individual exposure risks, said Shannon Bailey, Ph.D., an associate professor in the UAB Department of Environmental Health Sciences and a co-lead author on the study. "This new data is a significant finding considering the combined effect of alcohol and cigarette smoke exposures, and the implications for public health," Bailey said. The researchers reported on mice exposed to smoky air in a laboratory enclosure and fed a liquid diet containing ethanol, the intoxicating ingredient in alcohol drinks. Mice exposed to second-hand smoke and who drank ethanol had 110 percent more liver fibrosis proteins than mice who breathed filtered air. Additionally, the twice-exposed mice had 65 percent more liver fibrosis proteins than mice who breathed smoky air but did not drink ethanol. Fibrosis is scar-like tissue in the liver that can lead to cirrhosis.

Lees verder


Study redefines roles of alcohol, smoking in risk for pancreatitis

Although alcohol consumption is known to be associated with chronic pancreatitis, new evidence indicates that a threshold of five or more drinks per day is required to significantly raise risk; however, most patients with chronic pancreatitis do not drink this amount, according to a report in the June 8 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. In addition, smoking is an independent, dose-dependent risk factor. "Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory syndrome of the pancreas characterized by progressive parenchymal fibrosis [scarring of the organ], maldigestion, diabetes mellitus and pain," the authors write as background information in the article. "Recurrent acute pancreatitis [acute pancreatitis that occurs on two or more occasions and may become chronic] and chronic pancreatitis are associated with alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. The etiology of recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis is complex, and effects of alcohol and smoking may be limited to specific patient subsets." Dhiraj Yadav, M.D., M.P.H., of the University of Pittsburgh, and colleagues in the North American Pancreatic Study Group examined the current prevalence of alcohol use and smoking and their association with pancreatitis in patients evaluated at U.S. referral centers. Between 2000 and 2006, 1,000 patients (540 with chronic pancreatitis and 460 with recurrent acute pancreatitis) were enrolled in the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2), as were 695 healthy controls. All participants (average age 49.7) reported their alcohol consumption and smoking habits. About one-fourth of both controls and patients were lifetime abstainers. Among those with chronic pancreatitis, 38.4 percent of men and 11 percent of women were very heavy drinkers (five or more drinks per day), compared with 16.9 percent of men and 5.5 percent of women with recurrent acute pancreatitis and 10 percent of men and 3.6 percent of women in the control group. "We found the threshold drinking amount for association between alcohol use and chronic pancreatitis to be five or more drinks per day," the authors write. Compared with abstaining and light drinking (half a drink per day or less), very heavy drinking was associated with approximately triple the odds of developing chronic pancreatitis. However, fewer patients with chronic pancreatitis than expected (about one-fourth) drank at this level. Other factors, including genetic mutations, also contribute to pancreatitis risk.

Lees verder


A new insight on ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury

Many people all over the world indulge themselves in drinking, which is correlated to a wide spectrum of medical, psychological, behavioral, and social problems. It is well known that chronic alcohol abuse may induce gastrointestinal dysfunction, chronic atrophic gastritis and is closely related with gastric carcinoma. However, the detailed mechanism by which ethanol affects the gastrointestinal mucosa remains to be elucidated. A research article to be published on October 14, 2008 in the World Journal of Gastroenterology addresses this question. The research team led by Professor Ren from Gastroenterology Division, Zhongshan Hospital of Xiamen University, systematically evaluated gastric mucosa alteration related to ethanol. They found that the gastric mucosal lesion index was correlated with the malondiadehyde (MDA) content in gastric mucosa. As the concentration of ethanol was elevated and the exposure time to ethanol was extended, the contentof MDA in gastric mucosa increased and the extent of damage aggravated. The ultrastructure of mitochondria was positively related to the ethanol concentration and exposure time. The expression of mtDNA ATPase subunits 6 and 8 mRNA declined with the increasing MDA content in gastric mucosa after gavage with ethanol. They concluded that Ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury is related to oxidative stress, which disturbs energy metabolism of mitochondria and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury.

Lees verder


Study reveals possible genetic risk for fetal alcohol disorders

research in primates suggests that infants and children who carry a certain gene variant may be more vulnerable to the ill effects of fetal alcohol exposure.

Lees verder


Why binge drinking is bad for your bones

Studies in recent years have demonstrated that binge drinking can decrease bone mass and bone strength, increasing the risk of osteoporosis. Now a Loyola University study has found a possible mechanism: Alcohol disturbs genes necessary for maintaining healthy bones. The findings could help in the development of new drugs to minimize bone loss in alcohol abusers and in those who don't abuse alcohol but are at risk for osteoporosis.

Lees verder


Alcohol consumption and polymorphisms of cytochromes P4502E1 are high risks for ESCC

A team led by Dr. Yan-Mei Guo from the Department of Clinical Medicine£¬Gansu College of Traditional Chinese Medicine has confirmed that alcohol consumption and polymorphisms of CYP2E1, ADH1B and ALDH2 are important risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and that there is synergetic interaction between polymorphisms of CYP2E1, ALDH2 genotype and heavy alcohol drinking for Chinese males living in Gansu province, China.

Lees verder


Genetic update - the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 gene may influence alcoholism

The neurotransmitter dopamine is believed to influence the development and/or maintenance of alcoholism. Findings regarding the dopamine D2 receptor gene, however, have been inconsistent. New research suggests that a neighboring gene, ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1, may also be involved in addictive behaviors.

Lees verder


Specific genetic cause of fetal alcohol-related developmental disorders found

Alcohol consumption by pregnant women hinders brain development in their children by interfering with the genetic processes that control thyroid hormone levels in the fetal brain, a new animal study found. Results will be presented Wednesday at The Endocrine Society's 91st Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C. Fetal alcohol exposure—even from moderate drinking during pregnancy—can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, such as emotional behavioral disorders and deficits in learning, memory and speech. There is currently no treatment for these problems, said the author who will present the study results, Laura Sittig, a student at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. Past animal research shows that some of these lasting cognitive impairments occur because alcohol consumption during pregnancy decreases the level of maternal thyroid hormones and, therefore, fetal thyroid hormones. "Specific concentrations of thyroid hormones must be available in the fetal brain to support normal neurological development," Sittig said. One of the enzymes that control thyroid hormone levels in the fetal brain is the iodothyronine deiodinase type III, or Dio3, she explained. Sittig and her colleagues hypothesized that alcohol exposure in the womb leads to cognitive impairments by inducing epigenetic alterations—changes to DNA that do not alter the actual DNA sequence—of developmental genes like Dio3 in the fetal brain. To investigate this hypothesis, they used rats to model moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy. The study, which was funded by the National Institutes of Health, demonstrated that fetal alcohol exposure disrupts the epigenetic "imprinting" of Dio3. In this process, Dio3 normally originates from the father's gene, while the maternal gene is silenced by epigenetic control. But alcohol exposure changes the paternal-maternal dosage of Dio3, which increases the amount of the enzyme present in specific brain regions of the fetus, the authors found.

Lees verder


Maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy associated with risk for childhood conduct problems

Maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy appears to be associated with conduct problems in children, independently of other risk factors, according to a report in the November issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Lees verder


Genetics, environment differently influence the 'pathway of risk' leading to alcohol dependence

Alcohol dependence (AD) is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, and involves "transitioning" through multiple stages of drinking behaviors. A study using twins to investigate influences on the rate at which young women progress to AD has found that genetic and individual-specific environmental influences are evident in all transitions. Conversely, environmental influences -- such as exposure to parental conflict -- are evident primarily in the transition from non-use to first alcohol use.

Lees verder


Youths Use Drink Labels to Choose Strongest Drink at Lowest Cost

Contrary to the industry's position that visible drink labels will promote responsible drinking, young people are, instead, using these visible standard drink labels to increase or even maximize the amount of alcohol they consume at the lowest cost possible. According to a study in the Drug and Alcohol Review Journal published by Wiley-Blackwell, young people in Australia have very high awareness of standard drink labeling. However, this was predominately to help them choose the drinks that would get them drunk in the shortest time possible. The labels also served as guides, ‘advising' them on which drink would reduce the time needed to get drunk and the least amount they would need to drink - hence getting the best ‘value' for their money. The study entitled "The impact of more visible standard drink labeling on youth alcohol consumption: helping young people drink (ir)responsibly?" examines the young people's perceptions of standard drink labeling, the purposes for which they use the labels and the potential impact on their alcohol consumption.

Lees verder


Warning for women who binge drink

As levels of binge drinking in the UK rise, doctors in this week's BMJ report three cases of bladder rupture in women who attended hospital with lower abdominal pain.

Lees verder


One Drug May Help People Both Lay Down the Drink and Put Out the Cigarette

A popular smoking cessation drug dramatically reduced the amount a heavy drinker will consume, a new Yale School of Medicine study has found. Heavy-drinking smokers in a laboratory setting were much less likely to drink after taking the drug varenicline compared to those taking a placebo, according to a study published online in the journal Biological Psychiatry. The group taking varenicline, sold as a stop-smoking aid under the name Chantix, reported feeling fewer cravings for alcohol and less intoxicated when they did drink. They were also much more likely to remain abstinent after being offered drinks than those who received a placebo, the study found.

Lees verder


Impulse Control Region in Brain Affected in Teens with Genetic Vulnerability for Alcoholism

A new study suggests that genetic factors influence size variations in a certain region of the brain, which could in turn be partly responsible for increased susceptibility to alcohol dependence. It appears that the size of the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), an area of the brain that is involved in regulating emotional processing and impulsive behavior, is smaller in teenagers and young adults who have several relatives that are alcohol dependent, according to a study led by Dr. Shirley Hill, Ph.D., professor of psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. In the research, which was published this week in the early online version of Biological Psychiatry, Dr. Hill and her team imaged the brains of 107 teens and young adults using magnetic resonance imaging. They also examined variation in certain genes of the participants and administered a well-validated questionnaire to measure the youngsters’ tendency to be impulsive. The participants included 63 individuals who were selected for the study because they had multiple alcohol-dependent family members, suggesting a genetic predisposition, and 44 who had no close relatives dependent on drugs or alcohol. Those with several alcohol-dependent relatives were more likely to have reduced volume of the OFC.

Lees verder


alcohol
Moderate drinking during pregnancy could cause serious childhood disorders

Moderate drinking during pregnancy could be the hidden cause of thousands of serious childhood disorders including autism, Scotland's leading authority on alcohol and health warned last night.

Lees verder


alcohol
Alcohol As a Breast Cancer Risk

According to the latest report on diet and cancer risk published by the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR), there is convincing evidence that alcohol intake raises risk for breast cancer.

Lees verder


alcohol
Link between alcohol and blood pressure greater than previously thought

The relationship between heavy drinking and hypertension is more significant than previously thought according to a new analysis of recent studies by researchers at Bristol University, published today in PLoS Medicine.

Lees verder


alcohol
Frequent alcohol consumption increases cancer risk in older women

Postmenopausal women consuming two or more alcoholic beverages a day may double their risk of endometrial cancer, suggests a study led by researchers at the University of Southern California.

Lees verder


alcohol
Antibiotics and alcohol - Should I avoid mixing them?

A few antibiotics — such as metronidazole (Flagyl), tinidazole (Tindamax) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim) — should not be mixed with alcohol because this may result in a more severe reaction. Drinking any amount of alcohol with these medications can result in side effects such as flushing, headache, nausea and vomiting, rapid heart rate, and shortness of breath. Keep in mind that some cold medicines and mouthwashes also contain alcohol. So check the label and avoid such products while taking these antibiotics.

Lees verder


alcohol
Alcohol and cancer - is drinking the new smoking?

Researchers at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health have clarified the link between alcohol consumption and the risk of head and neck cancers, showing that people who stop drinking can significantly reduce their cancer risk. These results have important implications for tailoring alcohol policies and prevention strategies, especially for people with a family risk of cancer.

Lees verder


alcohol
Wine, women and... spirits, beer and breast cancer risk

One of the largest individual studies of the effects of alcohol on the risk of breast cancer has concluded that it makes no difference whether a woman drinks wine, beer or spirits -- it is the alcohol itself and the quantity consumed that is likely to trigger the onset of cancer.

Lees verder


alcohol
Your baby's brain on drugs (and alcohol and tobacco)

Over 1 million babies born annually in the United States are exposed to drugs, alcohol or tobacco while in utero. New research published in the April issue of Pediatrics suggests that prenatal exposure to these substances (alone or in combination) may have effects on the baby's brain structure that persist into adolescence.

Lees verder


Genetic markers identified for alcohol response in UCSF Gallo study

Researchers at the UCSF Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center have identified a region on the human genome that appears to determine how strongly drinkers feel the effects of alcohol and thus how prone they are to alcohol abuse. The researchers found that a DNA sequence variation, known as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), on chromosome 15 is significantly associated with the level of response to alcohol and could signal the genetic factors that affect alcohol abuse, according to findings published in the Dec. 8 online edition of the “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.”

Lees verder


Alcohol linked to bowel cancer, says study

According to a new study, drinking wine or beer every day increases the risk of bowel cancer.

Lees verder


Drinkers with the alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 gene are at greater risk of colorectal cancer

Chronic drinking is a risk factor for colorectal cancer, possibly through the effects of acetaldehyde, which is created by the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzyme. This study investigated if a polymorphism of the ADH1C gene that is found in Caucasians may effect acetaldehyde concentrations. Findings confirm ADH1C*1 as a genetic risk marker for colorectal tumors among people who drink more than 30 grams of alcohol per day.

Lees verder


Prenatal alcohol exposure damages white matter, the brain's connective network

One part of the prenatal brain that may be particularly sensitive to alcohol's effects is white matter, nerve fibers through which information is exchanged between different areas of the central nervous system. A recent study has demonstrated that alcohol consumption during pregnancy can alter the microstructural integrity of developing fetal cerebral white matter in the frontal and occipital lobes of the brain. These anomalies may help to explain the executive dysfunction and visual processing deficits that are associated with gestational alcohol exposure. "The brain's white matter is made up of nerve bundles that transfer information between brain regions," explained Susanna L. Fryer, a researcher at San Diego State University's Center for Behavioral Teratology and corresponding author for the study. "Optimal white-matter integrity is thought to support efficient cognition. So the finding that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with altered white-matter integrity may help explain aspects of the cognitive and behavioral problems that individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) commonly face." "Several studies of FASD within the last three years have used a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique called Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to examine the brain's connective network – also known as white matter –in ways not previously possible," added Jeffrey R. Wozniak, assistant professor of psychiatry at the University of Minnesota.

Lees verder


Fetal alcohol research

In the lab, Smith focuses on a small sub-population of fetal cells called neural crest cells that contribute to the formation of parts of the nervous system, face and heart. These cells are damaged and sometimes killed by alcohol, and children with fetal alcohol exposure can suffer damage to those organs, including visible facial malformations. Studying the effect of alcohol on chicken embryos, Smith was able to show that alcohol somehow directs the neural crest cells to end their own lives. "Cell death is an active process," explains Smith. "A cellular switch has to be turned on for cell death to occur. Usually the switch is suppressed, or kept silent. Alcohol is toxic because it can turn that switch on, and it does so by causing cells to release calcium."

Lees verder


Study shows link between alcohol consumption and HIV disease progression

Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine have found a link between alcohol consumption and HIV disease progression in HIV-infected persons. The study appears online in the August issue of the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.

Lees verder


High alcohol consumption increases stroke risk, Tulane study says

In a study likely applicable to men of other ethnicities, Tulane University researchers found that heavy drinking (more than 21 drinks per week) may increase the risk of stroke in Chinese men. The results of the study are published in the Annals of Neurology.

Lees verder


UNC study ties ending moderate drinking to depression

Scientific evidence has long suggested that moderate drinking offers some protection against heart disease, certain types of stroke and some forms of cancer. But new research shows that stopping drinking – including at moderate levels – may lead to health problems including depression and a reduced capacity of the brain to produce new neurons, a process called neurogenesis.

Lees verder


Alcoholics show deficits in their ability to perceive dangerous situations

Previous brain-imaging studies have suggested cognitive deficits in alcoholic patients. New findings indicate that alcoholic patients show emotional processing deficits as well. These deficits primarily affect processing for negative emotional expressions.

Lees verder


Ultrasound Fetal Response To Alcohol Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Public domain video clip from www.timesonline.co.uk/sundaytimes. Royalty free music from the Music Bakery. SCIENTISTS have captured graphic ultrasound images of the damage done to unborn babies as a result of women drinking during pregnancy. Just one glass of wine a week can make babies "jump" in the womb throughout a nine-month pregnancy. Experts believe this abnormal hyperactive behavior is the result of alcohol slowing or retarding the formation of the central nervous system. Doctors have warned for decades that women who consume large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy can affect their child's mental development. However, the new research suggests even moderate alcohol consumption makes a baby 3½ times more likely to suffer from abnormal spasms in the womb. The findings, by Peter Hepper, a professor at Belfast University's fetal behavior research unit, appear to back the view that there is no safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Hepper's findings have surprised child neurology experts. Between conception and 18 weeks, babies display a primitive "startle reflex" which causes babies to jump involuntarily in the womb at loud noises and other stimuli. However, once the nervous system is fully formed at 18 weeks, the reflex disappears in healthy babies and is replaced by a calmer "adult" reflex. Hepper found that the babies of mothers who drank — whether one unit a week or four — all continued to display a "startle reflex" throughout their pregnancy. The reflex in the babies of the non-drinking mothers tailed off at 18 weeks. The professor also found that the babies of women who drank suffered more "startles" during the first 18 weeks. Hepper, who published his findings in the Journal of Physiology and Behaviour, concluded that even moderate consumption of alcohol had a serious effect on the formation of a baby's central nervous system. He explained: "This indicates that the nerve pathways in the brain have been damaged." Hepper concluded: "Our study shows that alcohol is having an effect on the baby even at low levels and that is quite disturbing. We don't think there is a safe limit for alcohol consumption in pregnancy." Hepper's study appears to corroborate US research, conducted after birth, which has shown that drinking during pregnancy lowers a child's IQ and increases hyperactivity. Some doctors believe the babies scanned by Hepper are showing the early signs of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) which is thought to cause a range of behavioral and neurological disorders in children. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Trust estimates that between 6,000 to 12,000 babies are affected in the UK each year. Margaret Burrows, a clinical geneticist at Leicester royal infirmary, said: "The startle movement (in the womb) is clearly not normal and would seem to indicate the child has the traits of fidgeting which we see in attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). "We believe that a proportion of children who have ADHD may have developed it as a result of their mother's drinking during pregnancy." The next stage of Hepper's study will monitor whether the babies go on to suffer mental and behavioral problems. Hepper presented the findings of his study of 40 pregnant women from the Royal Maternity hospital, Belfast, to the Royal Society of Medicine on Wednesday. None of the mothers was asked to drink but 20 admitted that they would continue to drink during their pregnancy. The other 20 drank no alcohol. Researchers questioned the 20 pregnant drinkers and found they consumed between one and four units of alcohol (four glasses of wine) a week. In the first half of the study all the women underwent three ultrasound scans during the first 18 weeks of their pregnancy. In the second half, the women had four more scans at 20, 25, 30 and 35 weeks. The scans lasted up to 45 minutes to try to capture hyperactivity. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE), Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS), Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ARND), Static Encephalopathy Alcohol Exposed (SEAE) and Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD) are all names for a spectrum of disorders caused when a pregnant woman consumes alcohol. FASD is 100% preventable. If you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant, don't drink any beverage alcohol. There is no known safe level. To ignore the facts does not change the facts.


Blood HDL Cholesterol Levels Influence Association of Alcohol Intake With Blood Pressure in Young Men But Not in Middle-Aged Men

The results suggest that blood pressure of middle-aged men is elevated by alcohol drinking independently of blood HDL level and is more sensitive to drinking than is blood pressure of young men.

Lees verder


Alcoholics with cirrhosis of the liver have more brain damage than noncirrhotic alcoholics

Cirrhosis of the liver is one of the most common and serious medical complications linked to alcoholism. Heavy alcohol use can also cause brain damage. Cirrhotic alcoholics appear to have even more impaired brain function than noncirrhotic alcoholics.

Lees verder


Alcohol exposure in the womb affects 'teenage' booze behavior

Rats whose mothers were fed alcohol during pregnancy are more attracted to the smell of liquor during puberty. Researchers writing in BioMed Central's open access journal Behavioral and Brain Functions have shown that rats exposed during gestation find the smell of alcohol on another rat's breath during adolescence more attractive than animals with no prior fetal exposure. Professor Steven Youngentob from the State University of New York Upstate Medical University, USA, led a team of researchers who investigated the social and behavioral effects of fetal ethanol exposure in adolescent and adult rats. He said, "The findings by Amber Eade in my lab reveal that fetal ethanol exposure influences adolescent re-exposure, in part, by promoting interactions with intoxicated peers. These results highlight an important relationship between fetal and adolescent experiences that appears essential to the progressive development of alcohol abuse." Fetal ethanol experience is believed to train the developing sense of smell to find ethanol odor more attractive. The authors describe how, in both rats and humans, fetal exposure changes how the odor and flavor of ethanol are perceived. They write, " Such learning may be a fundamental feature of all mammalian species because it is important (from a survival standpoint) for the pre-weanling animal to accept and be attracted to the food sources consumed by the mother". In this study the authors found that rats unexposed to ethanol were significantly less likely to follow an intoxicated peer than those with gestational experience.

Lees verder


Underage drinking starts before adolescence

As schools reopen around the country, a new study finds that parents and teachers should pay attention to alcohol prevention starting as early as fourth grade. A review of national and statewide surveys conducted over the last 15 years shows that among typical 4th graders, 10 percent have already had more than a sip of alcohol and 7 percent have had a drink in the past year.

Lees verder


Water-diffusion technology identifies brain regions damaged by prenatal alcohol exposure

Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder often have structural brain damage. Recent findings show that several specific white matter regions, as well as deep gray matter areas, of the brain are particularly sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure. These abnormalities likely underlie the cognitive, motor, behavioral and emotional difficulties that are associated with FASD.

Lees verder


Scientists identify gene that influences alcohol consumption

Researchers applied a variety of genetic and analytic techniques to mice having nearly identical genetic background, but differing in their preference for alcohol, to identify a chromosomal region, and ultimately a gene, associated with alcohol preference. If further studies show that a similar gene is relevant to alcohol problems in humans, the finding may lead to new opportunities for developing drugs to treat alcohol dependence.

Lees verder


Alcohol binges early in pregnancy increase risk of infant oral clefts

A new study by researchers at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health, shows that pregnant women who binge drink early in their pregnancy increase the likelihood that their babies will be born with oral clefts.

Lees verder


Alcohol consumption declining, according to results of new study

Overall alcohol use -- particularly consumption of beer -- is declining in the US, according to a new study published in the August 2008 issue of the American Journal of Medicine. Researchers examined 50 years of data and found several changes in alcohol intake but no change in alcohol use disorders. Americans are drinking significantly less beer and more wine, while hard liquor use has remained fairly constant. More people now report that they are nondrinkers.

Lees verder


Researchers block damage to fetal brain following maternal alcohol consumption

In a study on fetal alcohol syndrome, researchers were able to prevent the damage that alcohol causes to cells in a key area of the fetal brain by blocking acid sensitive potassium channels and preventing the acidic environment that alcohol produces. The cerebellum, the portion of the brain that is responsible for balance and muscle coordination, is particularly vulnerable to injury from alcohol during development.

Lees verder


Prevent Cancer By Letting Go Of Excess Fire Energy (Acidity)

An article released by a group of top scientists from around the world presents "convincing" evidence that excess body fat along with alcohol and red and processed meat consumption lead to an increased risk for many types of cancer, including those affecting the breast, bowel and pancreas.

Lees verder


Gene therapy can reduce long-term drinking among rodents

In this issue: Certain genetic factors may both increase and protect against the risk of developing alcoholism; The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2*2) allele is considered protective against alcoholism; and Intravenous administration of an anti-Aldh2 antisense gene can curtail long-term drinking among rodents.

Lees verder


Alcohol is associated with risk of perennial allergic rhinitis

There is a link between alcohol consumption and increased risk of perennial allergic rhinitis, according to a recent Danish study of 5,870 young adult women. The study, published in the July issue of Clinical and Experimental Allergy, found that the risk increased 3 percent for every additional alcoholic drink per week. In contrast, the authors did not observe any increase in risk of seasonal allergic rhinitis according to alcohol intake.

Lees verder


 

 


 


View My Stats