De strijd tegen kwik en het effect op onze gezondheid
After decades of successfully trumpeting major environmental
causes, Robert Kennedy Jr. has recently turned his attention to
mercury, and its impact on human health. With major medical
organizations like the Endocrine Society now recognizing
toxicity as causing disease in human beings, The World Mercury
Project is a timely contribution to our collective well-being.
Mr. Kennedy's project is as important as it is controversial,
with his focus shifting to a tenuous source of mercury in adults
and humans: the modern vaccine schedule.
Thimerosal in multi-dose vaccines
This is a must see video recorded on
Wednesday November 4, 2009, wherein Dr. Nicole Lurie of the Dept. of Health & Human
Services admits at the end that her agency and presumably the CDC asked the vaccine makers
to "expedite" making vaccines, at the risk of putting Thimerosal in the
Rol leeftijd en gezondheid bij
Affidavit Of Boyd E. Haley. Professor And
Chair. Department Of Chemistry. University Of Kentucky
The detrimental effect of any specific
level of mercury or mercury containing compound would have on any one individuals
metabolic system would be directly proportional to both the level of protective big
compounds (e.g., glutathione, metallothioine) that exist within that person on the
time of exposure and, the ability to physiologically clear such toxicants from the body.
The level of the protective compounds would certainly be directly dependent on two
factors, age and health. Infants, with their immature physiology and metabolism would not
be expected to handle mercury as efficiently as mature adults. The elderly have been shown
to have decreased protective glutathione levels compared to middle aged and
young adults. Melatonin, a hormone, is known to be decreased in the aged and melatonin is
known to increase the neuron and cellular concentration of glutathione. Glutathione is the
natural compound that binds mercuric ion and aids in its removal from the body. This
explains partly why the aged are also more susceptible to oxidative toxicants such as
mercury. The elderly also have weakened immune systems and are more susceptible to
microbial infections are known to lower their chemical energy levels and, further, to
reduce their ability to synthesize the proteins that protect them from heavy metals.
Infants have their own weaknesses regarding toxic exposures. Infants do not make much bile
in their early months of life and are less able to remove mercury through bilary transport
the major route for mercury removal.
Volgens Osterhaus, Klink en Coutinho is
thimerosal dus ongevaarlijk voor kids en ouderen....
De gevaren van thimerosal
Dr Boyd Haley is een hoogleraar en
voorzitter van de afdeling chemie aan de Universiteit van Kentucky. Dr Haley bespreekt in
dit interview, kwik toxiciteit als een causale factor bij autisme. Hij bespreekt ook de
twee belangrijkste bronnen van kwik toxiciteit: vaccins & amalgaamvullingen.
De Gezondheids(pharma)raad, Klink, Pinokkio
Coutinho Coutinho of weblogs ? De experts zeggen dat er geen enkel bewijs is voor
schadelijkheid van vaccins en thimerosal. En deze studies dan ?
Geier, "Mitochondrial dysfunction,
impaired oxidative-reduction activity, degeneration, and death in human neuronal and fetal
cells induced by low-level exposure to thimerosal and other metal compounds",
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, Volume 91, Issue 4 June 2009 5 ? 749
"The comparative toxicology of
ethyl and methyl mercury" by Magos, Brown, Sparrow, Bailey, et al published in the
Archives of Toxicology (1985) 57: 260-267 David S. Baskin
"Toxicity of Thimerosal",
Toxicological Sciences, 2003 74 : 361-368Drs. Fagan, Pritchard, Clarkson and Greenwood
"Organ mercury levels in infants with omphaloceles treated with organic mercurial
antiseptic" Arch Dis Child. 1977 Dec;52(12):962-4.Dr. Mukhtarova,
"Late After-Effects Of The Nervous
System Pathology Provoked By The Action Of Low Ethyl-Mercuric-Chloride
Concentrations" Gig Tr Prof Zabol 1977 Mar;(3):4-7James SJ, Slikker W III, Melnyk S,
New E, Pogribna M, Jernigan S (2005).
"Thimerosal neurotoxicity is
associated with glutathione depletion: protection with glutathione precursors".
Neurotoxicology 26 (1): 1'8. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2004.07.012. PMID 15527868.
Baskin DS, Ngo H, Didenko VV (2003).
"Thimerosal induces DNA breaks,
caspase-3 activation, membrane damage, and cell death in cultured human neurons and
fibroblasts". Toxicol Sci 74 (2): 361'8. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfg126. PMID 12773768.
http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/74/2/361. Ueha-Ishibashi T, Oyama Y,
Nakao H et al.
bewijs dat de industrie weet hoe schadelijk Thimerosal is!
Het Amerikaanse congress verplichtte het
FDA en andere gezondsheidsorganisaties middels
de FDA modernization act van 1997 aan te geven hoeveel zware metalen er in de diverse
farmaceutische stoffen aanwezig zijn. Het FDA en het CDC waren daardoor genoodzaakt
onderzoek te verrichten naar de giftigheid van Thimerosal / Thiomersal.
Video highlights from a two-day conference
held on September 24-25, 2008 at the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. The
"Task Force on Autism Spectrum Disorders" was created by Governor Charlie Crist
by Executive Order 08-36 on March 7, 2008.
UC Davis Study with Mice Links
Thimerosal with Immune System Dysfunction
A team of cell biologists, toxicologists
and molecular bioscientists at the University of California, Davis, has published a study
connecting thimerosal with disruptions in antigen-presenting cells known as dendritic
cells obtained from mice. The study provides the first evidence that dendritic cells show
unprecedented sensitivity to thimerosal, resulting in fundamental changes in the immune
system's ability to respond to external factors. The study was published online today and
will be available in the July print edition of Environmental Health Perspectives, the
peer-reviewed scientific publication of the National Institute of Environmental Health
"This is the first time that
thimerosal has been shown to selectively alter the normal functions of dendritic
cells," said Isaac Pessah, a toxicologist with the UC Davis School of Veterinary
Medicine, director of the Children's Center for Environmental Health and Disease
Prevention and senior author of the study. "Dendritic cells play pivotal roles in
overcoming viral and bacterial invaders by coordinating the immune system's overall combat
response." One dendritic cell can activate as many as 300 T-cells -- white blood
cells that help find and kill external agents that attack the immune system -- making them
the most effective immune system activators.
The study shows how intricate connections
between calcium channels in dendritic cells change when exposed to thimerosal. "The
slightest fluctuation in how calcium channels 'communicate' can alter the growth,
maturation and activation of dendritic cells," explained Pessah. "Thimerosal
dramatically alters how two key calcium channels, code-named RyR1 and IP3R1, found in
dendritic cells function as a team by 'garbling' the normal signaling system between
When thimerosal at a concentration as low
as 20 parts per billion alters the fidelity of normal calcium signals, dendritic cells
show abnormal secretion of IL-6 cytokine -- a potent chemical signal that initiates
inflammatory responses. Higher concentrations -- 200 parts per billion -- causes
programmed death of dendritic cells, preventing them from maturing and doing their primary
job of activating T-cells. Without proper feedback to guide its response, a normal
dendritic cell can quickly become "a rogue, producing misinformation that could
activate aberrant and harmful immune responses," Pessah explained. "Even one
rogue dendritic cell can activate many inappropriate immune responses."
The research team conducted the study on
cells cultured from a strain of mouse not particularly susceptible to immune
dysregulation. Using fluorescent stains and powerful microscopes to study both immature
and mature dendritic cells from bone marrow cultured under normal physiological
conditions, the researchers discovered that extremely small levels of thimerosal interfere
significantly with calcium channel function after just a few minutes of exposure. They
also observed that immature dendritic cells are particularly sensitive to thimerosal.
Thimerosal is a cheap and effective
mercury-based preservative. Its potential effects on embryonic neuron development led to
its removal from many pediatric vaccines, however it is still used in influenza,
diphtheria and tetanus vaccines, blood products and many over-the-counter pharmaceuticals.
The concentrations of thimerosal used by the UC Davis researchers were comparable to those
attained in childhood vaccinations containing the preservative.
Researchers and parents have previously
proposed links between childhood vaccines and autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder that
affects language skills and social interactions. In addition to being a direct
neurotoxicant, the UC Davis study indicates that thimerosal may also be an immunotoxicant,
leaving the immune system vulnerable to microbes and other external influences.
"Our findings do not directly
implicate thimerosal as a single causative agent for triggering neurodevelopmental
disorders such as autism," Pessah said. "There is growing evidence that autism
is several disorders that we now refer to as just one. There is also growing evidence that
some children with autism have unique immune cell composition and responses to antigens.
The results of our work provide a framework to test the hypothesis that the genetic
background of some individuals may render them especially susceptible to thimerosal."
Other experts also advise drawing no final
conclusions regarding thimerosal and autism based on these outcomes.
"These findings should be interpreted
cautiously. Although they suggest that thimerosal may affect dendritic cell function, the
pathophysiological consequences of thimerosal remain unclear," said David A.
Schwartz, a physician and director of the National Institute of Environmental Health
Since cell functions can differ across
organisms, Pessah will next study dendritic cells isolated from the blood of children with
and without autism to confirm if the intercellular changes are the same in humans. The
initial mouse study was funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
and the UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute. Joining Pessah on the scientific team were molecular
bioscientists Samuel R. Goth, Ruth A. Chu and Gennady Cherednichenko and pathologist
Jeffrey P. Gregg.
Yes, the majority of influenza vaccines
distributed in the United States currently contain thimerosal as a preservative. However,
some contain only trace amounts of thimerosal and are considered by the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) to be preservative-free. Manufacturers of preservative-free flu
vaccine use thimerosal early in the manufacturing process. The thimerosal gets diluted as
the vaccine goes through the steps in processing. By the end of the manufacturing process
there is not enough thimerosal left in the vaccine to act as a preservative and the
vaccine is labeled "preservative-free".
Mercury in Vaccines [ Thimerosal
contains 49.6% mercury by weight]- Neuron Degeneration
At high exposure levels, mercury causes
neurotoxicity in humans, especially in fetuses and small infants whose brains are still
developing. The major toxicity of mercury is manifested in the central nervous system.
Forty years ago, when women at Minamata Bay, Japan, ate fish contaminated with
methylmercury from pollutants, their children were exposed to high levels in utero and
were born with developmental and neurologic disorders. Methylmercury poisoning also
occurred in Iraq following consumption of seed grain that had been treated with a
fungicide containing methylmercury. In both the Japanese and Iraqi episodes, exposures to
methylmercury were high
Connection between infant exposure
to thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental injury.
I was asked to write a paper on some of the
newer mechanisms of vaccine damage to the nervous system, but in the interim I came across
an incredible document that should blow the lid off the cover-up being engineered by the
pharmaceutical companies in conjunction with powerful governmental agencies. It all
started when a friend of mind sent me a copy of a letter from Congressman David Weldon,
M.D. to the director of the CDC, Dr Julie L. Gerberding, in which he alludes to a study by
a Doctor Thomas Verstraeten, then representing the CDC, on the connection between infant
exposure to thimerosal-containing
vaccines and neurodevelopmental injury. In this shocking letter Congressman Weldon
referrers to Dr. Verstraeten's study which looked at the data from the Vaccine Safety
Datalink and found a significant correlation between thimerosal exposure via vaccines and
several neurodevelopmental disorders including tics, speech and language delays, and
possibly to ADD.
Conflicts of interest in CDC
Thimerosal study of 2004
Dr. Thompson former employee of
Dr. Marcy, receiving consulting fees from
Merck, Sanofi Pasteur, GlaxoSmithKline, and MedImmune;
Dr. Jackson, receiving grant support from
Wyeth, Sanofi Pasteur, GlaxoSmithKline, and Novartis, lecture fees from Sanofi Pasteur,
and consulting fees from Wyeth and Abbott and serving as a consultant to the FDA Vaccines
and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee;
Dr. Lieu, serving as a consultant to the
CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices;
Dr. Black, receiving consulting fees from
MedImmune, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, and Merck and grant support from MedImmune,
GlaxoSmithKline, Aventis, Merck, and Novartis;
and Dr. Davis receiving consulting fees
from Merck and grant support from Merck and GlaxoSmithKline.
Thimerosal in Childhood Vaccines,
Neurodevelopment Disorders, and Heart Disease in the United States
This study provides strong epidemiological
evidence for a link between increasing mercury from thimerosalcontaining childhood
vaccines and neurodevelopment disorders and heart disease. In light of voluminous
literature supporting the biologic mechanisms for mercury-induced adverse reactions, the
presence of amounts of mercury in thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines exceeding
Federal Safety Guidelines for
the oral ingestion of mercury, and previous epidemiological studies showing adverse
reactions from such vaccines, a causal relationship between thimerosalcontaining childhood
vaccines and neurodevelopment disorders and heartdisease appears to be confirmed. It is to
be hoped that complete removal of thimerosal from all childhood vaccines will help to stem
the tragic, apparently iatrogenic epidemic of autism and speech disorders that the United
States is now facing.
Why are so many children in the U.S.
diagnosed with some form of Autism Spectrum Disorder? Is there a connection between
Vaccines and Autism? In this program, two nationally recognized journalists will debate
this topic. Join Arthur Allen, author of Vaccine: The Controversial Story of Medicine's
Greatest Lifesaver and David Kirby author of Evidence of Harm, as they present both sides
of this debate.
Thimerosal, Methylmercury React
Differently in the Brains of Infants, Study Says Report in Environmental Health
Perspectives finds methylmercury not a suitable reference for risk assessment
Researchers have uncovered greater detail about differences in how thimerosalÑa
preservative used in vaccines since the 1930s-and methylmercury are distributed in and
eliminated from the brain and body, as reported in a study published online today by the
peer-reviewed journal Environmental Health Perspectives. Among other effects, researchers
found that brain concentrations of total mercury following thimerosal exposure were nearly
threefold lower than those following methylmercury exposure. These findings are important
because they demonstrate that methylmercury is not a suitable reference for determining
risk from exposure to thimerosal. The current debate over a potential link between
thimerosal in vaccines and autism has led many families to question whether the risk of
developing the disorder is greater than the benefit of vaccination.
Thimerosal breaks down in the body to
ethylmercury and thiosalicylate. Because few health effects data exist for ethylmercury,
methylmercury guidelines have been used to predict the toxicokinetics and
neurodevelopmental effects of ethylmercury exposure. An earlier study calculated that
children receive 187.5 micrograms of ethylmercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines
given over the first 14 weeks of life, which can exceed EPA guidelines for methylmercury
exposure during pregnancy.
In the present study, researchers exposed
41 infant Macaca fascicularis, or crab-eating monkeys, to thimerosal and methylmercury.
These monkeys are among the best proxies for infant humans. Infants assigned to the
thimerosal group received the typical schedule of injected vaccines for human infants,
while infants assigned to the methylmercury group were exposed through a feeding tube.
Absorption and initial distribution of
total mercury proved to be similar for both thimerosal and methylmercury. However,
injected thimerosal reacted differently from methylmercury in that it cleared from the
infant much more quickly. Also the peak blood mercury concentration in the methylmercury
group rose to a level three times higher than the thimerosal infants after the fourth
dose. Brain concentrations of total mercury were significantly lower for the thimerosal
group compared to the methylmercury group.
These results suggest that ethylmercury is
dealkylated much more extensively than methylmercury. While dealkylation is thought to be
a detoxification mechanism that helps protect the central nervous system, previous work by
Burbacher and his group has shown that inorganic mercury can affect certain types of cells
in the brain such as the microglia. Recent reports have indicated abnormal microglia in
the brains of children with autism.
According to the researchers, more research
is needed to accurately predict how immunization with thimerosal-containing vaccines may
affect children. "Knowledge of the biotransformation of thimerosal . . . is urgently
needed to afford a meaningful interpretation of the potential developmental effects of
immunization with thimerosal-containing vaccines in newborns and infants," the study
authors write. "This information is critical if we are to respond to public concerns
regarding the safety of childhood immunizations."
Dr. Jim Burkhart, science editor for EHP,
says, "This study emphasizes that thimerosal and methylmercury behave differently in
the body. Given that we routinely inject thimerosal into millions of infants, the study
authors' call for more in-depth research on the subject is the right way to go."
The lead author of the study was Thomas M.
Burbacher of the University of Washington. Other authors included Danny D. Shen, Noelle
Liberato, Kimberly S. Grant, Elsa Cernichiari, and Thomas Clarkson. The study was funded
by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the National Institute of
Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Institute of Child Health and Human
Development, the National Center for Research Resources, and the University of Rochester.
The article is available free of charge at
http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2005/7712/abstract.html, and will be published in an
upcoming print edition of the journal.
Robert Kennedy on the Vaccine
According to a CDC epidemiologist named Tom
Verstraeten, who had analyzed the agency's massive database containing the medical records
of 100,000 children, a mercury-based preservative in the vaccines -- thimerosal --
appeared to be responsible for a dramatic increase in autism and a host of other
neurological disorders among children. "I was actually stunned by what I saw,"
Verstraeten told those assembled at Simpsonwood, citing the staggering number of earlier
studies that indicate a link between thimerosal and speech delays, attention-deficit
disorder, hyperactivity and autism. Since 1991, when the CDC and the FDA had recommended
that three additional vaccines laced with the preservative be given to extremely young
infants -- in one case, within hours of birth -- the estimated number of cases of autism
had increased fifteenfold, from one in every 2,500 children to one in 166 children.
Comparison of Blood and Brain
Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing
Thimerosal is a preservative that has been
used in manufacturing vaccines since the 1930s. Reports have indicated that infants can
receive ethylmercury (in the form of thimerosal) at or above the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency guidelines for methylmercury exposure, depending on the exact
vaccinations, schedule, and size of the infant. In this study we compared the systemic
disposition and brain distribution of total and inorganic mercury in infant monkeys after
thimerosal exposure with those exposed to MeHg. Monkeys were exposed to MeHg (via oral
gavage) or vaccines containing thimerosal (via intramuscular injection) at birth and 1, 2,
and 3 weeks of age. Total blood Hg levels were determined 2, 4, and 7 days after each
exposure. Total and inorganic brain Hg levels were assessed 2, 4, 7, or 28 days after the
last exposure. The initial and terminal half-life of Hg in blood after thimerosal exposure
was 2.1 and 8.6 days, respectively, which are significantly shorter than the elimination
half-life of Hg after MeHg exposure at 21.5 days. Brain concentrations of total Hg were
significantly lower by approximately 3-fold for the thimerosal-exposed monkeys when
compared with the MeHg infants, whereas the average brain-to-blood concentration ratio was
slightly higher for the thimerosal-exposed monkeys (3.5 ± 0.5 vs. 2.5 ± 0.3) . A higher
percentage of the total Hg in the brain was in the form of inorganic Hg for the
thimerosal-exposed monkeys (34% vs. 7%) . The results indicate that MeHg is not a suitable
reference for risk assessment from exposure to thimerosal-derived Hg. Knowledge of the
toxicokinetics and developmental toxicity of thimerosal is needed to afford a meaningful
assessment of the developmental effects of thimerosal-containing vaccines. Key words:
brain and blood distribution, elimination half-life, ethylmercury, infant nonhuman
primates, methylmercury, thimerosal. Environ Health Perspect 113: 1015-1021 (2005) .
Autism link with vaccines - Dr.
Anti-Anti-Vax Steve Novella
The Amaz!ng Meeting 7 Panel discussion
about the Anti Vax movement. The benefits of vaccination far outweigh the supposed risks.
The panel talk gave many examples of how vaccines have helped eradicate diseases that
caused millions of deaths around the world. Steve Novella an American clinical
neurologist, assistant professor and Director of General Neurology at Yale University
School of Medicine. Novella is best known for his involvement in the skeptical movement.
Full Panel Discussion video is available on the TAM 7 DVD set at www.randi.org