spirulina alg


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Superfood - Spirulina alg

Ik noem spirulina al jarenlang superfood net zoals bijvoorbeeld kaneel en bessen maar voornamelijk vanwege de interessante voedingswaarde. Ben er nooit heel diep in gedoken maar als je er dan wat uurtjes insteekt kun je heel wat meer interessante informatie vinden over deze zoutwater alg. In de VS wordt het voornamelijk als anti-verouderingsprodukt gezien maar ook de rol bij diabetes en het effect op het immuunsysteem zijn de moeite waard.

Ik heb de nodige studies en PDF eboeken voor je op een rijtje gezet. Zelf neem ik spirulina bij de maaltijden als aanvulling op mijn voeding. Op dit moment zo'n 3 gram per dag. Experts zeggen dat je dit kunt opvoeren tot 10 gram per dag, zeker als je veel beweegt. Ik gebruik zelf spirulina van het merk Earthrise [link].

Mensen met de ziekte PKU mogen geen spirulina gebruiken, dit omdat spirulina het aminozuur Fenylalanine bevat. Belangrijke bronnen van fenylalanine zijn verder kaas, amandel, pinda's, sesamzaad, sojabonen en eiwitten in het algemeen. De kunstmatige zoetstof aspartaam bevat fenylalanine en voedingsmiddelen die aspartaam bevatten zoals kauwgom en "Light" dranken bevatten dan ook de vermelding "bevat een bron van fenylalanine" op de verpakking.

Ron


Video - Spirulina - start eating smart | Ola Lawrynowicz

Founder & CEO of Spiruu, a biotechnological startup that creates a device which is able to produce spirulina - the most nutritious food on Earth. Apart from galloping through the forests and meadows on a horse, she loves to observe and create. Starting from small things, as few words to make friends happy to big ideas, as popularising biotechnology in everyday life and changing eating habits by popularising cultivation and consumption of Spirulina.


De top 5 levensverlengers

De American Association of Retirement People is een niet commerciŰle organisatie van gepensioneerde Amerikanen die iedere maand een eigen magazine uitgeeft waarin deze maand aandacht voor voeding die je leven kan verlengen:

De top 5 van levensverlengers volgens hun:

  • Spirulina
    Bevat oa phycocyanine, goede eiwitten en omega vetzuren 
  • Cranberries, bosbessen en zwarte bessen
    Deze bevatten anthocyanines and polyphenolen
  • Bladrijke groente zoals boerenkool en spinazie
    Bevat veel lute´ne
  • Amandelen en walnoten
    Bevatten omega 6 vetzuren en phytosterolen (plant sterolen) en vitamine E (tocopherolen).
  • Lijnzaad (gebroken)
    Goede bron van omega 3 vetzuren en vezels

The AARP latest issue covers Spirulina for "Living Longer Diet" article with Dr. Bickford quote below: Bickford and her colleagues were surprised by the robustness with which "both the spirulina and apple groups demonstrated improved neuron function in the brain, a suppression of inflammatory substances in the brain, and a decrease in oxidative damage."

http://www.aarpmagazine.org/health/longevity_foods.html
http://www.aarpmagazine.org/health/living_longer_diet.html


Waar goedkoop te koop ?

Via natuurwinkels kunt u tabletten kopen (60 gram tabletten voor ongeveer 10 euro) en online kunt u poeder kopen voor rond de 60 euro per kilo poeder of 70 euro voor kilo pillen (ruim genoeg voor 1 jaar gebruik)

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Spirulina geeft lopers meer uithoudingsvermogen

Het algensupplement Spirulina platensis beschermt de spieren van lopers tijdens intensieve training en verhoogt hun uithoudingsvermogen. Dat ontdekten Taiwanese onderzoekers die proeven deden met zestien studenten.

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Spirulina activeert anti-kankerfactor

(Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52(4):322-328.) Honderdduizenden mensen slikken spirulina. De tabletten of capsules met de groen-blauwe alg bevatten een keur van mineralen, vitamines en nog onbekende verbindingen die volgens de supplementenmakers een hele reeks positieve gezondheidseffecten zouden hebben. Helemaal onzin is het niet, doet een Koreaans onderzoek vermoeden. Spirulina verhoogt in het lichaam de concentratie van de cytokine interleukine-2.

http://www.ergogenics.org/supplement102.html#1
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18714150

Meer studies
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18343939
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16615668
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18572379
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18522403
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18398928


Overzicht van ruim 400 studies

There has been an extensive amount of research on the species Arthrospira Platensis, more commonly known as “Spirulina.” This research dates back decades and has been conducted at universities, at government sponsored research facilities, as well as by private researchers throughout the world.

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Spirulina en diabetes

The results of the present study support the primary findings regarding the hypoglycemic and hypolipdemic effect of spirulina. Hence spray dried spirulina powder can be incorporated into a diabetic diet for improving the carbohydrate and lipid diet for improving the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetics.

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Spirulina en diabetes 2

A randomized study to establish the effects of spirulina in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Since dyslipidemia, oxidative and inflammatory stress are considered to be the contributing factors for diabetes, spirulina is the most likely candidate as functional food for management of type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, spirulina intervention brought in favorable effect on blood lipids, anti-oxidant capacity, and inflammatory response in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. Our results also suggest that spirulina is a promising agent as a functional food for the management of diabetes. Further studies with larger sample size and longer duration are required to ascertain the mechanism of spirulina’s actions on lipid profiles, immune variables, and antioxidant capacity

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First USA Spirulina Algae Production: Earthrise Farms 1983


Spirulina en astma

The Effect of Spirulina in the Treatment of Bronchial Asthma

The results of this study suggest that long-term supplementation of spirulina for more than two months on daily basis can optimise an improvement of bronchial asthma.

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Studie - Spirulina het middel tegen ondervoeding

This case study describes the experience of Antenna Technologies, a Geneva-based NGO, with small-scale production of Spirulina and its use as a tool to combat malnutrition. Spirulina is an algae growing naturally under tropical conditions in alcaline water and can be cultivated in small ponds with little investment.

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Spirulina tegen ondervoeding

To fulfill the mandate of the Intergovernmental Institution for the use of Micro-algae Spirulina Against Malnutrition (IIMSAM) to counter malnutrition globally through Spirulina; and to secure and achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals by 2015, the organisation appointed eminent Spirulina expert, Prof. Avigad Vonshak from the State of Israel as its Facilitator for Spirulina Platensis. Professor Avigad Vonshak, IIMSAM's Facilitator for Spirulina Platensis is a leading authority on the scientific and practical aspects of the micro-algae who has worked for over thirty years in the field. Prof. Vonshak is the Director of the Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research at the Ben Gurion University in Israel and has helped promote and establish the use of Spirulina biomass in different parts of the world for many years.

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New study Finds that Spirulina Enhances Running Performance

Scientists from the Institute of Human Performance and Rehabilitation in Greece found that supplementing the diet with Spirulina improved running capacity by 30% thus extending the time to exhaustion significantly. The study also found that Spirulina supplementation a) increased fat oxidation, b) reduced carbohydrate oxidation during a two hour run c) reduced oxidative stress and d) increased antioxidant activity after exercise. Reduced carbohydrate utilization and reduced oxidative stress due to increased antioxidant activity may have played a role in the effects observed. The study utilized nine moderately trained individuals in a placebo controlled cross over study where the subjects received Spirulina supplementation or placebo for four weeks. The experiment was then repeated whereby the subjects who received placebo received Spirulina and vice versa. Before and after supplementation, all of the subjects ran on a treadmill at 70-75% VO2max for two hours and then at 95% VO2max to exhaustion. This study supports a previous study from the Sport Science Research Center of the National Taiwan College of Physical Education that showed that supplementation with Spirulina prevented skeletal muscle damage under exercise-induced oxidative damage. The researchers believe that this probably leads to postponement of the time to exhaustion during all-out exercise. The new study was published in the current issue of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise (Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010, 42(1):142-51)


Growing Spirulina Algae in a Village in West Africa

The Integrated Village System in Farende, Togo, West Africa, an appropriate technology project developed by Dr. Ripley D. Fox (1989). http://www.spirulinasource.com


Effect of Spirulina on Arsenicosis Patients in Bangladesh

A research conducted in Japan has shown that Spirulina reduced nephrotoxicity from mercury and three pharmaceutical drugs in laboratory rats7. With the clinical use of Spirulina in hospitals or for outpatients, higher dosage of such drugs and shorter recovery times may be possible. This study also leaves the significant evidence in reducing the clinical manifestation of inorganic arsenic toxicity in human body. Although mechanism of reducing the manifestation and mode of action of Spirulina in human body was not attempted. But further investigation in this line may make more clear evidence to use Spirulina as a fingertip treatment for arsenicosis.

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Spirulina source

Green Business Entrepreneur with over 30 years experience in diverse fields such as algae, bamboo, carbon and natural resources, specializing in developing business models for the green economy for our health, our society, our planet.

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An empirical study of the impact of Spirulina as a nutritional supplement on dietary intake and Health Status of adolescent girls of Shimla Anjali Dewan, Department of Homescience, St. Bede's College, Shimla

Abstract: The present study deals with 200 adolescent girls in the age group of 13-15 years from two Govt. Schools of Shimla belonging to low income group. The subjects were equally divided into Experimental (E) and Control groups (C). The respondents of group E were supplemented with 2 capsules (1gm.) of spirulina after mixing with one serving (40gm.) of wheat besan ladoo daily for six days a week for a period of two months while the group C was given a placebo for the same period. The dietary survey was conducted for three consecutive days by 24 hour recall method before and after supplementation. The results of the study showed that the mean daily intake of cereals, pulses, green leafy vegetables, sugar and jaggery was inadequate in both the groups. The intake of roots and tubers, visible fat exceeded the recommended allowances. Paleness of skin and conjunctiva, dental caries, fatigue were most prevalent among the clinical signs. The prevalence of common ailments was more marked in group C when compared with group E after introducing spirulina in the ladoos. Thus, better nutritional status and health could be attributed to spirulina supplementation. The adolescent girls were encouraged to eat a balanced diet.

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Spirulina extract may reverse pain sensitivity

C-phycocyanin, a compound found in blue green algae like spirulina, may reduce inflammation and have pain killing effects, suggests a new study.

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An Extract of Spirulina is Found to Have a Beneficial Effect on Eye Health

A group of scientists from Shandong Eye Institute, Qingdao, China reported in the journal, Molecular Vision, that topical application of a polysaccharide extract of Spirulina to cornea of mice prevented vascularization (blood vessel invasion) of the cornea when such corneal damage was induced by an alkali burn. A normal cornea is free from blood vessels and obtains its oxygen from the air. However, inflammation caused by lack of oxygen, immunological conditions, and contact lens wear among others, can encourage blood vessel invasion from under the cornea creating a condition known as corneal neovascularization (CNV). CNV is generally accompanied with an inflammatory response and always represents a state of disease. The researchers studied CNV using six different assays to conclude that “polysaccharide extract from Spirulina platensis is a potent inhibitor of CNV and that it may be of benefit in the therapy of corneal diseases involving neovascularization and inflammation”.


Study shows blue protein in Spirulina powerfully blocks free radicals

Spirulina has an extensive history worldwide as a nutritional supplement with a wide range of benefits. Research is now confirming that it can play a powerful role in cardiovascular health. Two recent studies, one human and one animal, highlight these new findings. “Antihyperlipemic and Antihypertensive Effects of Spirulina maxima in an Open Sample of Mexican Population: A Preliminary Report,” published in the journal Lipids in Health and Disease, reports on daily use of just 4.5 grams per day of Spirulina among 16 men and 20 women years of age that resulted in lowered serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure without a change in diet or lifestyle.


PDF - Probiotic Efficiency of Spirulina platensis - Stimulating Growth of Lactic Acid Bacteria

The results obtained showed a spectrum of antibacterial properties of S. platensis apart from increasing the growth of lactic acid bacteria. In addition to the above benefits, Spirulina biomass increases the essential amino acids and vitamin content. So the regular intake of Spirulina will not only improve the intestinal lactic acid bacteria but also inhibit the growth of harmful human pathogenic finally leading to the improved intestinal absorption. The abundance of bioactive components in S. platensis is of great importance from a nutritional point of view because it provides a new opportunity for the use of Spirulina as a perfect neutraceutical.

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PDF - Egypt - Chemoprevention of rat liver toxicity and carcinogenesis by Spirulina

In summary, our study is the first to show that DBN-induced severe liver injury and carcinogenesis in rat liver were prevented by SP supplementation, suggesting that SP is a protective phyto-antioxidant against liver toxicity and an anti-tumor agent. Further pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to characterize the efficacy of SP in combination with existing therapeutics for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

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PDF - Immunohistochemical Study Effects of Spirulina Algae on the Induced Mammary Tumor in Rats

The conclusion of this work suggests that Spirulina platnesis could be considered as a chemotherapeutic agent that causes apoptosis to tumor cells by reducing the number of malignant cells and resists cancer formation. It is probable, the present study is the first to study the correlation between the effects of spirulina on the induced mammary tumor in rats and the proliferation in this type of cancer.

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Nutritional aspects of spirulina

Een Eboek over de voedingseigenschappen van spirulina.....

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Gardening: Caring for Plants : Growing Spirulina


Wikipedia - Spirulina studies

Spirulina has been found to increase weight gain anemia in both HIV-infected and HIV-negative undernourished children[22] because of its excellent nutritional quality. Spirulina is effective for the clinical improvement of melanosis and keratosis due to chronic arsenic poisoning.[23]

A study in 2005 found that spirulina protects against hay fever.[24] A more recent double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 2008 concerning 150 allergic rhinitis patients found that Spirulina platensis significantly reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory interleukin-4 by 32%, and the patients experienced symptomatic relief.[25] Furthermore, Spirulina was found to reduce the inflammation involved in arthritis in geriatric patients by stimulating the secretion of interleukin-2, which helps in regulating the inflammatory response.[26]

A 2007 study[27] found that 36 volunteers taking 4.5 grams of spirulina per day, over a six week period, exhibited significant changes in cholesterol and blood pressure: (1) lowered total cholesterol; (2) increased HDL cholesterol; (3) lowered triglycerides; and (4) lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure. This study, however, did not contain a control group; researchers can not be confident that the changes observed are due totally, or even partially, to the effects of the Spirulina maxima, as opposed to other confounding variables (i.e., history effects, maturation effects or demand characteristics). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study involving geriatric patients determined that spirulina helped to significantly reduce the low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein ratio after four months of supplementation.[26]

A 2007 study concluded that spirulina improved the antioxidant potential of many geriatric patients who were administered it for 16 weeks. The plasma of these patients showed a measured increased level of total antioxidant status.[26] A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 2006 found that spirulina supplementation decreased the amount of creatine kinase, an indicator of muscular breakdown, in individuals after exercise. Furthermore, the experimental group's time to exhaustion during all out treadmill exercise increased by 52 seconds. These effects were thought to be due to spirulina's antioxidant potential.[28]

See 2010 published study: Maria Kalafati; Athanasios Z. Jamurtas; Michalis G. Nikolaidis; Vassilis Paschalis; Anastasios A. Theodorou; Giorgos K. Sakellariou; Yiannis Koutedakis; Dimitris Kouretas, Ergogenic and Antioxidant Effects of Spirulina Supplementation in Humans, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise«. 2010;42(1):142-151, concluding a positive effect occurred, although the mechanism was not well understood.

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Microcystins niet in spirulina, wel in andere blauw-groene algen

According to the research conducted by Health Canada, only one strain of blue green algae, Spirulina, is free from microcystins as Spirulina is harvested from controlled ponds. Most of the non-Spirulina blue green algae supplements are contaminated by microcystins, especially those harvested from natural lakes. Daily consumption of these dietary supplements would exceed the acceptable level of microcystin intake established by Health Canada and WHO.

Link 1 | Link 2


PDF - Anti diabetes eigenschappen spirulina

Accordingly, it can be concluded that spirulina has a beneficial effect on plasma insulin, C-peptide and hexokinase activity. Moreover, its antihyperglycemic effect in clinical trials (26-30) could represent a protective mechanism against the development of atherosclerosis and to maintain euglycemia.

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The Potential Application of Spirulina (Arthrospira) as a Nutritional and Therapeutic Supplement in Health Management

Despite the few human studies done so far on the health benefits of Spirulina, the evidence for its potential therapeutic application is overwhelming in the areas of immunomodulation, anti-cancer, anti-viral, and cholesterol-reduction effects. Traditional therapies always rely on the use of natural products and have been the source of information for the discovery of many drugs we have today. Currently, increased cost of health care has become a driving
force in the shift towards interest in wellness, selfcare, and alternative medicine, and a greater recognition between diet and health care. Spirulina is already in use in these new health care approaches. Further clinical research
will help solidify the merit of its use.

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Verwijdering van lood door spirulina

This study examines the possibility of using live spirulina to biologically remove aqueous lead of low concentration (below 50 mg/L) from wastewater. The spirulina cells were first immersed for seven days in five wastewater samples containing lead of different concentrations, and the growth rate was determined by light at wavelength of 560 nm. The 72 h-EC50 (72 h medium effective concentration) was estimated to be 11.46 mg/L (lead). Afterwards, the lead adsorption by live spirulina cells was conducted. It was observed that at the initial stage (0–12 min) the adsorption rate was so rapid that 74% of the metal was biologically adsorbed. The maximum biosorption capacity of live spirulina was estimated to be 0.62 mg lead per 105 alga cells.

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Spirulina

Adding spirulina to cultured immune system cells significantly increases the production of infection fighting cytokines, say immunologists at UC Davis School of Medicine and Medical Center. Their finding is published in the Fall issue of the Journal of Medicinal Foods. Spirulina are blue-green algae rich in antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and other nutrients. Used as a food supplement for more than 20 years, spirulina grows naturally in lakes with extremely high pH levels, but it is also harvested from large-scale commercial ponds, where purity is monitored before being dried and distributed in tablet and powdered form.

A number of animal studies have shown spirulina to be an effective immunomodulator (an agent that can effect the behavior of immune cells.) In rats spirulina inhibited allergic reactions by suppressing the release of histamine in a dose-dependent fashion. In cats, spirulina enhanced the ability of macrophages to engulf bacteria, and in chickens spirulina increased antibody responses and the activity of natural killer cells, which destroy infected and cancerous cells in the body. While extensive human studies have not been done, several reports also suggest spirulina has therapeutic effects on hyperlipidemia and obesity. In one study, spirulina decreased total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while increasing high-density lipoprotein. A 1986 study of obese patients showed a significant reduction of body weight after including spirulina in the diet for four weeks. In the UC Davis study, researchers evaluated the secretion of the cytokines interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, and interleukin-1beta in the lab to get a better understanding of spirulina's potential regulatory effect on the immune system.

"We found that nutrient-rich spirulina is a potent inducer of interferon-gamma (13.6-fold increase) and a moderate stimulator of both interleukin-4 and interleukin-1beta (3.3-fold increase)," says Eric Gershwin, professor and chief of the Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology at UC Davis. "Together, increases in these cytokines suggest that spirulina is a strong proponent for protecting against intracellular pathogens and parasites and can potentially increase the expression of agents that stimulate inflammation, which also helps to protect the body against infectious and potentially harmful micro-organisms. Additional studies with individuals consuming spirulina are needed to determine whether these dramatic effects extend beyond the laboratory."

In the body, the preferential increase in the production of interferon-gamma over interleukin-4 would shift the immune system towards mounting a cell-mediated immune response instead of a humoral response. A cell-mediated response includes the activation of T-cells and antibodies that work with macrophages, another type of immune system cell, to engulf invading micro-organisms. Hence, spirulina's strength in protecting against intracellular pathogens and parasites. The moderate increase in the secretion of interleukin-1beta, a cytokine that acts on nearly every cell of the body to promote inflammation, works to support the overall immune response.

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Spirulina Algae Micro Farm: La Capitelle


Spirulina promotes stem cell genesis and protects against LPS induced declines in neural stem cell proliferation

When examined on neural stem cells in culture spirulina increased proliferation at baseline and protected against the negative influence of TNFalpha to reduce neural stem cell proliferation. These results support the hypothesis that a diet enriched with spirulina and other nutraceuticals may help protect the stem/progenitor cells from insults.

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Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage

We found that animals which received blueberry, spinach, or spirulina enriched diets had a significant reduction in the volume of infarction in the cerebral cortex and an increase in post-stroke locomotor activity. There was no difference in blood biochemistry, blood CO2, and electrolyte levels among all groups, suggesting that the protection was not indirectly mediated through the changes in physiological functions. Animals treated with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina had significantly lower caspase-3 activity in the ischemic hemisphere. In conclusion, our data suggest that chronic treatment with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis and
cerebral infarction.

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Ebook - Spirulina - Microfood macro blessing

Spirulina in its natural balance is a nutritious health food. There are no negative effects of very high dosages known since it was taken over a long period of time as a sole food by many people. It is a concentrated whole food. It is
organic food and this is the difference to other vitamin concentrates. Most vitamins available from the shelf are synthetic and if taken in high dosages can have negative side effects such as with synthetic vitamin A which can lead to hair loss, blurred vision, liver damage and headaches and with synthetic vitamin D which can interfere with the functioning of our muscles including our heart and can lead to a build up of calcium deposits. The body's own production of Vitamin D while sunbathing cannot create an overdose of Vitamin D but synthetic supplements can do so.

Loosing weight?

Spirulina became very popular with articles like The Safe New Diet Pill. Indeed Spirulina can be used for weight loss. It is low in calories and fat and is highly digestible and what is very important, it is in its natural balance. Research in Germany showed, in a double blind crossover study, that overweight people lose weight slowly but steadily with Spirulina. There is a side effect, a positive one, a drop in serum cholesterol levels was registered as well. The daily intake was only six tablets and the researchers concluded that a higher dosage of Spirulina may result in a faster weight reduction. An important factor, why Spirulina is beneficial for slimming is the high content Tyrosine which suppresses hunger.

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The Study of Spirulina

Spirulina is gaining more attention from medical scientists as a nutraceutical and source of potential pharmaceuticals. There are several new peer reviewed scientific studies about spirulina's ability to inhibit viral replication, strengthen both the cellular and humoral arms of the immune system and cause regression and inhibition of cancers. While these studies are preliminary and more research is needed, the results so far are exciting.

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PDF - Antioxidant Properties of Spirulina (Arthospira) platensis

Cyanobacteria of the genus Spirulina have been studied not only because of the potential as a protein source but also because of their therapeutic properties, which include reports of the ability of preparations of this cyanobacterium to prevent and inhibit cancers, to decrease blood cholesterol levels, stimulate the immunological system, to reduce the nefrotoxicity of pharmaceuticals and toxic metals and provide protection against the harmfull effects of radiation

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Spirulina Smoothie


PDF - Spirulina in human nutrition

Compleet wetenschappelijk onderbouwd van ruim 300 pagina's over spirulina...

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Link naar de papieren versie: http://www.crcnetbase.com/isbn/9781420052572


PDF - Earthfood spirulina

Robert Henrikson has been instrumental in developing spirulina as a world food resource for 22 years. He is President of a major algae food company and a director of the world’s largest spirulina farm. He has been eating close to ten grams a day of this green food for over 19 years, about as long as anyone.

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Hepatoprotective effects of Spirulina maxima in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Treatment had therapeutic effects as evidenced by ultrasonography and the aminotransferase data. Hypolipidemic effects were also shown. We conclude that Spirulina maxima may be considered an alternative treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases and dyslipidemic disorder.

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PDF - Blue-green algae and microcystin toxins

The microalgae industry has developed to its current status by providing a safe and nutritious product for the human supplement market as well as the animal and aquaculture feed markets. The vast majority of this microalgae biomass is produced from Spirulina, Chlorella, and Aphanizomenon flos-aqua. Concern over the discovery of toxic algae blooms in Klamath Lake underscore vital differences between cultured Spirulina and species of wild lake-grown algae. Scientists believe there are over 30,000 species of microscopic algae. The immense range of species includes nutritious varieties like Spirulina and Chlorella, as well as potentially dangerous species such as the Microcystis strains identified in Upper Klamath Lake. In this way, microalgae are similar to mushrooms— common cultured table mushrooms are absolutely safe and healthful while others, such as toadstools can be poisonous. The same situation occurs in the bacterial group—some, like the lactobacilli are essential for good digestion while others, such as Salmonella can cause disease. Cultured Spirulina can be grown free of contaminating algae for several reasons. The growing conditions for Spirulina are unique as it is cultivated and thrives in very alkaline conditions. Competitor algae and other contaminants simply cannot compete and grow under these harsh conditions.

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Superfoods for Optimum Health - Chlorella and Spirulina

Chlorella and spirulina are truly the most astounding food sources on planet Earth. In this special report, you'll learn about the astonishing health benefits and nutritional achievements of these two foods, and you'll see why you need to get these into your diet immediately. Most people have heard of chlorella and spirulina, but they don't really know the details of why these are truly the best food sources on the planet. For example, did you know that, ounce per ounce, spirulina contains twelve times the digestible protein of beef? It's a far better protein than beef, and it contains a much healthier mineral balance (such as magnesium) that just isn't found in beef."

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Incorporation of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima biomass in pasta products

Microalgae pastas presented very appellative colours, such as orange and green, similar to pastas produced with vegetables, with nutritional advantages, showing energetic values similar to commercial pastas. The use of microalgae biomass can enhance the nutritional and sensorial quality of pasta, without affecting its cooking and textural properties.

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PDF - Effect of Spirulina Food Supplement on Blood Morphological and Biochemical Composition in Sportsmen

Analysis of the biochemical indices showed that during the whole experimental period the mean values of the indices were within the recommended limits. Under the effect of Spirulina intake, blood creatinine-kinase levels tended to increase and creatinine levels showed a decreasing tendency (on average from 93.99 to 90.45 mmol/l); also, triglyceride and bilirubin levels tended to decrease, while those of urea and uric acid increased. Most of the positive changes in blood morphological and biochemical indices were still present two weeks after the Spirulina intake was interrupted.

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Protective Effect of Spirulina against Doxorubicin-induced Cardiotoxicity

These results suggest that Spirulina has a protective effect against cardiotoxicity induced by DOX and it may, therefore, improve the therapeutic index of DOX.

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Cyanotech's National Medical Report


Effects on the AIDS Virus, Cancer and the Immune System

In April 1996, scientists from the Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School and Earthrise Farms, Calipatria, California, announced on-going research, saying "Water extract of Spirulina platensis inhibits HIV-1 replication in human derived T-cell lines and in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A concentration of 5-10 mg/ml was found to reduce viral production." HIV-1 is the AIDS virus.

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Government analysis of spirulina

Spirulina has typically been taken by mouth two to three times daily with meals in doses of 1-1.4 grams for diabetes mellitus (type 2), high cholesterol, or oral leukoplakia (pre-cancerous mouth lesions). For weight loss, 200 milligrams of spirulina tablets by mouth three times daily, taken just before eating, has been studied. Two grams of spirulina has been used for nasal allergies. For arsenic poisoning, twice daily doses of 250 milligrams of spirulina extract plus 2 milligrams of zinc may be helpful.

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Characterization of microalgal carotenoids by mass spectrometry and their bioavailability and antioxidant properties

A time-course study of carotenoids in rats after administration of microalgal biomass showed peak levels in plasma, liver, and eyes at 2, 4, and 6 h, respectively. beta-Carotene accumulation in Spirulina-fed rats was maximum in eye tissues at 6 h. Similarly, levels of astaxanthin and lutein in Haematococcus- and Botryococcus-fed rats were also maximal in eye tissues. Astaxanthin from H. pluvialis showed better bioavailability than beta-carotene and lutein. The antioxidant enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and TBARS were significantly high in plasma at 2 h and in liver at 4 h, evidently offering protection from free radicals. This study implies that microalgae can be a good source of carotenoids of high bioavailability and nutraceutical value.

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Hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory activities of microalgae Spirulina

Spirulina is free-floating filamentous microalgae growing in alkaline water bodies. With its high nutritional value, Spirulina has been consumed as food for centuries in Central Africa. It is now widely used as nutraceutical food supplement worldwide. Recently, great attention and extensive studies have been devoted to evaluate its therapeutic benefits on an array of diseased conditions including hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycerolemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and viral infections. The cardiovascular benefits of Spirulina are primarily resulted from its hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory activities. Data from preclinical studies with various animal models consistently demonstrate the hypolipidemic activity of Spirulina. Although differences in study design, sample size, and patient conditions resulting in minor inconsistency in response to Spirulina supplementation, the findings from human clinical trials are largely consistent with the hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina observed in the preclinical studies. However, most of the human clinical trials are suffered with limited sample size and some with poor experimental design. The antioxidant and/or antiinflammatory activities of Spirulina were demonstrated in a large number of preclinical studies. However, a limited number of clinical trials have been carried out so far to confirm such activities in human. Currently, our understanding on the underlying mechanisms for Spirulina's activities, especially the hypolipidemic effect, is limited. Spirulina is generally considered safe for human consumption supported by its long history of use as food source and its favorable safety profile in animal studies. However, rare cases of side-effects in human have been reported. Quality control in the growth and process of Spirulina to avoid contamination is mandatory to guarantee the safety of Spirulina products.

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Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney

It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina.

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Protective effect of Spirulina against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide induced toxicity

In the present study, we focused on the protective effect of Spirulina against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) induced hepato and nephrotoxicity in the experimental rats. The 4NQO administration resulted in increased levels of hepatic and renal markers [Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, creatinine and uric acid] in the serum of experimental animals. It also increased the oxidative stress resulting in increased levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decline in the levels of non enzymic [reduced glutathione (GSH)] and enzymic antioxidants [(Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and Glutathione-S-transferase (GST)] in both liver and kidney. Oral pretreatment with aqueous extract of Spirulina prevented 4NQO induced changes in the levels of hepatic and kidney diagnostic marker enzymes in the serum of experimental rats. It counteracted the 4NQO induced lipid peroxidation and maintained the hepatic and kidney antioxidant defense system at near normal in both liver and kidney. The antioxidant responsiveness mediated by Spirulina may be anticipated to have biological significance in eliminating reactive free radicals that may otherwise affect normal cell functioning and provide a scientific rationale for the use of Spirulina.

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Spirulina prevents atherosclerosis by reducing hypercholesterolemia in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet

The anti-atherogenic effects of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) were investigated in the New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit model. The animal had hypercholesterolemia induced by being fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) containing 0.5% cholesterol for 4 wk, and then fed a HCD supplemented with 1 or 5% spirulina (SP1 or SP5) for an additional 8 wk. Spirulina supplementation lowered intimal surface of the aorta by 32.2 to 48.3%, compared to HCD. Serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) significantly were reduced in SP groups. After 8 wk, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remarkably decreased by 26.4% in SP1 and 41.2% in SP5, compared to HCD. On the other hand, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was markedly increased in SP1 and SP5 compared with that in the HCD group from 2 to 8 wk. These results suggest that spirulina intake can cause the reduction of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, associated with a decrease in levels of serum TC, TG and LDL-C, and an elevation of HDL-C level. Spirulina may, therefore, be beneficial in preventing atherosclerosis and reducing risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

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Blueberry- and spirulina-enriched diets enhance striatal dopamine recovery and induce a rapid, transient microglia activation after injury of the rat nigrostriatal dopamine system

In conclusion, enhanced striatal dopamine recovery appeared in animals treated with diet enriched in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and coincided with an early, transient increase in OX-6-positive
microglia.

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