Sinds 2005 ben ik op zoek naar stoffen die
kunnen helpen met het ontgiften van de organen. Naast supplementen als B12
methylcobalamine en chlorella duikt keer op keer de lichaamseigen stof glutathion op. Deze
stof maak je zelf aan in de lever maar de produktie neemt af vanaf je veertigste. Vaak is
40 jaar zo'n omslagpunt dat ongezond gedrag sneller wordt afgestraft. De rek is dan vaak
uit en menigeen krijgt dan meer lichamelijke klachten. Glutathion speelt een cruciale rol
bij ontgifting van chemicalieŽn en zware metalen. Het vermoeden is dat kinderen met
autisme een uitgeputte glutathionvoorraad hebben en daarom slechte ontgifters zijn.
Hierdoor zal er ook meer behoefte zijn aan stoffen als choline, methionine, magnesium en
Zelf ben ik blootgesteld (tussen 2004 en
2007) aan formaldehyde en teermastiek dampen in mijn huidige woning dus het nodige voor
mijn kiezen gehad. De vorige bewoners hadden blijkbaar niet veel verstand van dit soort
zaken en hebben een extra verdieping op hun woning laten bouwen. Ze waren alleen
"vergeten" de oude dakbekleding (het zwaar giftige teermatiek) te verwijderen en
de vloer bestond uit dikke spaanplaat platen die behoorlijk vol met lijm zitten en dus
formaldehyde uitdampen. Omdat de temperatuur dan in de zomer al snel boven de 25 graden
komt de nodige gassen ingeademd. Het werd nog erger toen ik een airco kocht en de ramen
gesloten hield. Bovengebit ging eraan, overal pijnen, kon niet meer sporten, hele dag
duizelig en moe en gevoel de hele dag dronken te zijn.
Huisarts had ik niet veel aan, dacht alleen
maar aan stress. Dus zelf op toxine onderzoek gegaan en uit bloedtesten bleek oa hoge
waardes van Xyleen (teermastiek) en wat andere lijmstoffen. Had ook idd vaak een soort
lijm die uit mijn ooghoeken leek te komen. Ik vermoed dat het kaakbot deze stoffen
absorbeert. Kreeg ook steeds meer klachten met longen, saturatie daalde naar 93% en nog
geen begrip van mijn huisarts. Hoe kan een IT'er nu toch een soort schildersziekte
5 jaar lopen zoeken en zaken getest en veel
kunnen oplossen met detoxkuren van Novelcure. Ik gebruik nu nog steeds glutathion van deze
uitvinder en ook af en toe zijn probiotica. Daarnaast spuit ik nog regelmatig B12. B12
helpt nl met zuurstoftransport en het binden van stikstof. Glutathion is met name
belangrijk bij het afbreken van formaldehyde in het lichaam. Ga je met bioresonantie meten
(link) dan zie je weer
bevestiging van een aantal zaken. Systeem vond ook idd tekorten van methionine, choline,
B12 en stressoren als teerdampen, formaldehyde en styreen. De laatste komt uit
verpakkingen voeding en bouwmateriaal.
In Amerika is er nu een nieuwe variant op
de markt. Glutathion die verpakt zit in vetbolletjes en zo snel je bloed in kan gaan.
Gewone supplementen oxideren nl binnen een paar minuten. Ik heb tot nu toe de beste
ervaringen met de reduced glutathion van Novelcure, bij 1 per dag merk ik al dat mijn
nieren heel veel werk krijgen. De glutathion maakt namelijk vetoplosbare toxines
wateroplosbaar en de nieren voeren deze dan af. Een natuurlijke bron van glutathion? Dan
kies ik voor rauwe asperges, Mike kiest dan weer voor rauwe melk.
Ik vermoed dat ik sowieso een slechte
ontgifter ben. Had als kind al snel last van rook en later kon ik slecht tegen alcohol
etc. Dus ik denk dat een deel van de mensen die snel last hebben van gifstoffen al van
nature minder glutathion aanmaken en dus ook sneller in de problemen komen. Dit zou dus
rol kunnen spelen bij kinderen met ADHD en autisme klachten. Door een overdaad aan toxines
maatschappij gaat die groep onderuit. Mijn zoon heeft autisme dus zal ook meer moeite met
stress/toxines ondervinden. Ging destijds ook helemaal mis na de BMR vaccinatie. Ik
vermoed dat deze een overbelasting geeft van het imuunsysteem. Om deze reden kiezen ze in
Japan ook niet voor een cocktail van 3 vaccinaties ineens maar geven ze de vaccinaties
ineens. Voor een supergezond kind misschien niet zo problematisch maar voor slechte
ontgifters kan het de druppel zijn. Zeker als er stoffen als aluminium en kwik in de
vaccins worden gebruikt als booster of conserveermiddel.
Ontgiftingsstoornissen - Glutathion
De lever is het belangrijkste
ontgiftingsorgaan, op de voet gevolgd door de darmen en de nieren. Secundaire
ontgiftingsorganen zijn de longen en de huid. Het stimuleren van de verschillende fasen (I
en II) van het ontgiftingssysteem kan problemen veroorzaken. Daarom adviseer ik de
stimulering van Fase I en II van het ontgiftingsproces altijd op basis van onderzoek en
onder begeleiding van een kundig arts of therapeut uit te voeren. Het is echter wel
mogelijk om de ontgifting veilig te ondersteunen door
het glutathionniveau in de cellen te verhogen. Glutathion is een van de belangrijkste
stoffen in het ontgiftingsproces, bovendien versterkt glutathion het immuunsysteem
waardoor het lichaam beter beschermd wordt tegen virale infecties. Glutathion wordt als
supplement slecht opgenomen. Het niveau kan daarom alleen via het in dit artikel besproken
Glutathion Protocol effectief worden verhoogd.
Recent is gebleken dan glutathion wel
degelijk in significante hoeveelheden kan worden
geabsorbeerd, waardoor suppletie met glutathion een verantwoorde en goed gerichte
keuze wordt om de glutathionniveaus in de cel te stimuleren.
What's the most important molecule you've
never heard of? In this week's UltraWellness blog, Dr. Mark Hyman gives you the lowdown on
the "mother of all antioxidants" and tells you how you can boost it in your body
Food Sources That Boost Glutathione
Milk thistle, asparagus, whey protein,
Indian curry spice, curcumin (turmeric), Brazil nuts, acorn squash, asparagus, avocado,? broccoli,
cantaloupe, grapefruit, okra, oranges, peach, potato, spinach, strawberry, watermelon,
zucchini, apples, carrots, cauliflower, walnuts, garlic, and raw tomatoes.
Glutathione Used to Treat Autism
News report where glutathione was used to
treat autism... this was not a clinical study but the observations were interesting.
Immunocal raises glutathione in the entire body, including the brain, naturally with no
Study of Glutathione, Vitamin C and
Cysteine in Children With Autism
and Severe Behavior Problems
This is a double-blind, placebo-controlled
crossover study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of glutathione alone or glutathione,
vitamin C and NAC treatment in children with autism who also have severe behavior
problems. The investigators hypothesis is that children with autism will show improvement
in both learning capabilities and behavior with either glutathione, or glutathione,
vitamin C and NAC therapy.
The importance of the methionine cycle has
been shown in research on autistic children. Several biological markers pointed out that
interruption of this cycle leads to decreased production of glutathione. It appears that
decreased availability of methylcobalamin is part of this defect as injections of
methylcobalamin help restore the methionine cycle in the situation. In a twist of
biochemical irony, glutathione appears to be needed to maintain the production of
methylcobalamin and the function of the methionine cycle.
the first step ,drop Betadine (topical
wound fresh)around 5 cc. (10 drops) in water. Next, open the glutathione's capsule and
drop down a drug. then stir it.? If it's real glutathione so clean betadine
to pure water like on this video.
Glutathione deficiency contributes to
oxidative stress, which plays a key role in aging and the pathogenesis of many diseases
(including kwashiorkor, seizure, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, liver disease,
cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, HIV, AIDS, cancer, heart attack, stroke, and
diabetes). New knowledge of the nutritional regulation of GSH metabolism is critical for
the development of effective strategies to improve health and to treat these diseases.
A naturally occurring protein, is called a
peptide. It is composed of three amino acids: glycine, glutamine and cysteine. Cysteine
contains sulfur and gives glutathione its sulfuric aroma. It also plays a major role in
glutathiones antioxidant and detoxification functions. With its anti-inflammatory
properties, glutathione is considered a key antioxidant in the functioning of
cells. Antioxidant means it helps prevent oxidative stress.
The Biochemical Magic of Raw Milk
and Other Raw Foods: Glutathione
One of the many benefits of raw milk may be
its ability to promote the production of a wonderful little compound called
"glutathione" this tiny compound consists of just three amino acids, but
it is the master antioxidant and detoxifier of the cell. Looking at this little molecule
for a few moments may be reductionist, but understanding how a food provides its benefits
not only helps us better understand how to produce, prepare, and use that food, but also
helps us identify other foods that may offer similar benefits. As I will describe below,
for example, large amounts of raw fruits and vegetables may provide some
glutathione-boosting power for people who cannot tolerate smaller amounts of raw milk.
Heck, even shudder raw egg whites may give a glutathione boost in some
people comparable to that given by raw milk!
GLUTATHIONE- small protein composed of 3
amino acids called cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine, produced normally by the body in
response to today's environment such as pollution in the air we breath, water we drink,
chemicals & pesticides in the food we eat that cause damages in our cells &
Jenny McCarthy and glutathione test
"Jenny McCarthy: If you look at the
vaccine schedule, and you can go on www.generationrescue.com and thats a really good
website the vaccines that you received in 1983 were ten. Today theyre
thirty-six. Thirty-six vaccinations compared to ten back in the day. A lot of these kids
seem to be born with a little bit of an auto-immune problem. Maybe they cant really
detox some of the toxins in the environment as easily. For instance, one of the things is
glutathione. Glutathione is everyones bodies natural anti-oxidant that gets
rid of toxins and viruses and stuff like that. Weve noticed that a lot of these kids
have low glutathione. So we say, God, if these kids are born with low glutathione, a
lower immune system, then how are they supposed to now take thirty-six vaccines when we
never had that before?"
Connection between reduced
glutathione and heart failure
Antioxidants are widely considered an
important defense against heart disease, but University of Utah researchers have found
excessive levels of one antioxidant - reduced glutathione - actually may contribute to the
Why is Glutathione critical to
health and even life?
Dr. Herbert Nagasawa, one of the world's
top scientists on the subject, explains why Glutathione (GSH) is as critical as water or
oxygen to life and health. Very infromative.
Dietary Sources of Glutathione
Freshly prepared (rare or raw) meats, raw
(unpasturized) milk, and raw eggs are also an especially rich source of glutathione.
Cooking reduces glutathione content, and storage also impacts the glutathione content of
foods. In human breast milk put aside for later use by breast-fed babies, a 73-79% loss of
glutathione occurred when the milk was either kept at room temperature or refrigerated for
Glutathione in foods listed in the
National Cancer Institute's Health Habits and History Food Frequency Questionnaire
Glutathione (GSH) is an antioxidant and
anticarcinogen that is present in plant and animal tissues that form the bulk of the human
diet. Recent studies show that GSH is absorbed intact in rat small intestine and that oral
GSH increases plasma GSH concentration in humans. To provide a database for
epidemiological studies of dietary intake of GSH and risk of diseases in humans, we have
measured the content of GSH in the foods listed in the National Cancer Institute's Health
Habits and History Questionnaire. Foods were purchased in the Atlanta area and prepared as
most commonly consumed in the United States. GSH analyses were performed using a
high-performance liquid chromatography technique with a method of additions to correct for
losses during sample preparation. A separate set of samples was run after treatment with
dithiothreitol to measure the total of GSH and its disulfide forms (GSH). The results show
that dairy products, cereals, and breads are generally low in GSH; fruits and vegetables
have moderate to high amounts of GSH; and freshly prepared meats are relatively high in
GSH. Frozen foods generally had GSH contents similar to fresh foods, whereas other forms
of processing and preservation generally resulted in extensive loss of GSH. Thus this
database will allow researchers to examine the relationship between dietary GSH and risk
of cancers and other diseases.
Video describes the use of intravenous
glutathione in Parkinson's disease at the Perlmutter Health Center, Naples, Florida with
Dr. David Perlmutter. We see videos of Parkinson's patients before and after glutathione
is administered. You can noticeably see the improvement in each patient after IV
glutathione. The video should not be used in and of itself to diagnose or treat any
specific medical condition.
Boek - Glutathione (GSH) Your
Body's Most Powerful Healing Agent
Glutathione has at times been called
"The master antioxidant", "The toxic waste neutralizer of the body",
"Nature's anti-aging agent" and "Food for the immune system". It is a
key defense against disease, aging, cancer and environmental pollution. Dr. Gutman will
explore the roles of GSH as an antioxidant, detoxifying enzyme and immune system
modulator, and present both in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrating its effectiveness
in both practical and potential clinical application. Given the enormous attention GSH has
received over the past few years, many facts and fantasies exist regarding how to raise
intracellular glutathione levels. These will be addressed as well as a host of clinical
situations where GSH enhancement is recommended.
You may or may not have heard of
glutathione. However, researchers and scientists continue to discover the
importance of this substance in health and disease and in the next few years its name will
become as well known as terms like cholesterol or vitamin. Your
life depends on glutathione. Without it, your liver would shrivel up and die from the
overwhelming accumulation of toxins, your cells would disintegrate from unrestrained
oxidative stress and, as if you needed more problems, your body would have little
resistance to bacteria, viruses or cancers. So many protective systems of the body,
including its use of vitamins C and E, depend heavily upon this remarkable molecule.
All eyes in the wellness movement are now
focused on the antioxidant revolution and Glutathione (GSH) leads the pack. This book
provides the reader with a comprehensive description of the role of glutathione and its
secrets. It is the cells' supreme defense against viruses, toxins, free radicals,
bacteria, etc. It is the key element for our immune system, one that has eluded doctors in
practice until now. There are unfolding implications for both Health and Disease: AIDS,
Cancer, Aging, Chronic Fatigue etc. Now the same key active proteins in breast milk have
been identified in a unique whey protein concentrate, just as nature provided. The
contemporary world is in need of and is waiting for such a universal boost to the immune
system -- in both primary and secondary prevention. A new safe, effective, and
conventional way to increase glutathione has immediate implications for YOU.
Boyd Haley PhD discusses mercury
induced oxidative stress and glutathione
Inhaled glutathione and lungs
European researchers, with support from the
Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, are examining the potential uses of inhaled glutathione in
cystic fibrosis. Some physicians also use inhaled glutathione in treating airway
restriction and asthma. Other studies are investigating whether administration of
alpha-lipoic acid, a material that can elevate intracellular glutathione, may be
beneficial in restoring the immune system in AIDS patients.
The Effect Of Glutathione On DNA
Repair And DNA Damage
Dietary restriction is the only
experimental manipulation known to extend lifespan and retard aging in mammals. Therefore,
it is a powerful tool for identifying cellular processes that are involved in aging and
senescence, and in various neoplastic diseases.
NAC - n-acetyl cysteine replenishes
intracellular levels of the natural antioxidant glutathione, helping to restore cells'
ability to fight damage from free radicals.
David Kirby- The Benefits of
Glutathione and other treatments in
David Kirby, author of the NYT bestselling
book "Evidence of Harm -- Mercury in Vaccines and the Autism Epidemic, A Medical
Controversy," speaks about recent developments in autism research, particularly the
role of glutathione deficiency in the development of physical and behavioural symptoms of
ASD. Glutathione is a critically important sulphur-based protein that binds with metals,
toxins and live viruses and excretes them from the body. It is also a powerful
antioxidant. Most children with ASD are deficient in glutathione, making them more at-risk
for oxidative stress, toxic overload, heavy metal accumulation and viral infections, which
might contribute to ASD symptoms and behavioural disorders. Fortunately, glutathione
deficiency can be addressed through biomedical intervention, researchers say.
Glutathione Content in Foods and
Dietary Sources of Glutathione
GSH is synthesized rapidly in the liver,
kidneys, and other tissues of the body, including the gastrointestinal tract. This process
is effected by aging and disease, as both of these conditions result in reduced tissue and
blood levels of glutathione. Dietary forms of glutathione are efficiently absorbed into
the blood, however the same is not true for glutathione supplements in humans.
1. Which nutrients promote optimal brain
2. What nutrients are commonly deficient enough to impair mental performance?
3. How can you get a better nights sleep without Ambien?
4. What nutrients counteract aspects of aging?
5. Is there an alternative to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants?
6. What modern nutrition myths lead us to consume products that sabotage healthy brain
7. What tests can you get from your doctor?
8. What nutrients affect appetite, alertness, and tension?
9. What nutrient combo will prevent hangovers 90% of the time?
Suzanne Somers discusses
Suzanne Somers will discuss Glutathione
patches -- a new non-transdermal technology (nothing goes into the body)-- and explains
how glutathione offsets and minimizes the effects of the unavoidable carcinogens in our
Health Benefits of Asparagus
Asparagus contains more glutathione than
any other common food item. A one hundred gram serving of asparagus is approximately five
(5) healthy spears.
According to the Washington Asparagus
Commission, glutathion from asparagus can be...
A detoxifying agent; by binding to fat-soluable toxins thereby transforming them into
water to be exreted in urine.
An anti-cancer initiator
A regulator of free radicals
A restorative to better health in adults
with gluatathion deficiency to: help prevent aging, arrest and control bad cell growth in
HIV subjects, maintain levels needed to control chronic fatigue syndrome
A "catalyst"; to keep and assist
Useful to prevent clot formation during
Can reduce side effects of chemotherapy
Can increase the efficacy of chemotherapy
drugs (particularly cisplatin in women with ovarian cancer)
Can reduce blood pressure in diabetics with
high blood pressure.
Patients with HIV, cancer, and other
serious diseases tend to have lower levels of glutathione than normal, making them
especially good candidates for supplementation. Research shows that N-acetyl L-cysteine
can enhance human T-cell function and survival,6 protect neuronal cells, and slow disease
progression and dementia among HIV patients.7 It has been further used as a
chemopreventative and tumor-fighting agent in cancer research.8,9 It also has been shown
to inhibit hepatitis B replication.
The significance of Glutathione Therapy in
disease and anti aging - Excerpt taken from A Beautiful Truth. Dr. Robert Keller's
advancement on an oral Glutathione accelerator.
Staying Sharp and Healthy with
Found within each and every cell in our
bodies, glutathione is made from 3 different amino acids: glutamine, cysteine and glycine
and as part of the enzyme family, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione is involved in
making and repairing our DNA, metabolizing toxins and carcinogens, enhancing the immune
system and in the prevention of fat oxidation.
Transfats / Glutathione /
Acrylamides with Dr. Alicja Zobel at Trent UN
Cystine in whey
Cystine is an amino acid that breaks down
into two molecules of cysteine. Cysteine then combines with richly available amino acids
glycine and glutamate inside the cell to produce glutathione. Glutathione is one of the
body's most important antioxidants. It is essential to the liver and entire body for the
detoxification of heavy metals or any other toxins. Glutathione binds to heavy metals
inside the cells and elsewhere and carries them out of the body. It is also essential for
the immune system, and it delays muscular fatigue during exercise.
Glutathione in Metals
Detoxification - Tim Guilford MD
This video is a preview from the 2010 ACAM
conference Heavy Metals Detoxification Program in San Diego. This two day program is
available for purchase on DigiVision, video of the speaker and the slides, at
DigiVisionMedia.com/ACAM. Item #ACM-101WSS1
Depletion of Reduced Glutathione
Enhances Motor Neuron Degeneration in vitro
The mechanism of selective and
age-dependent motor neuron degeneration in human amyotrophic
lateral sclerosis (ALS) has not been defined and the role of glutathione (GSH) in
motor neuron death remains largely unknown. A motor neuron-like cell culture system and a
transgenic mouse model were used to study the effect of cellular GSH alteration on motor
cell death. Exposure of NSC34 motor neuron-like cells to Ethacrynic Acid (EA) or
Sulfoximine (BSO) dramatically reduced the cellular GSH levels, and was accompanied by
production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by the DCF fluorescent oxidation
addition, GSH depletion enhanced oxidative stress markers, AP-1 transcriptional
c-Fos and HO-1 expression in NSC34 cells analyzed by a luciferase reporter, western
quantitative PCR assays respectively. Furthermore, depletion of GSH decreased
function, facilitated apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) translocation, cytochrome c release,
3 activation, and consequently led to motor neuron-like cell apoptosis. In an ALS-like
mouse model overexpressing mutant G93A-SOD1 gene, we showed that the reduction of GSH in
the spinal cord and motor neuron cells is correlated with AIF translocation, caspase 3
motor neuron degeneration during ALS-like disease onset and progression. Taken together,
vitro and in vivo data presented in the current report demonstrated that decreased GSH
multiple apoptotic pathways contributing, at least partially, to motor neuron degeneration
Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is
Associated with Glutathione Depletion
Thimerosol is an antiseptic containing
49.5% ethyl mercury that has been used for years as a preservative in many infant vaccines
and in flu vaccines. Environmental methyl mercury has been shown to be highly neurotoxic,
especially to the developing brain. Because mercury has a high affinity for thiol
(sulfhydryl (SH)) groups, the thiol-containing antioxidant, glutathione (GSH),
provides the major intracellular defense against mercury-induced neurotoxicity.
Reduced L-glutathione, most commonly called
glutathione or GSH, is the most powerful naturally occurring antioxidant in all human
cells. We have developed this site to deliver information about this powerful antioxidant
to consumers that are considering Glutathione.
Cognitive Decline treated with
Glutathione Nebulization & Suppositories
See amazing before and after footage of
Martin who has been suffering cognitive decline for years. He is filmed after only 2 days
of treatment and the results a nothing less than a miracle.
Protandim currently has 6 peer-reviewed
published independent studies on its finished product. Harvard. LSU. VCU. Journal of the
American Heart Association. If that isnt enough, there are 22 institutions currently
conducting studies on Protandims effects on various disease processes.
Mechanicsburg chiropractor talks about the
important role of glutathione in chronic stress and how it can be depleted. Glutathione is
a powerful antioxidant which helps prevent cellular damage by free radicals. With chronic
stress, the stores of glutathione can be diminshed, thereby resulting in cellular damage.
When treating patients with chronic health conditions, it is essential to remove as many
stressors as possible, and to provide gluthione supplementation.
The Biochemical Magic of Raw Milk
and Other Raw Foods - Glutathione
One of the many benefits of raw milk may be its ability to promote the production of a
wonderful little compound called "glutathione" - this tiny compound consists of
just three amino acids, but it is the master antioxidant and detoxifier of the cell.
Intestinal barrier function in
response to abundant or depleted mucosal glutathione in Salmonella-infected rats
Glutathione, the main antioxidant of intestinal epithelial cells, is suggested to play an
important role in gut barrier function and prevention of inflammation-related oxidative
damage as induced by acute bacterial infection. Most studies on intestinal glutathione
focus on oxidative stress reduction without considering functional disease outcome.
Thimerosal exposure of DC led to the depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH), and
addition of exogenous GSH to DC abolished the TH2-promoting effect of Thimerosal-treated
DC, restoring secretion of TNF-, IL-6, and IL-12p70 by DC and IFN- secretion by
The Vital Key to Maximum
Antioxidant Activity is Glutathione
What if you were told you weren`t getting enough cellular oxidation or free radical
protection, despite consuming all the high antioxidant foods and some of the best
antioxidant supplements available? Would you wonder how that could be, or would you simply
ignore it? Don`t ignore it, read on. How it could be, according to many health experts, is
that your glutathione levels are too low. This is a very common situation with all the
oxidation stress our toxic environment provides, along with a little help from our own
The Severity of Autism Is
Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels
Children with higher levels of metals such as lead and antimony in their
urine had more severe autism, suggesting that metal levels in their bodies may contribute
to its seriousness. The severity of a child's autism coincided with the levels of toxic
metals excreted in their urine after treatment with a metals removal therapy, finds a
study published in the Journal of Toxicology. The higher the levels of lead, antimony and
other metals excreted, the more severe was the child's autism. The findings hold true
across four independent tools used to assess autism severity.
L-Glutathione is a tri-peptide formed from
Glutamic acid, Cysteine and Glycine is generally produced in your body. Glutathione with
its a powerful anti-oxidant properties can help against free radicals.
It is the "Cysteine" that plays a central role in the functionality of
Glutathione and the "Thiol Group" is a key to the function.