Nieuws antibiotica


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Blootstelling aan antibiotica op zeer jonge leeftijd verhoogt risico op allergieŽn

Uit onderzoek dat dit jaar werd gepresenteerd op het internationale congres van de European Respiratory Society in Londen, blijkt dat de blootstelling aan antibiotica vroeg in het leven wordt gerelateerd aan een verhoogd risico op het ontwikkelen van allergieŽn later in het leven. Het onderzoek werd uitgevoerd door Dr. Fariba Ahmadizar en collega's van de Universiteit Utrecht.

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Antibiotica bij jonge kinderen geeft hoger risico op voedselallergie

Volgens nieuw onderzoek van de Universiteit van South Carolina kan een behandeling met antibiotica in het eerste levensjaar meer dan ťťn ongewenste infectie uitroeien maar houdt wel het risico in op voedselallergie op latere leeftijd.

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Antibiotica behandelingen in de kindertijd verminderen de diversiteit en de stabiliteit van de darmflora

Het DIABIMMUNE project volgde de ontwikkeling van de 39 Finse baby's vanaf de geboorte tot de leeftijd van drie jaar. De helft van de kinderen kreeg gedurende de onderzoeksperiode 9-15 antibiotica behandelingen, en de andere helft ontving geen van dergelijke behandelingen.

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Antibiotica onder de 2 jaar verhoogt het risico op overgewicht

Terwijl vroeg gebruik van antibiotica reeds in verband gebracht werd met een aantal zeldzame gevolgen voor de gezondheid op lange termijn, toont nieuw onderzoek het verband tussen antibiotica en ťťn van de belangrijkste en groeiende problemen voor de volksgezondheid wereldwijd - obesitas.

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Hoe big pharma het water in India vervuilt met antibiotica


Europese aanpak antibioticaresistentie in zorg en veehouderij

Europese landen gaan met elkaar antibioticaresistentie aanpakken op het terrein van zowel de zorg als de veehouderij. Dit is de uitkomst van een ministeriŽle conferentie die vandaag in Amsterdam is gehouden in het kader van het Nederlandse EU-voorzitterschap.

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BacteriŽn het zwijgen opleggen verhoogt hun gevoeligheid voor antibiotica

UGent-wetenschappers ontwikkelden een nieuwe strategie om infecties veroorzaakt door de zogenaamde ziekenhuisbacterie te behandelen. Dat gebeurt door de manier waarop bacteriŽle cellen met elkaar communiceren, te verstoren.

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Antibiotica maken de weg vrij voor C. diff infecties door bacteriŽn die galzuur wijzigen te doden

Uit nieuw onderzoek van de North Carolina State University en de University of Michigan, blijkt dat galzuren die worden gewijzigd door bacteriŽn die normaal in de dikke darm voorkomen, de groei van Clostridium Difficile, ofwel C. diff, kunnen remmen. C. diff is een schadelijke bacterie die pijnlijke en soms dodelijke infecties kan veroorzaken.

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Aanpak antibioticaresistentie prioriteit Nederland ťn VS

Het Witte Huis lanceerde gisteren het actieplan van de regering Obama om multiresistente tuberculose (MDR-tbc) 1 nationaal en wereldwijd aan te pakken. Met dit plan geeft de VS prioriteit aan de aanpak van MDR-tbc als onderdeel haar bredere agenda om de dreiging van antibioticaresistentie voor mondiale volksgezondheid tegen te gaan.

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Antibioticagebruik bij dieren moet verder omlaag

Uit bezorgdheid over resistentieontwikkeling is de afgelopen jaren het totale veterinaire gebruik van antibiotica fors teruggedrongen. Inmiddels is die daling echter aan het afvlakken en doet zich in de pluimveesector zelfs weer een stijging voor.

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Hoe antibiotica infecties kunnen verergeren door resistente bacteriŽn

In de afgelopen decennia, is methicilline-resistente Staphylococcus aureus of MRSA, geŽvolueerd van een beheersbare overlast tot een ernstig probleem voor de volksgezondheid. Een pre-klinische studie, gepubliceerd op 11 november in Cell Host & Microbe onthult nu dat de behandeling met de eerste lijn antibiotica daadwerkelijk MRSA huidinfecties erger kan maken, ironisch genoeg door het activeren van het lichaamseigen pathogeen-afweersysteem.

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Er moet iets gebeuren mbt antibiotica misbruik


Onderzoek vindt dat veenbessen effectief zijn om het gebruik van antibiotica te verminderen

Global experts van de ĎInternational Conference on Polyphenols and Healthí onderzochten hoe veenbessen het gebruik van antibiotica kunnen beperken en de gezondheid van het hele lichaam kunnen ondersteunen. Een internationaal team van wetenschappers presenteerde nieuw bewijs over het vermogen van veenbessen om de resistentie tegen antibiotica en oxidatieve stress te verminderen.

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Verband tussen antibiotica en diabetes type 2

Volgens een nieuwe studie gepubliceerd in het Endocrine Society Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, hadden mensen met diabetes type 2 voordien de neiging om meer antibiotica te nemen dan anderen.

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Blootstelling aan antibiotica zou de kans op jeugdartritis kunnen vergroten

De bevindingen zouden aanleiding kunnen geven tot prudent voorschrijven van antibiotica aan kinderen. Antibioticagebruik kan leiden tot vermeerderd risico van jeugdartritis, volgens een studie van de Rutgers University, University of Pennsylvania en het Nemours A.I. du Pont Hostital for Children die gepubliceerd is in het tijdschrift Pediatrics.

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Antibiotica verhogen risico op gehoorverlies bij patiŽnten met dodelijke bacteriŽle infecties

Oregon Health and science university: Op zoek naar een manier om het tij te keren van permanent gehoorverlies door het gebruik van levensreddende antibiotica, hebben onderzoekers van de Oregon Health & Science Universiteit ontdekt dat patiŽnten die gevaarlijke bacteriŽle infecties hebben een groter risico lopen op gehoorverlies dan eerder aangenomen.

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Antibiotica gebruik kinderen in verband gebracht met ziektes op volwassen leeftijd

Een nieuwe studie, geleid door onderzoekers van de universiteit van Minnesota, heeft een drie-richtingsverband ontdekt bij antibioticagebruik door kinderen, veranderingen in de darmflora, en ziektes in hun latere leven. De onbalans in darmmicroben, dysbiose genaamd, werd gekoppeld aan infectieziektes, allergiŽn en andere autoimmuun aandoeningen, zelfs obesitas, op latere leeftijd.

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Diarree en candidiasis worden in verband gebracht met gewone antibiotica, amoxicilline

Diarree en candidiasis kunnen het gevolg zijn van inname van gewone antibiotica, amoxicilline en amoxicilline-clavulaanzuur, alhoewel nadelen niet altijd gerapporteerd worden, dit volgens een studie die gepubliceerd is in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). Amoxicilline is de meest voorgeschreven antibiotica, door huisartsen, bij luchtweginfecties en wordt vaak voorgeschreven in combinatie met clavulaanzuur. De voordelen van antibiotica voor luchtweginfecties zijn echter vaak gering dus is het belangrijk voor artsen en patiŽnten om de voor- en nadelen van het nemen van dergelijke medicijnen af te wegen. Omdat antibioticaresistentie nu algemeen is, is het bijzonder belangrijk om antibiotica verstandig te gebruiken.

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Het nemen van antibiotica tijdens de zwangerschap verhoogt het risico op een zwaarlijvig kind

Ook keizersnede is een riscico op obesitas. Uit een studie net uitgebracht door Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health blijkt dat kinderen die werden blootgesteld aan antibiotica in het tweede of derde trimester van de zwangerschap een hoger risico hadden op overgewicht op de leeftijd van 7 jaar. Het onderzoek toonde ook aan dat keizersnede eveneens een hoger risico gaf op obesitas bij kinderen. De bevindingen van de studie zijn online gepubliceerd in het International Journal of Obesity.

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BacteriŽn van bijen een alternatief voor antibiotica

Ruwe honing wordt al millenia lang gebruikt tegen infecties, vůůr honing - zoals wij die nu kennen - werd vervaardigd en gecommercialiseerd. Wat is de sleutel van deze 'antimicrobiŽle eigenschappen? Onderzoekers van de Universiteit van Lund in Zweden hebben een unieke groep van 13 melkzuurbacteriŽn gevonden in verse honing, uit de honingmaag van de bijen. De bacteriŽn produceren een groot aantal werkzame antimicrobiŽle verbindingen. Deze melkzuurbacteriŽn zijn nu getest op ernstige menselijke wondpathogenen zoals methicilline-resistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa en vancomycine-resistente Enterococcus (VRE). Als de melkzuurbacteriŽn werden aangebracht op pathogenen in het laboratorium werden ze allemaal bestreden.

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Antibiotica in het begin van het leven kan de immuniteit op lange termijn veranderen

Uit nieuw onderzoek van de Universiteit van Brits-Columbia blijkt dat antibiotica behandelingen die vroeg in het leven gegeven worden, de vatbaarheid voor bepaalde ziekten op latere leeftijd kunnen verhogen. De meeste bacteriŽn die in de darm leven, spelen een positieve rol bij het bevorderen van een gezond immuunsysteem, maar antibiotica maken vaak geen onderscheid tussen goede en slechte bacteriŽn. De vandaag gepubliceerde studie in het Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology helpt wetenschappers om te begrijpen hoe verschillende antibiotica de goede bacteriŽn beÔnvloeden.

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Vroege blootstelling aan antibiotica leidt tot levenslange metabole stoornissen bij muizen

Een nieuwe studie gepubliceerd in Cell laat zien dat het gebruik van antibiotica in de vroege ontwikkeling het bacteriŽle landschap van de darm verstoort, de thuisbasis van triljoenen verschillende microben die permanent het metabolisme van het lichaam herprogrammeren, en aanleg aankweekt voor obesitas. Bovendien blijkt uit het onderzoek dat het de veranderde darmbacteriŽn, en niet de antibiotica, zijn die de metabole effecten sturen. Uit deze nieuwe studie door NYU Langone Medical Center onderzoekers blijkt dat muizen die levenslang lage doses van penicilline toegediend kregen vanaf de laatste week van de zwangerschap of borstvoeding meer kans op obesitas en metabole afwijkingen hadden dan muizen die op latere leeftijd waren blootgesteld aan de antibiotica.

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Onderzoeker zegt dat uitgebreid gebruik van antibiotica in de landbouw leidt tot een crisis in de volksgezondheid

Aidan Hollis van de Universiteit van Calgary 's Aidan Hollis pleit voor de invoer van taksen op niet-menselijke antibiotica gebruik.

Wijzend op het overvloedig gebruik van antibiotica in de landbouw en de aquacultuur en de groeÔende bedreiging voor de volksgezondheid, heeft hoogleraar economie Aidan Hollis voorgesteld een taks in te voeren op niet-menselijke antibiotica.

In een onlangs vrijgegeven document gepubliceerd in de 'New England Journal of Medicine', stellen Hollis en medeauteur Ziana Ahmed dat in de Verenigde Staten 80 procent van de antibiotica in het land wordt toegepast in de landbouw en de aquacultuur met het doel op een toenemende voedselproductie.

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Verband tussen blootstelling aan antibiotica en de hevigheid van allergische astma: UBC research

Volgens een studie van de Universiteit van Brits Columbia (UBC) kan het gebruik op grote schaal van antibiotica vůůrkomen en hevigheid van allergische astma op jonge leeftijd doen toenemen.

De studie, die vandaag verschijnt in de publicatie ďEMBO reportsĒ, toont aan dat bepaalde antibiotica die darmbacteriŽn beÔnvloeden ook een diepe invloed hadden op allergische astma.

ďWe vermoedden al lang dat kinderen die aan meer antibiotica blootstaan Ė zoals die in de geÔndustrialiseerde landen Ė vatbaarder zijn voor allergische astma,Ēzegt de schrijver van het onderzoek, UBC microbioloog Brett Finlay. ďOns onderzoek is het eerste experimentele bewijs dat de manier waarop aantoont.Ē

Finlay's team van de afdeling microbiologie en immunologie van de UBC en Michal Smith Laboratories onderzochten hoe twee op grote schaal gebruikte antibiotica Ė streptomycine en vancomycine Ė het bacteriŽle ďecosysteemĒ en de darmen beÔnvloedden. Zij ontdekten dat vancomycine in hoge mate de bacteriŽle samenlevingsvormen in de darm verandert en de ernst van astma bij proefmuizen doet toenemen.

Dezelfde antibiotica hebben geen invloed op de vatbaarheid van volwassen muizen voor astma, waarmee aangetoond word dat de vroege jeugdjaren een kritieke periode zijn voor het leggen van de basis voor een gezond immuunsysteem.

Allergische astma beÔnvloedt wereldwijd meer dan 100 miljoen mensen en de aanwezigheid stijgt gemiddeld met 50 procent iedere 10 jaar, vooral onder kinderen in geÔndustrialiseerde landen. Volgens de Canadese Asthma Society beÔnvloedt astma minstens 12 procent van de Canadese kinderen.

De menselijk darm wordt bewoond door ongeveer 100 biljoen bacteriŽn en bevat ruim 1000 bacteriesoorten. Hoewel de manier waarop niet helemaal begrepen wordt, vervullen deze micro-organismen, bekend als ďdarmfloraĒ een grote hoeveelheid nuttige functie, zegt Finlay.

ďGewoonten inherent aan onze moderne maatschappij, zoals methoden ter verbetering van de gezondheid en het gebruik op grote schaal van antibiotica veroorzaken het verdwijnen van vroegere darmbacteriesoorten die onmisbaar waren voor een gezond immuunsysteem,Ēzegt Finlay.

ďOns onderzoek toont aan dat dit het geval is met bepaalde antibiotica en allergische astma, en de darm-long connectie komt ook overeen met observaties dat de aanwezigheid van astma niet aanzienlijk is toegenomen in ontwikkelingslanden waar het antibioticagebruik minder wijdverbreid is Ė en als gevolg, de darmflora de kans krijgt zich volledig te ontwikkelen.Ē

De studie wordt gefinancierd door de ďCanadian Institutes of Healt ResearchĒ (CIHR) d.m.v. het ďCanadian Microbiome InitiativeĒ, in samenwerking met Genome BC en het ďAllergy, Genes and Environment NetworkĒ (AllerGen NCE).

Marc Ouellette, Wetenschappelijk Directeur van het ďCIHR's Institute of Infection and ImmunityĒ, becommentariseerde het belang van de resultaten van het team: ďHet is bekend dat microben een belangrijke rol spelen in de gezondheid van de mens Ė en we ontdekken dat het verstoren van deze ďbugsĒ verband houdt met een aantal chronische gezondheidsproblemen. De belangrijke resultaten van Prof. Finlays team, die bevestigen dat door het geven van antibiotica aan jonge kinderen hun normale darmflora verstoord wordt, moeten serieus genomen worden.

Vertaling Dieuwke


FSU onderzoek naar hoe bacteriŽn resistent kunnen worden tegen antibiotica

Een onderzoek van twee biochemici aan de Florida State University heeft een belangrijke bijdrage geleverd aan wetenschappelijk inzicht in een ernstig probleem dat de hele wereld zorgen baart: de groeiende resistentie van sommige schadelijke bacteriŽn tegen het middel dat is bedoeld om deze bacteriŽn te doden.

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Annelies


Radio - Wereld slaat handen ineen tegen antibioticaresistentie

We worden met zijn allen steeds resistenter voor antibiotica. Dat betekent dat infecties niet altijd meer te behandelen zijn. In het Zweedse Uppsala zijn daarom wetenschappers, artsen, top-researchers van de farmaceutische industrie en hoge ambtenaren uit de hele wereld bijeen om daar een oplossing voor te zoeken.

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Chemical Conversations: How Bacteria Talk to Each Other

Scientists have discovered that bacteria - primitive, single-celled organisms - communicate using chemical languages to synchronize their behavior and act in unison as enormous multi-cellular organisms. This process, called quorum sensing, enables bacteria to infect and cause disease in humans. It's an exciting story with fantastic implications. Studies on how to interfere with this chemical communication are leading to the development of new antibiotics to combat infectious bacterial diseases. Bonnie Bassler, Ph.D., (NAS), is a Professor in the Department of Molecular Biology and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator at Princeton University. A 2002 MacArthur Foundation Fellow, she has been profiled on National Public Radio, NOVA's ScienceNOW, the journal Nature, and Wired magazine.


Antibiotica vrijwel geheel onbruikbaar geworden

Het tijdschrift Lancet Infectious Diseases publiceerde onlangs een verhelderend artikel over hoe antibiotica over de gehele linie steeds minder effectief worden als behandeling voor een infectie. Volgens het rapport zijn zelfs de meest krachtige antibiotica grotendeels inadequaat bij het bestrijden van nieuwe vormen van de zogenaamde superbacteriŽn.

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Geert


Taboe op mengen antibiotica en veevoer

De diervoerindustrie wil versneld, over een jaar in plaats van in 2012, een einde maken aan het al op de fabriek mengen van antibiotica en veevoer. „Er is haast en dat besef is gegroeid door druk van de humane gezondheidszorg en aandacht voor resistentie in de maatschappij en de media”, zegt directeur Henk Flipsen van de Nederlandse Vereniging Diervoederindustrie.

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Vee verslaafd aan antibiotica

Kritische dierenartsen schamen zich voor hun collega’s. Kippen en varkens krijgen te veel antibiotica en dat is een gevaar voor de volksgezondheid. Pogingen om het gebruik terug te dringen verlopen in hun ogen te traag, omdat veel veeartsen en boeren grote economische belangen hebben bij het grootverbruik van antibiotica.

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Radio - Antibiotica zorgt voor chronische diaree bij biggen

In het afgelopen jaar is duidelijk geworden dat het massale antibioticagebruik in de veehouderij tot grote problemen leidt. Toch heeft het lang geduurd voor dat besef doordrong in de branche.

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Phthalate (esters van phtalic zuur) en antibioticum peil schiet omlaag na 5-daags vegetarisch dieet

Mensen die slechts 5 dagen een vegetarisch dieet volgen hebben gereduceerde niveaus van toxische chemicaliŽn in hun lichaam. Vooral de niveaus van chemicaliŽn die de werking van hormonen verstoren en antibiotica die gebruikt worden voor vee, waren lager na het 5-daagse vegetarische programma. Het proefonderzoek wijst erop dat mensen zelf hun blootstelling aan mogelijk gevaarlijke chemicaliŽn kunnen verminderen door bepaalde keuzes te maken in de voeding, zoals beperking van dierlijke producten als vlees en zuivel.

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Vertaling: Inge Hendriks; http://www.leeffit.nl


Bio bewijst dat antibioticagebruik kan beperkt worden

Volgens BioForum bewijst de biologische pluimveehouderij dat het houden van pluimvee ook kan zonder de veelvuldige toediening van antibiotica. "De biologische veehouderij mag bij wet geen antibiotica preventief gebruiken. Dat lossen wij op door met zorg rassen te kiezen die robuust zijn, die trager groeien en het pluimvee een goede huisvesting met voldoende daglicht in ruime stallen te geven" klinkt het in een persbericht.

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Maaike


Ook bodem resistent tegen antibiotica

Niet alleen in stallen en in vlees, maar ook in de Nederlandse bodem leven steeds meer bacteriŽn die resistent zijn tegen antibiotica. Dat blijkt uit onderzoek van Britse en Nederlandse wetenschappers.

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Maaike


Antibioticagebruik in veehouderijen moet omlaag


Rapport Berenschot ondersteunt plan dierenartsen

Onderzoeksbureau Berenschot heeft in opdracht van het ministerie van LNV onderzocht of het antibioticumgebruik in de dierhouderij omlaag zal gaan als de dierenarts die diergeneesmiddelen voorschrijft, deze niet zelf mag leveren. De dierenartsen zijn tevreden met de conclusies van het onderzoek. Het rapport ondersteunt de visie van de dierenartsen dat een dergelijk verbod onvoldoende effect zal hebben en dat andere maatregelen noodzakelijk zullen zijn.

Ook ondersteunt het rapport het plan van de KNMvD, de koepel van dierenartsen, voor een Veterinaire Diergeneesmiddelen Autoriteit (VDA) die als onafhankelijk toezichthouder de gegevens over antibioticagebruik in Nederland analyseert, beoordeelt en die in het uiterste geval straffen kan opleggen.

Voorzitter prof. dr. Ludo Hellebrekers van de KNMvD: "Het gaat om registratie en toezicht en dat is de kern van het reeds in gang gezette plan van aanpak van de KNMvD. Ons plan komt uit de bus als een kansrijke oplossingsrichting, zeker als je bedenkt dat het merendeel van praktijken die de intensieve veehouderijsector begeleiden al het traject is ingegaan om diergeneesmiddelenstromen centraal te registreren."

De dierenartsen zijn ervan overtuigd dat het gebruik van antibiotica verminderd dient te worden om zo antibioticaresistentie tegen te gaan. Doordat bacteriŽn resistent worden tegen antibiotica dreigen er grote risico's voor de gezondheid van mensen en dieren. De inzet van antibiotica moet daarom zorgvuldig, selectief en correct gebeuren en de dierenartsen nemen hierin hun verantwoordelijkheid.

Een relatief klein deel van de dierenartsen is verantwoordelijk voor een groot deel van het antibioticumgebruik. Berenschot betwijfelt dan ook of een verbod voor alle dierenartsen zou moeten gelden.


Antibioticagebruik groeit gestaag

Het gebruik van antibiotica in Nederland vertoont sinds 2005 een opwaartse lijn. Grootste stijger in het afgelopen jaar is nitrofurantoÔne tegen urineweginfecties. Het gebruik van moxifloxacine is met 45% afgenomen nadat begin 2008 veiligheidsrisico's zijn geconstateerd.

Van oudsher ligt het antibioticagebruik in Nederland op een laag niveau in vergelijking met andere Europese landen. Antibiotica worden geacht behoudend te worden voorgeschreven, omdat bij overmatig gebruik de kans op resistentie toeneemt. Het gebruik van de door de openbaar apothekers verstrekte antibiotica lag tot 2005 steeds onder de tien standaarddagdoseringen (DDD's) per duizend inwoners per dag. Vanaf 2005 is het gebruik telkens licht verder gestegen tot 11,2 DDD per duizend inwoners per dag in 2009.

Gematigde groei
Het afgelopen jaar verstrekten openbare apotheken 7,1 miljoen keer een antibioticum voor systemisch gebruik, 2% meer dan het jaar daarvoor. In de periode 2000 tot 2005 nam het gebruik van antibiotica ieder jaar een beetje af. In 2005 steeg het aantal verstrekkingen met 6,6%. Deze stijging is niet toe te schrijven aan een specifieke groep antibiotica. Met uitzondering van de groep sulfonamiden en trimethoprim nam het aantal voorschriften van antibiotica over de hele linie destijds sterk toe. Vanaf 2006 temperde de groei in antibioticagebruik weer en sindsdien stijgt het aantal verstrekkingen jaarlijks met zo'n 2%.

Antibiotica zijn in te delen in een aantal groepen met een overeenkomstige chemische structuur en werkingsmechanisme. BacteriŽn die resistent zijn tegen ťťn antibioticum in een bepaalde groep zijn meestal ook ongevoelig voor de andere antibiotica in dezelfde groep. Penicillines, tetracyclines en macroliden worden vooral gebruikt bij bacteriŽle infecties van de luchtwegen. Trimethoprim en nitrofurantoÔne zijn de meest gebruikte middelen voor de behandeling van urineweginfecties. Chinolonen kunnen worden toegepast bij diverse bacteriŽle infecties. NitrofurantoÔne (957.000 voorschriften in 2009) is absoluut de hardste stijger, met 13% meer voorschriften dan in 2008. Binnen de macroliden (912.000 voorschriften) neemt het gebruik van azitromycine gestaag toe. Dit gaat ten koste van claritromycine, dat tot 2007 het meest afgeleverde geneesmiddel binnen de groep macroliden was. Afgelopen jaar zijn azitromycine en claritromycine 442.000 respectievelijk 334.000 keer verstrekt.

Ook het gebruik van chinolonen (584.000 voorschriften) neemt al jaren toe. Chinolonen worden beschouwd als 'reserve' antibiotica. Om resistentieontwikkeling te voorkomen is het de bedoeling om ze alleen te gebruiken als andere antibiotica onvoldoende soelaas bieden. Het meest verstrekte middel binnen deze groep, ciprofloxacine (336.000 voorschriften), stijgt al jaren bovengemiddeld. De Stichting Werkgroep Antibiotica Beleid (SWAB) meldt dat gelet op de verder toenemende resistentie voor ciprofloxacine, hierbij sprake is van een zorgwekkende ontwikkeling.

Moxifloxacine onder vuur
Het meest recent geÔntroduceerde geneesmiddel binnen de groep chinolonen is moxifloxacine (Avelox) van Bayer. Nederlandse openbare apotheken leveren dit middel sinds 2003 af. Vanaf de introductie is het gebruik van moxifloxacine sterk gestegen, ten koste van norfloxacine, levofloxacine en ofloxacine. Begin 2008 is moxifloxacine echter in opspraak geraakt. Toen werd bekend dat patiŽnten die dit antibioticum gebruiken, risico lopen op dodelijke bijwerkingen. Wereldwijd is bij dertien patiŽnten een verband gevonden tussen hun overlijden en het gebruik van moxifloxacine. Dit was aanleiding voor Bayer om na overleg met de Europese geneesmiddelenautoriteiten medische beroepsbeoefenaren informatie toe te sturen over ernstige reacties op moxifloxacine en veiligheidsmaatregelen betreffende het middel. Sinds het alarm over moxifloxacine is het gebruik van het middel bijna gehalveerd, van 42.000 voorschriften in 2007 tot 23.000 voorschriften in 2008. Sindsdien is het aantal verstrekkingen op dit niveau blijven liggen.


Preventieve antibiotica voorkomen geen infectie met Pseudomonas

Behandeling met preventieve antibiotica bij kinderen met taaislijmziekte voorkomt geen infecties met Pseudomonas-bacterien. Dat concludeert Gerdien Tramper-Stranders in haar proefschrift. Chronische longinfecties met de Pseudomonas-bacterie zijn erg ongunstig voor patienten met taaislijmziekte. Tramper-Stranders onderzocht 65 kinderen met taaislijmziekte zonder Pseudomonas-infectie. De helft kreeg gedurende 3 jaar regelmatig preventieve antibiotica, de andere helft een placebo. Na afloop van deze periode bleek dat de preventieve antibiotica een infectie niet kon voorkomen.

Doordat chronische longinfecties met de Pseudomonas-bacterie erg ongunstig voor patienten met taaislijmziekte zijn, is het van belang om meer over de eigenschappen van deze Pseudomonas-bacterie te weten te komen. Het promotieonderzoek van Gerdien Tramper-Stranders wees uit dat de Pseudomonas-bacterien die bij veel taaislijmziektepatienten werden gevonden opvallende gelijkenis hadden (een zogenaamde kloon); dit was niet het geval bij bacterien van kinderen met Pseudomonas-infecties zonder taaislijmziekte.

Een eerste Pseudomonas-infectie bij patienten met taaislijmziekte wordt intensief met antibiotica behandeld maar dit is niet altijd succesvol. Uit het onderzoek van Tramper-Stranders bleek het helaas onmogelijk om aan de hand van bacteriele eigenschappen te bepalen welke Pseudomonas-bacterien succesvol behandeld konden worden. Het voorkomen van infectie zou daarom nog beter zijn. Dit werd onderzocht bij 65 kinderen met taaislijmziekte zonder Pseudomonas-infectie. De helft kreeg gedurende 3 jaar regelmatig preventieve antibiotica, de andere helft een placebo. Wat bleek: de preventieve antibiotica konden een infectie niet voorkomen.

Wanneer een chronische Pseudomonas-infectie optreedt, wordt vaak behandeld met het antibioticum azithromycine. Dit antibioticum doodt de Pseudomonas-bacterie niet, maar remt de uitscheiding van kwalijke stoffen door de bacterie. Dit onderzoek wees uit dat langdurige behandeling met azithromycine de longfunctie tijdelijk verbetert. Echter, een andere veroorzaker van longinfecties bij taaislijmziektepatienten, de Staphylococ-bacterie, werd snel resistent voor het antibioticum. Een mogelijk vervelend gevolg voor gezinsleden van patienten, omdat deze Staphylococ-bacterien van patienten naar overige gezinsleden worden overgedragen en soms veroorzaker kunnen zijn van huid- of wondinfecties. Gelukkig bleek de overdracht van deze resistente bacterien niet voor te komen. Een groter risico tot deze ongewenste resistentie bleek het gebruik van antibiotica door het gezinslid zelf.

Universiteit Utrecht


Antibiotics and Food Supply

More than 80 years after the discovery of penicillin, Katie Couric previews an upcoming CBS News investigation on antibiotics in factory farming and the effect on future resistance in humans.


Steeds meer bodemorganismen resistent

Steeds meer organismen die in de bodem leven, raken resistent tegen antibiotica.

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DvH


Weerstand tegen antibiotica kan nadeel zijn voor bacteria

Neisseria meningitidis (de meningokok) is een bacterie die ziektes met een hoge kans op sterfte kan veroorzaken en er is daarom aanzienlijke bezorgdheid geweest dat deze (net als andere bacteria) resistent zou kunnen worden tegen antibiotica. Maar nu heeft een studie aan de Rebro Universiteit en het Rebro Universiteitsziekenhuis in Zweden aangetoond dat er geen toename van restistente meningokokken is geweest in de laatste vijftien jaar Volgens onderzoekster Sara Thulin Hedberg, zou de reden hiervoor kunnen zijn dat het niet per se voordelig voor bacteria hoeft te zijn om restistentie te
ontwikkelen. Meningokokken zijn meestasl onschadelijke bacteria, en ťťn op de tien mensen draagt hem bij zich in de keel of in de luchtwegen zonder het te weten. Maar ze kunnen ook in het bloed terechtkomen en door de bloed-hersenbarriŽre heen gaan and bloedvergiftiging of hersenvliesontsteking veroorzaken, en dan stijgt de kans op sterfte naar zo'n tien procent.

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Vertaling: Keimpe Wiersma


Changing Flora: Antibiotics in the Neonatal Patient


Getting Antibiotics Out of Ethanol


Clindamycin can trigger dangerous diarrhea

The antibiotic can allow a bad bacteria to flourish in the intestines and the condition could be lethal if left untreated.

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Got Antibiotics in Your Food? Thank the FDA

Researchers at the University of Minnesota found antibiotic residues in corn, potatoes, green onions, cabbage and lettuce after only six weeks of greenhouse propagation with manure from treated livestock says Environmental Health Service--much less time than the typical growing season.

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Did Diet Politics Corrupt World Cancer Research Fund Recommendations?

Antibiotics are so widely used by Americans that scientists have begun to find the products in waterways, raising concerns about whether the medications are reaching drinking supplies.

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UR reports findings on antibiotics and tooth extraction

Researchers at the University of Rochester's Eastman Dental Center have concluded that patients who take antibiotics before having wisdom teeth extracted rather than afterward are less likely to have infections as complications.

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Study shows crops absorb antibiotics from livestock

Environmentalists and health-conscious consumers are always voicing their worries about antibiotics in meat and milk. But now these folks have even more reason to be concerned - A new study shows that antibiotics can also show up in crops like corn, lettuce, potatoes and onions.

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Feds playing chicken with Canadians' health

Antibiotics injected into poultry and eggs to reduce the spread of infection may be making people less susceptible to important antibiotic treatment, says the Public Health Agency of Canada.

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Antibiotics Take Toll on Beneficial Microbes in Gut

It’s common knowledge that a protective navy of bacteria normally floats in our intestinal tracts. Antibiotics at least temporarily disturb the normal balance. But it’s unclear which antibiotics are the most disruptive, and if the full array of “good bacteria” return promptly or remain altered for some time. In studies in mice, University of Michigan scientists have shown for the first time that two different types of antibiotics can cause moderate to wide-ranging changes in the ranks of these helpful guardians in the gut. In the case of one of the antibiotics, the armada of “good bacteria” did not recover its former diversity even many weeks after a course of antibiotics was over. The findings could eventually lead to better choices of antibiotics to minimize side effects of diarrhea, especially in vulnerable patients. They could also aid in understanding and treating inflammatory bowel disease, which affects an estimated 500,000 to 1 million Americans, and Clostridium difficile, a growing and serious infection problem for hospitals. Normally, a set of thousands of different kinds of microbes lives in the gut – a distinctive mix for each person, and thought to be passed on from mother to baby. The microbes, including many different bacteria, aid digestion and nutrition, appear to help maintain a healthy immune system, and keep order when harmful microbes invade. “Biodiversity is a well-known concept in the health of the world’s continents and oceans. Diversity is probably important in the gut microsystem as well,” says Vincent B. Young, M.D., Ph.D., senior author of the study, which appears in the June issue of Infection and Immunity. The study results suggest that unless medical research discovers how to protect or revitalize the gut microbial community, “we may be doing long-term damage to our close friends,” says Young, assistant professor in the departments of internal medicine and microbiology and immunology at the U-M Medical School.

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Antibiotics take toll on beneficial microbes in gut

It’s common knowledge that a protective navy of bacteria normally floats in our intestinal tracts. Antibiotics at least temporarily disturb the normal balance. But it’s unclear which antibiotics are the most disruptive, and if the full array of “good bacteria” return promptly or remain altered for some time. In studies in mice, University of Michigan scientists have shown for the first time that two different types of antibiotics can cause moderate to wide-ranging changes in the ranks of these helpful guardians in the gut. In the case of one of the antibiotics, the armada of “good bacteria” did not recover its former diversity even many weeks after a course of antibiotics was over.

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Einstein Researchers Develop Novel Antibiotics That Don't Trigger Resistance

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is one of medicine's most vexing challenges. In a study described in Nature Chemical Biology, researchers from Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University are developing a new generation of antibiotic compounds that do not provoke bacterial resistance. The compounds work against two notorious microbes: Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera; and E. coli 0157:H7, the food contaminant that each year in the U.S. causes approximately 110,000 illnesses and 50 deaths. Most antibiotics initially work extremely well, killing more than 99.9% of microbes they target. But through mutation and the selection pressure exerted by the antibiotic, a few bacterial cells inevitably manage to survive, repopulate the bacterial community, and flourish as antibiotic-resistant strains.Vern L. Schramm, Ph.D., professor and Ruth Merns Chair of Biochemistry at Einstein and senior author of the paper, hypothesized that antibiotics that could reduce the infective functions of bacteria, but not kill them, would minimize the risk that resistance would later develop. Dr. Schramm's collaborators at Industrial Research Ltd. earlier reported transition state analogues of an enzyme that interferes with "quorum sensing" — the process by which bacteria communicate with each other by producing and detecting signaling molecules known as autoinducers. These autoinducers coordinate bacterial gene expression and regulate processes — including virulence — that benefit the microbial community. Previous studies had shown that bacterial strains defective in quorum sensing cause less-serious infections.

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Study aims to cut antibiotics use

The Cardiff University study aims to reduce the rate of resistance to the infection-fighting drugs by helping GPs reappraise their use of them.

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Studying The Effects That Livestock Antibiotics Have On Water And Soil?

To keep them healthy, farm animals such as cattle, pigs, and even farmed fish are usually fed agricultural antibiotics. These can be excreted in the animal’s faeces and, after time, and wash into water courses, which can cause environmental problems.

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Early Antibiotic Use Linked to Asthma

Nasal allergies, family history, frequent respiratory infections and exposure to tobacco smoke (pre- or postnatal) are risk factors - as is antibiotic use during the first year of life, according to a recent study published in the March issue of the peer-reviewed medical journal Pediatrics.

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Doctors are prescribing antibiotics too often

About 40 per cent of the time that my children or I have seen a doctor, we have left with a prescription for antibiotics. Antibiotics may be wonderful, life-saving tools, but their overuse is dangerous.

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Honey more effective than antibiotics

In the first study of its kind University of Sydney researchers have found proof that some honeys can be more effective than antibiotics in treating surface wounds and infections.

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Spreading antibiotics in the soil affects microbial ecosystems

Antibiotics used extensively in intensive livestock production may be having an adverse effect on agricultural soil ecosystems. In a presentation to the Society for General Microbiology meeting at Harrogate International Centre, today (Monday 30 March), Dr Heike Schmitt from the University of Utrecht, the Netherlands described how antibiotics passed from the animals in manure that was then spread on farmland. Although higher organisms, such as earthworms, would only be affected at unrealistic concentrations of antibiotics, changes in soil bacterial communities have been found repeatedly using molecular microbiological techniques. Bacteria involved in the nitrogen cycle, which replenishes nutrients in the soil, seem to be particularly affected. The effects persisted over several weeks and were still seen even when the antibiotics had broken down significantly. In addition the microbial population of the soil changed as fungi replaced the bacteria suppressed by the antibiotics. "The antibiotic concentrations that to date have been found in agricultural soils are smaller than the concentrations at which the adverse effects start occurring", said Dr Schmitt, "However, this might not be the case for 'hot spots", for example, when manure is not mixed thoroughly in the soil."

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Antibiotic 'cerebral palsy link'

A study has linked a small number of cases of cerebral palsy to antibiotics given to women in premature labour.

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Researchers Examine Animal Antibiotic Resistance, Possible Human Link

Kansas State University researchers are investigating some pathogens in the animal food supply that become resistant to antimicrobials used to fight animal disease, and whether that might lead to more human resistance to the benefits of antibiotics.

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Bacterial 'battle for survival' leads to new antibiotic

MIT biologists have provoked soil-dwelling bacteria into producing a new type of antibiotic by pitting them against another strain of bacteria in a battle for survival.

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Animal Agriculture Boosts Antibiotic Resistance

For years, antibiotic resistance has been a problem in hospitals, where the heavy use of the drugs can breed resistant bacteria, resulting in infections that are difficult—or impossible—to treat.

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How Bacteria Gain Resistance To Multiple Types Of Antibiotics

A team of scientists from the University Paris Descartes has solved the structure of two proteins that allow bacteria to gain resistance to multiple types of antibiotics, according to a report in EMBO reports this month.

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EU urged to raise awareness on antibiotic use

France and Belgium have been held up as models for the rest of the EU to follow in combating resistance to the use of anti-biotics.

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The landscape of antibiotic resistance

The problem of antibiotic resistance is severe enough that many experts believe the value of existing antibiotic therapies over the next 100 years is now uncertain.

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Newly discovered reactions from an old drug may lead to new antibiotics

A mineral found at health food stores could be the key to developing a new line of antibiotics for bacteria that commonly cause diarrhea, tooth decay and, in some severe cases, death. The trace mineral selenium is found in a number of proteins in both bacterial cells and human cells called selenoproteins. University of Central Florida Associate Professor William Self's research shows that interrupting the way selenoproteins are made can halt the growth of the super bug Clostridium difficile and Treponema denticola, a major contributor to gum disease. Infections of Clostridium difficile (commonly known as C-diff) lead to a spectrum of illnesses ranging from severe diarrhea to colitis, which can cause death. It's a life-threatening problem in hospitals and nursing homes worldwide, and the number of cases is on the rise. There are an estimated 500,000 cases per year in the United States alone. Between 15,000 to 20,000 people die each year while infected with this superbug. Treponema denticola is one of leading causes of gum disease and costs individuals thousands of dollars in dental care each year. Self's findings are published in the May and June editions of the Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry and the Journal of Bacteriology. The National Institutes of Health and the Florida Department of Health funded the research, which was conducted at UCF during the past three years. "It's the proof of principle that we are excited about," Self said from his research lab at UCF. "No one has ever tried this approach, and it could potentially be a source for new narrow spectrum antibiotics that block bacteria that require selenium to grow." The key discovery occurred when the team found that the gold drug Auranofin, used to treat arthritis, impacted selenium's metabolism process. The chemical reaction changes the selenium, which prevents bacteria from using it to grow. Auranofin is an FDA-approved gold salt compound that is used to control inflammation and is already known to inhibit the activity of certain selenoproteins. Since certain bacteria, such as C. difficile, require selenoproteins for energy metabolism, the drug acts as a potent antimicrobial halting the growth of the bacteria.

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New viruses to treat bacterial diseases -- 'My enemies' enemy is my friend'

Viruses found in the River Cam in Cambridge, famous as a haunt of students in their punts on long, lazy summer days, could become the next generation of antibiotics

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Penicillin bug genome unravelled

Dutch researchers have decoded the DNA sequence of the fungus which produces penicillin.

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Groundbreaking Discovery May Lead to Stronger Antibiotics

The last decade has seen a dramatic decline in the effectiveness of antibiotics, resulting in a mounting public health crisis across the world. A new breakthrough by University of Virginia researchers provides physicians and patients a potential new approach toward the creation of less resistant and more effective antibiotics. "As bacteria become more resistant to our current classes of antibiotics, there also has been a general lack of new targets for developing novel antibiotics," says John H. Bushweller, Ph.D., who led a new study appearing in the September 26, 2008, issue of Molecular Cell. "This is a dangerous situation, but our discovery provides a starting point for a completely novel class of antibiotics, acting via a different mechanism." What Dr. Bushweller, professor of molecular physiology and biological physics, and fellow researchers at the UVA Health System and Harvard Medical School have determined is the structure of a particular integral membrane enzyme, called DsbB - one of the many proteins that reside in cell membranes. These so-called integral membrane proteins are important, because they account for roughly one-third of any genome in the human body and are the targets of more than half of all currently used drugs.

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Genetic switch potential key to new class of antibiotics

Researchers have determined the structure of a key genetic mechanism at work in bacteria, including some that are deadly to humans, in an important step toward the design of a new class of antibiotics, according to an accelerated publication that appeared online today as a "paper of the week" in the Journal of Biological Chemistry. Information stored in genes is translated or expressed into proteins, the workhorse molecules that make up the body's structures and carry its messages. In the classical view of gene expression, instructions stored in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) chains are copied into messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs). The mRNAs are then transported to ribosomes that pair them with transfer RNAs that contribute amino acids into a protein chain, thereby decoding the gene. In recent years, groundbreaking work has revealed that RNA is much more than a passive middleman, and instead exerts decisive control over expression. Researchers in the Breaker lab at Yale and Nudler lab at NYU reported in 2002 that regulatory mechanisms arising from riboswitches regulate gene expression at the level of the mRNA by changing shape in ways that govern the genetic decoding process. Clarifying the principles of how riboswitches change their spatial organization, which entails binding to a small signaling partner, promises to inform the design of a new class of antibiotics. The current study clarified for the first time the exact structure of nature's smallest known riboswitch, and detailed how its structures control life processes in bacteria. "The work has gained attention because interfering with riboswitches in bacteria known to cause major human infections may provide a new generation of antibiotics at a time when bacteria have become frighteningly capable of resisting current drugs," said Joseph E. Wedekind, Ph.D., associate professor with the Department of. Biochemistry & Biophysics at the University of Rochester Medical Center, and the study's senior author. "Among the bacteria now known to contain riboswitches are E. coli and streptococcus, as well as the bacteria behind forms of anthrax, gonorrhea, meningitis and dysentery. Riboswitches have not yet been found in human cells, and the hope is future riboswitch drugs will kill bacteria without side effects."

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The End of Antibiotics

Eventually antibiotics are going to be seen as one of the worst things to ever come out of pharmaceutical science because in the end, they have made us only weaker in the face of ever increasingly strong super bugs that are resistant to all the antibiotics doctors have at their disposal. When we look at how deep the rabbit hole goes with antibiotics, we will get sick in our souls. Antibiotics have fulfilled their anti–biotic anti-life role leaving a long trail of death and suffering in the wake of their use.

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“Antibiotics Are Not Automatic Anymore”—The French National Campaign To Cut Antibiotic Overuse

In a new study published in this issue of PLoS Medicine, Didier Guillemot and colleagues analyze the impact of a similar campaign in France, which used to be known for the highest rates of antibiotic use and pneumococcal resistance in Europe [8],[9]. In 2001, French policy makers and public health authorities launched a coordinated and multifaceted strategy for the control of antimicrobial resistance. One of the key interventions was a yearly campaign targeting the public via mass media, conveying the message that “Antibiotics Are Not Automatic” (especially for viral respiratory tract infections).

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Antibiotics and alcohol - Should I avoid mixing them?

A few antibiotics — such as metronidazole (Flagyl), tinidazole (Tindamax) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim) — should not be mixed with alcohol because this may result in a more severe reaction. Drinking any amount of alcohol with these medications can result in side effects such as flushing, headache, nausea and vomiting, rapid heart rate, and shortness of breath. Keep in mind that some cold medicines and mouthwashes also contain alcohol. So check the label and avoid such products while taking these antibiotics.

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Using evolution, UW team creates a template for many new therapeutic agents

By guiding an enzyme down a new evolutionary pathway, a team of University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers has created a new form of an enzyme capable of producing a range of potential new therapeutic agents with anti-cancer and antibiotic properties.

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Could Carbon Dioxide Replace Antibiotics in Surgery?

The paper explains that wound infection is a serious surgical complication leading to longer stays in hospital and greater risk of death. Problems include bacterial contamination of the wound, drying of body tissues and heat loss. The authors suggest that a wound could continuously be flooded with carbon dioxide gas (CO2) during surgery. Carbon dioxide could prevent airborne bacteria from reaching the wound and would also suffocate germs. CO2 is already used for this purpose in the food packaging business. Humidified CO2 would also keep the wound warm and moist, which should reduce tissue damage and speed-up healing. The authors have already tested their idea in the laboratory, and the next step should be a proper clinical trial in humans.

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Biological warfare in bacteria offers hope for new antibiotics

Scientists are to study a group of proteins that are highly effective at killing bacteria and which could hold the key to developing new types of antibiotics. Researchers from the Universities of York and Leeds have been awarded £3.3m from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) to find out how a family of proteins known as colicins force their way into bacterial cells before destroying them. The team, led by Professor Colin Kleanthous, from the University of York's Department of Biology, will develop earlier research that suggests colicins use decoys to mimic key parts of the cells' own protein machinery to evade their defences. Professor Kleanthous said: "Colicins are the weapon used in the biological warfare that takes place between competing bacteria. Understanding how this group of proteins work could help scientists develop new drug delivery methods to target the bacteria that cause diseases in people."

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Antibiotics can seriously damage children's hearing

The hearing of certain children can be seriously damaged by antibiotics administered in intensive care units, a study has claimed.

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Alternative methods proposed to detect pesticides and antibiotics in water and natural food

Research by the department of analytical chemistry at the UGR has developed new systems to achieve sensitive detection of pesticide and antibiotic residues in water, vegetables, milk and meat using innovative techniques. Presence of antibiotics in foods of animal origin or fresh water can cause bacterial resistance or allergic reactions, as well as industrial problems in fermentation processes.

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Time to end the abuse of antibiotics in industrial animal production

According to the Union of Concerned Scientists perhaps as much as 70% of all antibiotics sold in the U.S. is given to cattle, swine, and poultry on industrial animal farms for reasons other than disease.

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Antibiotics overprescribed by GPs

GPs are unnecessarily giving patients antibiotics for respiratory tract infections which would clear up on their own. Doctors tend to overemphasise symptoms such as white spots in the throat, rather than looking at factors such as old age and comorbidity, which would affect a patient's recovery, according to an article published in the online open access journal, BMC Family Practice.

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New antibiotics could come from a DNA binding compound that kills bacteria in 2 minutes

A synthetic DNA binding compound has proved surprisingly effective at binding to the DNA of bacteria and killing all the bacteria it touched within two minutes. The DNA binding properties of the compound were first discovered in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Warwick by Professor Mike Hannon and Professor Alison Rodger (Professor Mike Hannon is now at the University of Birmingham). However the strength of its antibiotic powers have now made it a compound of high interest for University of Warwick researchers working on the development of novel antibiotics.Dr Adair Richards from the University of Warwick said ; "This research will assist the design of new compounds that can attack bacteria in a highly effective way which gets around the methods bacteria have developed to resist our current antibacterial drugs. As this antibiotic compound operates by targeting DNA, it should avoid all current resistance mechanisms of multi-resistant bacteria such as MRSA." The compound [Fe2L3]4+ is an iron triple helicate with three organic strands wrapped around two iron centres to give a helix which looks cylindrical in shape and neatly fits within the major groove of a DNA helix. It is about the same size as the parts of a protein that recognise and bind with particular sequences of DNA. The high positive charge of the compound enhances its ability to bind to DNA which is negatively charged.

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From Farm to Pharma - How Animals Ended Up Living in Confined Feedlots Guzzling Antibiotics

So maybe "organic" yogurt is now on Wal-Mart's shelves, but that doesn't mean outdated, inhumane practices like factory farming will not persist. They'll just call it something else. It's a common thing, historically -- big business trying to blind the masses with our own beacons.

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Study shows how antibiotic sets up road block to kill bacteria

Scientists have taken a critical step toward the development of new and more effective antibacterial drugs by identifying exactly how a specific antibiotic sets up a road block that halts bacterial growth. The antibiotic, myxopyronin, is a natural substance that is made by bacteria to fend off other bacteria. Scientists already knew that this antibiotic inhibited the actions of an enzyme called RNA polymerase, which sets gene expression in motion and is essential to the life of any cell. But until now, researchers did not know the mechanism behind how the antibiotic actually killed the bacteria. Key to investigating this mechanism is the use of the powerful imaging technique X-ray crystallography, which allows researchers to see the fine details of the complex between the antibiotic and its target. In the case of myxopyronin, the antibiotic binds to RNA polymerase in a way that interferes with the enzyme's ability to use DNA to start the process of activating genes so they can make proteins. "This is the first antibiotic that we know that inhibits polymerase before it even starts RNA synthesis," said Irina Artsimovitch, a coauthor of the study and an associate professor of microbiology at Ohio State University.

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Theory shows mechanism behind delayed development of antibiotic resistance

Inhibiting the "drug efflux pumps" in bacteria, which function as their defence mechanisms against antibiotics, can mask the effect of mutations that have led to resistance in the form of low-affinity drug binding to target molecules in the cell. This is shown by researchers at Uppsala University in a new study that can provide clues to how the development of resistance to antibiotics in bacteria can be delayed. The introduction of antibiotics as drugs in the treatment of bacterial infections in the post-WWII years was a revolutionized medicine, and dramatically improved the health condition on a global scale. Now, 60 years later, growing antibiotic resistance among pathogens has heavily depleted the arsenal of entailed effective antibiotic drugs. Antibiotics function by attacking vital molecules in bacteria. Bacteria, in turn, protect themselves either by using "drug efflux pumps" for antibiotics or through mutations that reduce the binding of the antibiotic to its target molecules inside the bacteria cell. Through these changes, bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics. The new study is published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the US. Professor MŚns Ehrenberg's research team at Uppsala University has shown experimentally and theoretically explained how the inhibition of these drug efflux pumps can completely mask the resistance effect of mutations that reduce the affinity of antibiotics to their target molecules in the bacteria cell. The effect of the mutations is entirely hidden when the pumps are unable to remove the antibiotic sufficiently quickly in relation to the dilution of the antibiotic through cell growth and cell division.

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Researchers find new chemical key that could unlock hundreds of new antibiotics

Chemistry researchers at The University of Warwick and the John Innes Centre, have found a novel signalling molecule that could be a key that will open up hundreds of new antibiotics unlocking them from the DNA of the Streptomyces family of bacteria. With bacterial resistance growing researchers are keen to uncover as many new antibiotics as possible. Some of the Streptomyces bacteria are already used industrially to produce current antibiotics and researchers have developed approaches to find and exploit new pathways for antibiotic production in the genome of the Streptomyces family. For many years it was thought that the relatively unstable butyrolactone compounds represented by "A-factor" were the only real signal for stimulating such pathways of possible antibiotic production but the Warwick and John Innes teams have now found a much more stable group of compounds that may have the potential to produce at least one new antibiotic compound from up to 50% of the 1000 or so known Streptomyces family of bacteria. Colonies of bacteria such as Streptomyces naturally make antibiotics as a defence mechanism when those colonies are under stress and thus more susceptible to attack from other bacteria. The colonies need to produce a compound to spread a signal across the colony to start producing their natural antibiotic weapons.

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Patients with Inflammatory Bowel More Susceptible to Dangerous Infection

The Clostridium difficile bacterium, which causes infectious diarrhea, is nearly four times more likely to kill patients with inflammatory bowel disease, according to a report published in the journal Gut.

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Malaysia’s Sunzen leads fight against antibiotic-tainted meat

A Malaysian animal health company has made the news with a safer alternative to antibiotic-tainted animal feed.

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Green tea boosts antibiotic effectiveness

Egyptian scientists say drinking green tea helps make antibiotics three times more effective, even against so-called superbugs. "We tested green tea in combination with antibiotics against 28 disease-causing micro-organisms belonging to two different classes," Dr. Mervat Kassem of the Alexandria University in Egypt said in a statement. "In every single case green tea enhanced the bacteria-killing activity of the antibiotics."

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Probiotic drink beats infections

PEOPLE taking antibiotics, especially those being treated in hospitals should take a daily probiotic drink, according to a report released today. Antibiotics have many benefits, but they can also destroy many of the normal bacteria that live in the gut, making it easier for "bad" bacteria to build up.

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Antibiotic use, comorbid conditions

A variety of factors – including treatment with antibiotics, comorbid conditions and prolonged hospital stays – may be associated with an increased risk for Clostridium difficile infection.

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Antibiotics Can Cause Pervasive, Persistent Changes to the Microbial Community in the Human Gut, MBL and Stanford Scientists Report

Using a novel technique developed by Mitchell Sogin of the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) to identify different types of bacteria, scientists have completed the most precise survey to date of how microbial communities in the human gut respond to antibiotic treatment. Sogin, director of the MBL’s Josephine Bay Paul Center, and Susan Huse of the MBL, along with David Relman and Les Dethlefsen of Stanford University, identified pervasive changes in the gut microbial communities of three healthy humans after a five-day course of the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin. Their results are reported in the Nov. 18 issue of PloS Biology. Using very conservative criteria, the scientists identified at least 3,300 to 5,700 different taxa (genetically distinct types) of bacteria in the human distal gut, and antibiotic treatment influenced the abundance of about a third of those taxa. “You clearly get shifts in the structure of the microbial community with antibiotic treatment,” says Sogin. “Some bacteria that were in low abundance prior to treatment may become more abundant, and bacteria that were dominant may decrease in abundance. When you get these shifts, they may be persistent. Some individuals may recover quickly, and others won’t recover for many months.”

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Study suggests antibiotic may prevent dreaded brain fever

Two researchers from National Brain Research Center suggest that a common antibiotic called minocycline may prevent children from death due to Japanese encephalitis, or commonly known as brain fever.

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Antibiotic use raises breast cancer risk

study led by researchers from King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia showed use of antibiotics increased risk of breast cancer by 50 to 79 percent, depending upon the number of prescriptions an individual received during one to 15 years prior to the diagnosis of the disease.

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The End of Antibiotics and the Rise of Iodine as an Effective Alternative

Antibiotics do not kill yeast. Many women find after taking antibiotics, they get vaginal yeast infections (because their normal bacterial balance has been lost). Antibiotics bring on fungal and yeast infections thus will eventually be seen as a major cause of cancer since more and more oncologists are seeing yeast and fungal infections as an integral part of cancer and its cause. With upwards of 40 percent of all cancers thought to be involved with and caused by infections, the subject of antibiotics and the need for something safer, more effective and life serving is imperative.

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Study Finds Antibiotics Fed to Swine in Groundwater

A recent study by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has linked the routine use of the antibiotic tetracycline, popular in swine production, to the presence of antibiotics resistance genes in groundwater.

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New insight into how antibiotics kill might make them deadlier

Scientists have what could be some very bad news for disease-causing bacteria. All three major classes of antibiotics that kill infectious bacteria do so in part by ramping up the production of harmful free radicals, researchers report in the Sept. 7, 2007, issue of Cell, a publication of Cell Press. Because those different types of antibiotics each initially hit different targets, it had been believed they worked by independent means.

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Antibiotics found in seafood imports

With the consumer spotlight on contaminated Asian seafood, Australia's quarantine watchdog, AQIS (Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service), has discovered almost one-third of the samples of prawns, fish, crabs and eels from Asia contained banned antibiotics, including new antibiotic groups which have never been dealt with before.

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Abuse of Antibiotics at Factory Farms Threatens the Effectiveness of Drugs Used to Treat Disease in Humans

he routine, medically unnecessary use of antibiotics to promote the enhanced growth of livestock is making disease-causing bacteria more resistant to the drugs, which diminishes their power to treat life-threatening diseases in humans.

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Bronchitis more resistant to antibiotics

First-line antibiotics such as amoxicillin and ampicillin are becoming ineffective in treating chronic bronchitis, U.S. and Greek researchers say.

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Frog plus frying pan equals better antibiotic

By creating "Teflon" versions of natural antibiotics found in frog skin, a research team led by biological chemist E. Neil Marsh has made the potential drugs better at thwarting bacterial defenses, an improvement that could enhance their effectiveness. Marsh will discuss the work Aug. 20 at the 234th national meeting of the American Chemical Society in Boston. Marsh and collaborators work with compounds called antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are produced by virtually all animals, from insects to frogs to humans. AMPs are the immune system's early line of defense, battling microbes at the first places they try to penetrate: skin, mucous membranes and other surfaces. They're copiously produced in injured or infected frog skin, for instance, and the linings of the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts also crank out the short proteins in response to invading pathogens. In addition to fighting bacteria, AMPs attack viruses, fungi and even cancer cells, so drugs designed to mimic them could have widespread medical applications. Scientists have been interested in exploiting these natural antibiotics since their discovery in the 1980s, but they haven't been able to overcome some limitations. In particular, AMPs are easily broken down by protein-degrading enzymes (proteases) that are secreted by bacteria and are also naturally present in the body. Increasing the concentration of AMPs in an effort to get around that problem can cause toxic side effects, such as the destruction of red blood cells---those critical carriers of oxygen in the bloodstream. That seems to happen because sticky parts of the AMP molecule interact with the cell membrane in a harmful way.

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Team tracks antibiotic resistance from swine farms to groundwater

The routine use of antibiotics in swine production can have unintended consequences, with antibiotic resistance genes sometimes leaking from waste lagoons into groundwater. In a new study, researchers report that some genes found in hog waste lagoons are transferred -- "like batons" -- from one bacterial species to another. The researchers found that this migration across species and into new environments sometimes dilutes -- and sometimes amplifies -- genes conferring antibiotic resistance.

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Researchers discover new strategies for antibiotic resistance

With antibiotic resistance on the rise, LA BioMed researchers report in the September issue of Nature Reviews Microbiology on new clues they have uncovered in immune system molecules that defend against infection and hold hope of helping develop new anti-infectives.

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UIC researchers find promising new targets for antibiotics

University of Illinois at Chicago researchers have identified new sites on the bacterial cell's protein-making machinery where antibiotics can be delivered to treat infections.

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New family of antibacterial agents uncovered

As bacteria resistant to commonly used antibiotics continue to increase in number, scientists keep searching for new sources of drugs. In this week's JBC, one potential new bactericide has been found in the tiny freshwater animal Hydra. The protein identified by Joachim GrŲtzinger, Thomas Bosch and colleagues at the University of Kiel, hydramacin-1, is unusual (and also clinically valuable) as it shares virtually no similarity with any other known antibacterial proteins except for two antimicrobials found in another ancient animal, the leech. Hydramacin proved to be extremely effective though; in a series of laboratory experiments, this protein could kill a wide range of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including clinically-isolated drug-resistant strains like Klebsiella oxytoca (a common cause of nosocomial infections). Hydramacin works by sticking to the bacterial surface, promoting the clumping of nearby bacteria, then disrupting the bacterial membrane.

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Antibiotics - They’re wrongly prescribed in 80 per cent of cases

A new review reveals that doctors prescribe an antibiotic for up to 80 per cent of cases of sore throat, the ear infection otitis media, sinusitis and the common cold.

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Free Antibiotics - The Wrong Prescription for Cold and Flu Season

With an epidemic of antibiotic-resistant infections growing, experts are warning grocery-store pharmacies that antibiotics giveaways are an unhealthy promotional gimmick. If grocery stores want to help customers and save them money during cold and flu season, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) says, they should offer free influenza vaccinations instead. Giant, Stop & Shop, and other grocery stores have recently begun offering free antibiotics at their pharmacies. Most concerning are promotions such as Wegmans’ that link antibiotics to the winter cold-and-flu season—despite the fact that antibiotics will have no effect on these viral illnesses and carry risks of serious side effects. “While it may make good marketing sense, promoting antibiotics at a time when we are facing a crisis of antibiotic resistance does not make good public health sense,” said IDSA President Anne Gershon, MD. “On the other hand, grocery stores would be doing a tremendous service if they help more people get their flu shots.”

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Agricultural Antibiotics May Be The Cause Of Super-Bugs

According to recent research, farms may be more effective sources of transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to the community than hospitals. Fresh poultry from animals not treated with antibiotics will probably pose a smaller risk to your health. If you catch any disease from it, antibiotics will really work for you if you need them.

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Study shows rise in antibiotic resistant pediatric head and neck infections

A report by researchers in the Jan. 19, 2009 Archives of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery shows that there was nationwide increase in the prevalence of pediatric methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) head and neck infections from January 2001 to December 2006. The increase in antibiotic-resistant infections has become a big concern for researchers and clinicians over the years. MRSA was once a condition that was only found in hospital settings; however, over the last decade MRSA outbreaks have increasingly been found in patients without risk factors. In an attempt to identify trends in the susceptibility of antibiotic-resistant infections, researchers from Emory University School of Medicine and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta studied data on pediatric patients from nationwide hospitals. "The growing concern about the recent worldwide MRSA epidemic has fueled the curiosity of the scientific community to gain insight into the clinical and epidemiologic manifestations of this microbe," says Steven E. Sobol, MD, MSc, primary investigator of the study and director of Pediatric Otolaryngology in the Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery at Emory. "Previous studies have established that skin and soft tissue infections in some communities are due to MRSA," he says. "However, it has been observed in several institutions that there is a significant rise in pediatric head and neck infections as well." The researchers reviewed a total of 21,009 pediatric head and neck S. aureus infections from 300 hospitals nationwide that occurred between Jan. 1, 2001 and Dec. 31, 2006. Patients ranged in ages from birth to 18.

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Teen finds antibiotic-resistent bugs in chickens

A Christchurch teenager has found multiple antibiotic-resistant bugs in fresh, supermarket-sold chicken.

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Antibiotic overuse in animals must end

The headlines about staph infections are spreading awareness that overuse of antibiotics has made some bacteria resistant to drugs. The trend poses a threat to everyone, as dangerous infections become increasingly prevalent and challenging to treat.

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There’s a real beef against the meat industry

The overuse of antibiotics in livestock production is cited as a main cause of the increase in antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The Union of Concerned Scientists estimates that 70 percent of all antibiotics in the U.S. are used as feed additives for pigs, poultry and cattle. The American Medical Association went on record in 2001 opposing the routine feeding of medically important antibiotics to livestock and poultry.

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The Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act of 2007

Mounting scientific evidence shows that the routine feeding of antibiotics to farm animals that are not sick promotes development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can be transferred to people, making it harder to treat bacterial infections in humans. Antibiotic feed additives are used to promote slightly faster growth and to compensate for crowded, stressful, and often unsanitary animal-husbandry conditions. The Union of Concerned Scientists estimates that 70 percent of antibiotics and related drugs in the United States are given as feed additives to chickens, hogs, and beef cattle; such use occurs without a prescription.

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Adverse reactions to antibiotics send thousands of patients to the ER

Adverse events from antibiotics cause an estimated 142,000 emergency department visits per year in the United States, according to a study published in the Sept. 15, 2008, issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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Breeding an Epidemic Antibiotics and Meat

Modern agriculture is rushing us into an unintended but dangerous form of genetic engineering, including antibiotics, how bacteria become resistant, livestock, the animal-human link, regulatory stonewall.

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Antibiotics - Single largest class of drugs causing liver injury

Antibiotics are the single largest class of agents that cause idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI), reports a new study in Gastroenterology, an official journal of the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Institute. DILI is the most common cause of death from acute liver failure and accounts for approximately 13 percent of cases of acute liver failure in the U.S. It is caused by a wide variety of prescription and nonprescription medications, nutritional supplements and herbals. "DILI is a serious health problem that impacts patients, physicians, government regulators and the pharmaceutical industry," said Naga P. Chalasani, MD, of the Indiana University School of Medicine and lead author of the study. "Further efforts are needed in defining its pathogenesis and developing means for the early detection, accurate diagnosis, prevention and treatment of DILI." In this prospective, ongoing, multi-center observational study — the largest of its kind — patients with suspected DILI were enrolled based upon predefined criteria and followed for at least six months. Those with acetaminophen liver injury were excluded. Researchers found that DILI was caused by a single prescription medication in 73 percent of the cases, by dietary supplements in 9 percent and by multiple agents in 18 percent. More than 100 different agents were associated with DILI; antimicrobials (45.5 percent) and central nervous system agents (15 percent) were the most common. Of the dietary supplements causing DILI, compounds that claim to promote weight loss and muscle building accounted for nearly 60 percent of the cases. The study found that at least 20 percent of patients with DILI ingest more than one potentially hepatotoxic agent. DILI remains a diagnosis of exclusion and thus detailed testing should be performed to exclude competing causes of liver disease; importantly, acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection should be carefully excluded in patients with suspected DILI by HCV RNA testing. Researchers found no relationship between gender and severity of DILI, but individuals with diabetes experienced more severe DILI.

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Negative Reactions to Antibiotics

Every year, in the United States, there are more than 140,000 incidences of bad reactions to antibiotics which result in visits to the Emergency Department (ED), a study carried out by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated.

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Type of antibiotic linked to tendon ruptures

Considering the number of prescriptions written for these products, antibiotic-associated tendon damage appears to be relatively rare. The risk may be higher in those taking corticosteroids such as prednisone, particularly elderly people.

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Physicians ask EPA, 'Antibiotics to cure sick apples, or sick children?

Arlington, VA—A federal decision to permit the State of Michigan to spray the state's apple orchards with gentamicin risks undermining the value of this important antibiotic to treat blood infections in newborns and other serious human infections, according to the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on Wednesday granted the state of Michigan "emergency" permission to use gentamicin to fight a tree disease called fire blight.

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