Nieuws


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Obesitas behandelen met een dieet met minder methionine

Uit vorige studies zijn de voordelen voor gewichtsverlies gebleken door het vermijden van voedsel met veel aminozuur methionine, zoals bonen, noten, rundvlees, kalkoen, varkensvlees, vis, eieren en zuivel. Echter, het volgen van zo'n beperkt dieet voor een lange tijd is moeilijk. Met behulp van muizen met obesitas als gevolg van een vet dieet, vonden de onderzoekers aan de universiteiten van Wisconsin-Madison dat slechts vijf weken vermijden van methionine niet alleen leidde tot verlies van gewicht en lichaamsvet maar ook hoge bloedsuikerspiegels corrigeerde.

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Appelazijn kan helpen bij gewichtsverlies - Dr Eric Berg


Sulforafaan, een plantenstof in broccolikiemen, helpt bij obesitas

Van sulforafaan, een plantenstof die in relatief hoge concentraties voorkomt in broccolikiemen, is al bekend dat het resultaten oplevert bij kankerpreventie. Dit gebeurt door activering van een transcriptiefactor, Nrf2 (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2), die de balans van oxidatiereductie reguleert in de cel. Ook zorgt Nfr2 voor vergroting van het antioxidatie-vermogen van het lichaam en voor de ontgifting van chemische stoffen die ons lichaam.

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De rol van stress bij overgewicht


De eetgewoontes van je darmbacteriŽn kunnen nieuwe diŽten minder effectief maken

Je microbioom staat misschien niet aan jouw kant als je met Nieuwjaar je eetgewoontes wilt verbeteren. Op 29 december werd in Cell Host & Microbe een onderzoek gepubliceerd dat nagaat waarom muizen die overgaan van een onbeperkt Amerikaans dieet op een gezond, calorieŽnbeperkt, meer plantaardig dieet, niet direct goed reageren op hun nieuwe programma. De onderzoekers ontdekten dat bepaalde menselijke darmbacteriŽn eerst uit de weg moeten voordat een voedingsplan succes heeft.

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Bonen en erwten verhogen verzadigingsgevoel meer dan vlees

Volgens een recente studie aan de Universiteit van Kopenhagen Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, geeft het eten van maaltijden met peulvruchten zoals bonen en erwten een groter verzadigingsgevoel dan maaltijden gebaseerd op varkens- of kalfsvlees. De resultaten suggereren dat duurzaam eten ook kan helpen bij afvallen.

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Jojo-effect van diŽten kunnen zorgen voor extra gewichtstoename

Volgens nieuw onderzoek van de universiteiten van Exeter en Bristol kunnen herhalingsdiŽten leiden tot gewichtstoename omdat het brein de diŽten als een kortstondige 'hongersnood' interpreteert en aanspoort om meer vet op te slaan voor toekomstige tekorten. Dit kan verklaren waarom mensen die een caloriearm diŽet volgen vaak overeten als zij niet op diŽet zijn en daardoor het gewicht niet op peil blijft. Het tegenovergestelde bij mensen die geen diŽet volgen: zij ondervinden dat de voedselvoorziening betrouwbaar is en dat het niet nodig is om zoveel vet op te slaan.

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Aspartaam zou gewichtsverlies tegenwerken in plaats van bevorderen

Een onderzoeksteam van het Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) heeft een mechanisme ontdekt dat zou verklaren waarom het gebruik van de suikervervanger aspartaam misschien niet tot gewichtsverlies leidt. In hun rapport, dat online gepubliceerd is op Applied Psysiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, wordt aangetoond hoe het afbraakproduct van aspartaam, fenylalanine, de activiteit belemmert van een enzym dat Ė zoals eerder is gebleken Ė kan helpen het metabool syndroom te voorkomen.

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Moerbei extract activeert bruin vet - veelbelovende obesitasbehandeling

Nieuw onderzoek, gepubliceerd in het The FASEB Journal, suggereert dat rutine-extract uit moerbeibessen bruin vetweefsel activeert door kou na te bootsten, waardoor de energiestofwisseling wordt verhoogd.

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Een metabole schakelaar om obesitas uit te schakelen

Je hebt alle diŽten geprobeerd. Het maakt niet uit: je hebt nog steeds weer het gewicht terug dat je verloren hebt, ook al at je goed en deed je regelmatig je oefeningen! Dit kan het gevolg zijn van een bepaald enzym in de hersenen: het alfa/bŤta hydrolase domein-enzym 6, beter bekend als ABHD6.

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Wat doe je aan een langzame stofwisseling ? Dr Eric Berg


Hoe de hersenen onze eetlust reguleren

Onderzoekers van de Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) in Korea hebben het mechanisme ontdekt achter het enzym dat onze eetlust reguleert als reaktie op het feit dat de hoeveelheid glucose in de hersenen te laag wordt. Begrijpen hoe onze eetlust wordt gecontroleerd en beinvloed door ons lichaam en hersenen is belangrijk bij de aanpak van obesitas.

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Onderzoek kan helpen bij verhoging en behoud van vetverbranding

Alle zoogdieren, ook mensen, hebben twee soorten vet met volledig tegengestelde werking: wit vet, dat energie opslaat en verband houdt met diabetes en obesitas; en bruin vet, dat hitte produceert door energie te verbranden en dat verband houdt met slankheid.

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Calorieverbrandend ďgoedĒ vet kan worden beschermd

Onderzoekers van de UC in San Francisco die beige vet bestudeerden Ė een calorieverbrandend weefsel dat het ontstaan van obesitas en diabetes kan helpen voorkomen Ė hebben een nieuwe strategie ontdekt om dit gunstige vet te cultiveren.

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Hoe activeer je het afslankende hormoon glucagon


Het beste dieet voor jou hangt wellicht af van je genen

Misschien is het je weleens overkomen dat een vriend(in) goede resultaten had met een bepaald dieet, terwijl hetzelfde dieet bij jou helemaal niet zo goed werkte. Dan zal het je misschien niet verbazen dat uit nieuw onderzoek met muizen blijkt dat de reactie op een dieet zeer individueel bepaald is.

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Nieuw supplement kan verlangen naar calorierijk eten uitschakelen

Als je een bepaald voedingssupplement in poedervorm neemt, dat gebaseerd is op een molecuul van een darmbacterie, neemt het snakken naar calorierijke voeding zoals chocolade, koek en pizza af, aldus nieuw onderzoek.

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Onderzoekers ontdekken dat koper onmisbaar is voor vetverbranding

Draagt een kopertekort bij aan de obesitasepidemie? Alhoewel kleine hoeveelheden koper onmisbaar zijn voor een goede gezondheid - oesters, lever, bonen en noten zijn een goede bron - is de rol van koper bij het verbranden van vet altijd onduidelijk geweest: uit sommige studies bleek dat koper de vetverbranding een boost gaf, terwijl uit andere studies bleek dat het de vetverbranding juist negatief beinvloedde.

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Lightproducten leiden ook op de lange termijn tot overconsumptie

Gezondheidsclaim Ďlightí lokt extra consumptie uit

Het aanbieden van lightvarianten van snoep, frisdrank of chips werkt ook op de lange termijn overconsumptie van deze caloriearme producten in de hand. Het draagt niet bij aan de doelstelling om overgewicht bij de bevolking terug te dringen.

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Eet de vette vleessoorten als je wilt afvallen


Blootstelling aan chemische stoffen kan leiden tot obesitas

Volgens een studie van onderzoekers aan de Universiteit van Georgia kan blootstelling aan chemische stoffen uit alledaagse producten de hoeveelheid vet opgeslagen in het lichaam beÔnvloeden. Ftalaten zijn chemische stoffen gevonden in alles van plastiek tot zeep, tot nagellak. Groeiend onderzoek toont aan dat deze chemische stoffen nadelige gevolgen kunnen hebben op onze gezondheid, zei hoofdauteur van de studie Lei Yin.

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Het eten van bonen, erwten en linzen kunnen helpen bij gewichtsverlies

Het eten van ťťn portie per dag van bonen, erwten, kikkererwten of linzen zou kunnen bijdragen tot een bescheiden gewichtsverlies, blijkt uit een nieuwe studie. Volgens een systematisch review en meta-analyse van alle beschikbare klinische studies over de effecten van het eten van peulvruchten, zou het eten van ongeveer 3/4 kop (130 gram) per dag leiden tot een gewichtsverlies van 0,34 kg (iets meer dan een half pond).

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Blootstelling aan luchtvervuiling verhoogt het risico op obesitas

Laboratoriumratten die de zwaar vervuilde lucht van Beijing inademden namen toe in gewicht, kregen cardio-respiratoire en metabole stoornissen na 3-8 weken na blootstelling.

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FlavonoÔden uit fruit en groente kan helpen bij op gewicht blijven

Er zijn aanwijzingen dat het eten van veel fruit en groenten met een hoog flavonoÔdengehalte, zoals appel, peren en bessen, samenhangt met een kleinere toename in gewicht, volgens een onderzoek dat is verschenen in BMJ Today. FlavonoÔden uit voedsel zijn natuurlijke stoffen die voorkomen in groenten en fruit.

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Te veel eten: wordt dat veroorzaakt door een tekort aan een hormoon in de hersenen?

Een nieuw onderzoek aan de Rutgers Universiteit laat zien dat afwezigheid van een bepaald peptide gekoppeld wordt aan voorkeur voor vet eten en eten meer om het genotsgevoel dan vanwege honger.

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Waarom er niets mis is met aardappels - John McDougall

Recently a Harvard study concluded that potatoes are bad for those wanting to lose weight and be healthy. But is this true and accurate? Or another example of shoddy "science?" Well, if we are discussing French Fries, Potato Chips, and the standard versions of mashed, boiled and baked potatoes (covered with cheese, butter, bacon and sour cream) then yes, the potato looks like "bad news." However, if we are talking about the plain old baked potato (which the FAO/WHO dedicated 2008 to the potato because of its nutritional and economical value), then no, this study has no impact on that.


Vet verliezen en spiermassa verhogen: Wetenschappers pikken in op de 'heilige graal' van dieet en lichaamsbeweging

Onderzoekers van de McMaster University hebben belangrijke nieuwe feiten ontdekt in de zoektocht naar het ongrijpbaar doel van het verliezen van vet zonder verlies van spiermassa; een vaak besproken probleem onder degenen die proberen om hun gewicht te beheersen en hun calorieŽn en eiwitbalans te controleren.

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Vetcel stress zorgt voor jojo-effect bij afvallen

Wetenschappers van de Universiteit Maastricht hebben onderzoek gedaan naar een mogelijk verband tussen stress in de vetcellen en de kans om opnieuw aan te komen na afvallen (het jojo-effect). Zes jaar geleden heeft onderzoek van de Universiteit Maastricht en Hasselt onder leiding van Prof. Dr. Edwin Mariman, die ook aan het huidige onderzoek heeft meegewerkt, uitgewezen dat vetcellen hun vet niet graag afstaan.

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Laat je leiden door honger

Tegenwoordig, met het alom aanwezige gemaksvoedsel in de moderne voedselomgeving, zodanig gefabriceerd dat het ontzettend smakelijk is (zoals chips, chocolaatjes, dubbele cheeseburgers met bacon), worden we constant gebombardeerd met verlokkingen om te eten.

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Activeren van beige vet zou obesitas kunnen bestrijden

De mogelijkheid van het lichaam om warmte te benutten door het omzetten van witte vetcellen, die calorieŽn opslaan, in beige vetcellen die energie verbranden, kan helpen bij de bestrijding van obesitas, volgens onderzoekers aan de 'Georgia State University'.

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De 5 op 1 regel qua vezels in je voeding

A guideline is suggested for how to read food labels for grain products such as bread and breakfast cereals. I love doing these practical day-to-day decision type videos. If you go to the grocery store and find products that fit the 5 to 1 ratio rule, please share them in a comment below. They arenít easy to find!


Moleculaire schakelaar leidt tot calorieverbrandend bruin vet

Een onderzoeksteam, geleid door wetenschappers van de UC te San Francisco, heeft een moleculaire schakelaar gevonden die in staat is om ongezond wit vet om te zetten in energieverbrandend bruin vet bij muizen. Medicijnen die deze schakelaar aan- of uitzetten verminderden heel snel de risicofactoren voor zwaarlijvigheid en diabetes bij muizen die een vetrijk dieet kregen.

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Afvallen met een dieet gebaseerd op zetmeel


Darmflora bepaalt welke voeding het beste is voor gewichtsvermindering

Nieuw onderzoek biedt "op maat" dieetadvies - gebaseerd op onze persoonlijke gezonde microbiomen - voor personen die af willen vallen en het risico op ziekten willen verminderen. Systeem-biologen van Chalmers University of Technology hebben voor de eerste keer met succes in detail geÔdentificeerd hoe sommige van onze meest voorkomende darmbacteriŽn interactief reageren tijdens de stofwisseling.

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Havermout ontbijt kan eetlust beteugelen tijdens de lunch

Een onderzoek in het tijdschrift van de American College of Nutrition suggereert dat het eten van een stevige portie instant havermout voor het ontbijt - versus een populaire - op haverbasis koude ontbijtgranen - leidt tot een lagere calorie-inname tijdens de lunch.

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Water voor de maaltijd kan helpen bij gewichtsverlies

Universiteit van Birmingham - Onderzoekers van de Universiteit van Birmingham hebben aangetoond dat het drinken van 500 ml water, een half uur voor het eten, zwaarlijvige mensen kan helpen om gewicht te verliezen. Zij geloven dat deze eenvoudige procedure enorm nuttig kan zijn en zou moeten gepropageerd worden bij gezondheidswerkers.

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Kinderen die slanker zijn, blijken meer meervoudig onverzadigde vetzuren te eten

Meer MOVís en een hogere verhouding meervoudig onverzadigde vetzuren t.o.v. verzadigde vetzuren blijken deel uit te maken van de diŽten van slankere kinderen.

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Bruin vet ook met galzuur te activeren

Bruin vet, dat verondersteld wordt allerlei positieve effecten op bijvoorbeeld gewichtsverlies te hebben, kan bij de mens net als bij proefdieren geactiveerd worden door het toedienen van galzuren in pilvorm. Dat blijkt uit een wetenschappelijke Ďproof of conceptí-studie van promovendus Evie Broeders en post doc Emmani Nascimento onder begeleiding van prof. Patrick Schrauwen en prof. Wouter Van Marken Lichtenbelt (beiden UM) in Cell Metabolism. Sinds de ontdekking van bruin vet bij volwassenen in 2009, zoekt de wetenschap naar manieren om het te activeren. Galzuur is de derde gevonden manier om dat te doen.

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Stress tijdens de kinderjaren leidt tot gewichtstoename bij vrouwen

Ten aanzien van gewichtstoename bij vrouwen blijkt stress tijdens de kinderjaren een grotere boosdoener te zijn dan stress gedurende de volwassenheid, aldus de bevindingen van een nationaal onderzoek geleid door een socioloog van de Michigan State University. Interessant genoeg, werd stress in de kindertijd of volwassenheid niet in verband gebracht met gewichtstoename bij mannen.

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Wetenschappers veranderen wit vet in obesitas-bestrijdend beige vet

Wetenschappers van de Washington State University hebben aangetoond dat bessen, druiven en ander fruit, wit vet omzetten in calorieverbrandend beige vet. Dit verschaft nieuwe strategieŽn voor de preventie en behandeling van obesitas. In de studie werden muizen gevoed d.m.v. een dieet met hoog vetgehalte. Bij muizen die resveratrol kregen in hoeveelheden gelijk staand aan 340 gram fruit per dag voor mensen, nam hun gewicht 40% minder toe dan muizen in de controlegroep.

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Carnitine, een noodzakelijke stof voor de vetverbranding

Tot een half jaar geleden had ik, naar verwachting net als de meesten van u, niet gehoord over het bestaan van de stof ĎL-carnitineí. Carnitine is een relatief klein molecuul en bestaat uit een amine-groep, die positief geladen is en uit een zure groep, die negatief is geladen. De aminegroep bindt in het cytoplasma van de cel met een vetzuur. Hierdoor verandert de lading van de carnitine zodanig dat het makkelijk via een transportmechanisme de membranen van de mitochondriŽn kan passeren.

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Video - The Secret to Losing Body Fat (without feeling hungry)


Overslaan van maaltijden draagt bij aan abdominale gewichtstoename

Studie toont hevige schommelingen van de insuline en invloed op de lever. Een nieuwe studie bij dieren suggereert dat overslaan van maaltijden een reeks metabole gevolgen heeft wat kan resulteren in abdominale gewichtstoename. In de studie, ontwikkelden muizen die al hun voedsel tijdens ťťn enkele maaltijd opaten en de rest van de dag vastten, insulineresistentie in de lever - wat wetenschappers beschowen als een veelbetekenend teken van prediabetes. Wanneer de lever niet reageert op insulinesignalen die doorgeven te stoppen met de productie van glucose, wordt extra suiker in het bloed opgeslagen als vet.

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PotentiŽle behandeling van obesitas richt zich op de 2 elementen van eetlust: honger en voldaan gevoel

Hormonen in ons lichaam werken samen om ons te vertellen wanneer wij moeten eten en wanneer wij moeten stoppen. Bij veel mensen die lijden aan obesitas is dit systeem uit balans. Wetenschappers hebben een hormoonachtige verbinding gecreŽerd om honger te onderdrukken en verzadiging te stimuleren of een gevoel van voldaan zijn tegelijkertijd.

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Studie ontdekt nieuwe manier om met bruin vet overgewicht te verminderen

Een studie door onderzoekers in Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore (Duke-NUS) heeft een nieuwe manier aangetoond waarop de aanmaak van bruin vet, een potentiŽle vechter tegen obesitas, in het lichaam kan worden gestimuleerd. Deze bevinding geeft onderzoekers een mogelijk therapeutisch wapen tegen obesitas.

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Kiezen voor proteÔne- en koolhydraatrijk voedsel kan grote gevolgen hebben voor lange-termijn gewichtstoename

Kleine, consistente veranderingen in het eten van proteÔne- en koolhydraatrijk voedsel kan een grote impact hebben op lange-termijn gewichtstoename, volgens een nieuwe studie door onderzoekers van de Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy van Tufts University. De resultaten werden deze week bekend gemaakt in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

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Onderzoekers ontdekken hoe het goede vetweefsel in ons lichaam communiceert met onze hersenen

Bruin vetweefsel, ďhet goede vetĒ in ons lichaam communiceert met onze hersenen door middel van het zintuiglijke zenuwstelsel. Waarschijnlijk deelt het belangrijke informatie dat nodig is om te kunnen vechten tegen menselijke obesitas, zoals hoeveel vet we hebben en hoeveel vet we hebben verloren, zeggen de onderzoekers van de Georgia State universiteit. De bevindingen, gepubliceerd in The Journal of Neuroscience, beschrijven de conversatie die plaatsvindt tussen de hersenen en het bruine vetweefsel terwijl het bruine vet hitte genereert.

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Experimenteel medicijn zet 'slecht' wit vet om in 'goed' bruin vet

Een experimenteel geneesmiddel veroorzaakt gewichts- en vetverlies bij muizen. De resultaten van het onderzoek werden gepresenteerd tijdens de 97e jaarlijkse bijeenkomst van de Endocrine Society in San Diego. Bekend als GC-1 versnelt het geneesmiddel het metabolisme of het verbranden van vetcellen.

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Obesitas wordt geassocieerd met neurotransmitters in de hersenen

Onderzoekers van Aalto University en University of Turku vonden hoe obesitas geassocieerd is met veranderde opioide neurotransmissie in de hersenen. Nieuw onderzoek onthult hoe obesitas verband heeft met een veranderde werking van het opioÔde systeem van de hersenen dat nauw betrokken is bij het genereren van aangename sensaties. De onderzoekers vonden dat obesitas geassocieerd is met een beduidend verlaagd aantal opioÔde receptoren in de hersenen. Er werden echter geen veranderingen waargenomen in de neurotransmitter dopamine dat motivatieaspecten van eten regelt.

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Onderzoek relateert niveau van in het lichaam opgehoopte schadelijke stoffen met obesitas niveau

Een team van Spaanse wetenschappers bewijst dat mensen met hogere gehaltes persistente organische verontreinigende stoffen in hun organisme ook lijden onder hogere cholesterol en triglyceride gehaltes. Een Spaans team van wetenschappers, waaronder verschillende onderzoekers van de universiteit van Granada, bevestigt dat er een verband bestaat tussen gehaltes aan bepaalde in het lichaam opgehoopte milieuverontreinigende stoffen, en hun mate van obesitas. Personen met meer verontreinigde stoffen in hun organisme lopen, naast hogere cholesterol en triglyceride gehaltes, ook een belangrijk groter risico op hart- en vaatziekten.

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Ontbijt gewoonten van invloed op stofwisselings reacties van teeners t.o.v eiwitrijke maaltijden 's ochtends

Ontbijt gewoonten kunnen een rol spelen in hoe individuen een eiwitrijk ontbijt verteren, volgens een onlangs gepubliceerd Universiteit van Missouri studie. Een MU onderzoeker vond dat de stofwisselings reacties op het eten van een eiwitrijk ontbijt van degenen die regelmatig ontbijten ten opzichte van jonge vrouwen die hun gewone ontbijt overslaan verschillend waren. Met name die gewoon het ontbijt overslaan hadden een slechter glucose peil gedurende de dag als ze een eiwitrijk ontbijt gebruikten, terwijl degenen die meestal een koolhydraatrijk ontbijt aten hadden een verbeterd glucose peil nadat ze een eiwitrijk ontbijt aten.

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Te veel keuze in eten maakt de strijd tegen obesitas moeilijker

Sommige wetenschappers zeggen dat wanneer moeders slecht eten tijdens de zwangerschap ze dat doorgeven aan hun kinderen die dan meer kans maken op slechte voedingsgewoonten en gerelateerde gezondheidsproblemen. Maar een nieuwe studie bij muizen, door onderzoekers van de Virginia Tech College of Agriculture and Life Sciences en de Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, heeft aangetoond dat de omgeving waarin een kind verblijft even krachtig zo niet krachtiger is bij het beÔnvloeden van de kans op obesitas dan het moederdieet.

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Chili pepers om af te vallen ?

Onderzoekers aan de universiteit van Wyoming ontdekken dat het toevoegen van capsaÔcine uit chilipepers gewichtstoename voorkomt bij muizen op een vetrijk dieet.

Begin nog niet met het kauwen van een handvol chilipepers, maar er is hoop voor lijners. Een groot percentage van de wereldbevolking - zeker een derde volgens de schattingen van de World Health Organizationís - heeft overgewicht of obesitas. Deze duizelingwekkende statistieken hebben er toe geleid dat wetenschappers dit probleem als top prioriteit zijn gaan beschouwen. Nu heeft een groep onderzoekers aan de universiteit van Wyoming gevonden dat capsaÔne - het belangrijkste ingrediŽnt in chilipepers - beloftevol is om te gebruiken als supplement in een basisdieet voor obesitas patiŽnten.

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Plant gebruikt in de traditionele Chinese geneeskunde kan metabole ziekten en obesitas behandelen

Nieuw onderzoek gepubliceerd in het Journal of Leukocyte Biology suggereert dat een onderdeel van een bloeiende plant gebruikt in de traditionele Chinese geneeskunde de ontwikkeling van obesitas, diabetes type 2 en hepatische steatose tegenwerkt. Nieuw onderzoek gepubliceerd in het december nummer 2014 van het Journal of Leukocyte Biology, toont aan dat een component gevonden in de plant, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, de ontwikkeling van metabole aandoeningen kan remmen door het stoppen van de activering van NLRP3, een eiwit dat betrokken is bij het ziekteproces.

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Haveroliebereiding geeft een voller gevoel

Haver bevat meer vet dan andere granen en haverolie heeft een unieke samenstelling. Een nieuwe studie aan de Universiteit van Lund, Harrod Research and Swedish Oat Fiber AB, toont aan dat een speciale haveroliebereiding een groter verzadigingsgevoel geeft. De studie volgde 34 gezonde personen aan wie verschillende hoeveelheden van het haveroliepreparaat werd gegeven als onderdeel van een normaal ontbijt. De onderzoekers vonden dat 3 tot 7 uur na de maaltijd de niveaus van de verzadigingshormonen in de darmen meer stegen met het haveroliepreparaat dan met het placebo (van een tiende tot de helft, afhankelijk van de hoeveelheid haverolie en hormonen).

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Adenosine kan 'love handles' doen smelten

Onderzoekers aan de universiteit van Bonn ontdekken een nieuwe signaalweg om overtollig lichaamsgewicht te bestrijden. Het aantal mensen met overgewicht neemt wereldwijd sterk toe en daardoor ook het risico op een hartaanval, beroerte, diabetes en de ziekte van Alzheimer. Om deze reden dromen veel mensen van een efficiŽnt gewichtsverlies. Een internationaal team van onderzoekers onder leiding van professor Alexander Pfeifer van het Universitair Ziekenhuis van Bonn, zijn nu een stap dichter bij dit doel. De wetenschappers ontdekten een nieuwe manier om bruin vet te stimuleren en daarmee energie uit de voeding te verbranden: Het lichaamseigen adenosine activeert bruin vet en "bruintĒ wit vet. De resultaten zijn gepubliceerd in het gerenommeerd tijdschrift "Nature".

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Ontbijt verhoogt de stof in de hersenen die betrokken is bij het reguleren van de voedselinname en het verlangen er naar

Volgens Centers for Disease Control en Prevention (CDC), slaan veel tieners hun ontbijt over, waardoor de kans op te veel eten uiteindelijk leidt tot gewichtstoename. Statistieken tonen aan dat het aantal jongeren die worstelen met overgewicht, met hoger risico voor chronische gezondheidsproblemen als gevolg, verviervoudigd is in de afgelopen drie decennia. Nu hebben MU onderzoekers ontdekt dat een ontbijt, vooral als het rijk is aan eiwitten, het niveau verhoogt van een stof in de hersenen die geassocieerd is met gevoelens van beloning waardoor het verlangen naar voedsel en te veel eten later op de dag kan verminderen. 

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Grapefruitsap beÔnvloedt gewicht bij vetrijk dieet muizen

DiŽten komen en gaan, maar heeft het consumeren van grapefruit en grapefruitsap invloed op de gevolgen van deze diŽten? Nieuw onderzoek aan de Universiteit van CaliforniŽ, Berkeley, suggereert dat een kijkje op grapefruitsap gerechtvaardigd is. Uit een nieuwe studie gepubliceerd 8 oktober ll., in het peer-reviewed tijdschrift PLoS ONE, blijkt dat muizen die een hoog-vet dieet kregen met grapefruitsap 18 procent minder bijkwamen dan muizen die alleen water kregen. Sapdrinkende muizen bleken ook betere niveaus van glucose insuline en een type van vetten genaamd triglyceriden te hebben in vergelijking met hun waterdrinkende tegenhangers.

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Gewichtig probleem: combinatie stress en vette voeding veroorzaakt vertraagde stofwisseling bij vrouwen

Volgens een nieuwe studie bij vrouwen zouden een of meer stressmomenten, ťťn dag vůůr het eten van een enkele vette maaltijd, de stofwisseling kunnen vertragen en hiermee kunnen bijdragen aan gewichtstoename. Onderzoekers vroegen de deelneemsters naar stressfactoren van de vorige dag, voordat zij een maaltijd kregen dat uit 930 calorieŽn en 60 gram vet bestond. Daarna werd door de wetenschappers het stofwisselingspercentage gemeten - hoe lang het duurt voordat de vrouwen calorieŽn en vet verbranden - en deden metingen van bloedsuiker, triglyceriden, insuline en het stresshormoon cortisol.

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Broer- of zusrelatie impact op obesitas

Volgens een nieuwe studie gepubliceerd in het American Journal of Preventive Medicine is obesitas van broers en zussen een zwaardere indicator voor obesitas bij kinderen dan het hebben van obese ouders. Het is goed gedocumenteerd dat kinderen met obese ouders een groter risco lopen op obesitas. In een nieuwe studie hebben onderzoekers van het Massachusetts General Hospital, Cornell University en Duke University onderzocht hoe verschillende soorten familieverhoudingen invloed kunnen hebben op obesitas, in het bijzonder hoe kindrelaties binen het gezin invloed hebben op het gewicht van een kind.

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Eiwitten en koolhydraten zijn belangrijker dan calorieŽn tellen

Groot onderzoek van het Charles Perkins Centre.

Volgens de meest uitgebreide studie van de macronutriŽnten balans die ooit is ondernomen, wordt de inname van voedsel in de eerste plaats geregeld door eiwitten en koolhydraten en niet door het aantal verbruikte calorieŽn. Het baanbrekend Charles Perkins Centre van de Universiteit van Sydney voerde 's werelds eerste studie uit - gepubliceerd in Cell Metabolism - over de effecten van eiwitten, vetten en koolhydraten op energie-inname, metabole gezondheid, veroudering en levensduur op muizen.

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Het bewijs dat rillen en lichaamsbeweging wit vet kunnen omzetten in bruin vet

Een nieuw onderzoek suggereert dat rillen en periodes van matige lichaamsbeweging even goed zijn wanneer het gaat om het stimuleren van de omzetting van energie opslaan in 'wit vet Ď naar energie verbranden door ' bruin vet '. Ongeveer 50 g Ďwit vetí slaat meer dan 300 kilocalorieŽn aan energie op. Dezelfde hoeveelheid Ďbruin vetí kan tot 300 kilocalorieŽn per dag verbranden. Endocrinoloog dr. Paul Lee, van Sydney's Garvan Institute of Medical Research, heeft onlangs onderzoek gedaan aan de National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Washington, gefinancierd als een NHMRC Early Career Research Fellow.

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Oefening, chirurgisch verwijderen van buikvet verbetert cognitie bij obese, diabetische muizen.

Wetenschappers rapporteren dat cognitieve achteruitgang die vaak gepaard gaat met obesitas en diabetes kan worden teruggedraaid met regelmatige lichaamsbeweging of chirurgische verwijdering van buikvet.

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Slecht ontbijt tijdens de jeugd verbonden met het metabool syndroom bij volwassenheid

Het wordt vaak gezegd dat het ontbijt belangrijk is voor onze gezondheid en een studie uitgevoerd door de Universiteit van UmeŚ , gepubliceerd in Public Health Nutrition ondersteunt deze bewering. De studie toonde aan dat tieners die een arm ontbijt hadden, 27 jaar later een hogere incidentie vertoonden voor het metabool syndroom vergeleken met degenen die substantieel rijker ontbeten.

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Zwaarlijvige kinderen hebben hogere niveaus van stresshormonen dan leeftijdgenoten met normaal gewicht

In de haaranalyses werden verhoogde cortisol concentraties gevonden al bij kinderen van 8 jaar.  Obese kinderen produceren van nature hogere niveaus van een sleutel stresshormoon dan hun leeftijdgenoten met normaal gewicht blijkt uit nieuw onderzoek, geaccepteerd als publicatie in The Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Nieuw onderzoek toont aan dat obesitas een ontstekingsziekte is

Nieuw onderzoek in the FASEB Journal suggereert dat een abnormale hoeveelheid van een ontstekingseiwit genaamd PAR2 aanwezig is in buikvet weefsels van mensen en ratten met overgewicht en obesitas

Bethesda, MD-Wetenschappers zijn een stap dichterbij gekomen bij een "obesitas drug" welke de effecten van diŽten hoog in suiker en vetten kan blokkeren. In een nieuw onderzoeksrapport gepubliceerd in het december 2013 nummer van The FASEB Journal, tonen wetenschappers aan dat er een abnormale hoeveelheid van een ontstekingseiwit genaamd PAR2 in het buik vetweefsel van mensen en ratten met overgewicht en obesitas. Dit eiwit is ook verhoogd op de oppervlakken van humane immunnocellen bij gewone vetzuren in het dieet. Als obese ratten op een dieet met veel suiker en vet een nieuw oraal geneesmiddel kregen dat bindt aan PAR2, werden de ontsteking veroorzakende eigenschappen van dit eiwit geblokkeerd, net als andere effecten van het hoge vet en veel suiker dieet - met inbegrip van de obesitas zelf.

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Eiwitrijk ontbijt helpt de hele ochtend om de eetlust te beteugelen ontdekken wetenschappers

ATLANTA - Terwijl de Amerikanen over het algemeen voldoende eiwitten consumeren, neigen ze ernaar om een klein beetje bij het ontbijt te eten, matige hoeveelheden tijdens de lunch, en de grootste hoeveelheid bij het diner. Nieuw onderzoek vandaag gepresenteerd op de jaarlijkse wetenschappelijke bijeenkomst van de Obesitas Vereniging in Atlanta toont aan dat het eten van eiwitrijke worst en ei-gebaseerde ontbijten de hele ochtend honger in toom houden, vergeleken met een laag-eiwit ontbijt (pannenkoeken en stroop) of overslaan van het ontbijt, in 18-55 -jarige vrouwen.

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Eet meer, weeg minder: Studie met worden verschaft aanwijzingen voor betere vet-verlies therapieŽn voor de mens.

Wetenschappers aan het Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) hebben belangrijke details ontdekt van een brain-to-body signaleringsschakeling waarmee spoelwormen in staat zijn om gewicht te verliezen onafhankelijk van voedselinname. Het gewicht-verlies circuit wordt geactiveerd door gecombineerde signalen van de worm-versies van de neurotransmitters serotonine en adrenaline. Er zijn genoeg redenen om te vermoeden dat dit in een vergelijkbare vorm bij mensen en andere zoogdieren bestaat.

"Het stimuleren van serotonine werd al gezien als een haalbare strategie voor gewichtsverlies bij mensen, maar onze resultaten laten doorschemeren dat het stimuleren van serotonine plus adrenaline een krachtiger effect moet produceren - en er is al wat bewijs dat dat het geval is," zei TSRI Universitair docent Supriya Srinivasan , die hoofdonderzoeker was voor de studie, online gepubliceerd voor afdruk op 10 oktober 2013 door het tijdschrift Cell Metabolism.

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Veel of weinig darmbacteriŽn geeft nieuwe visie voor de
behandeling van obesitas

Shenzhen, China - Het MetaHIT consortium, bestaande uit Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), University of Copenhagen, BGI en andere instituten heeft de microbiŽle samenstelling van de darm onderzocht in een cohort van 123 niet-obese en 169 obese Deense personen. Deze studie toonde voor het eerst aan dat er onder de bevolking onderscheid gemaakt kan worden tussen 2 groepen van individuen middels de rijkdom van de darmflora. De laatste resultaten werden vandaag online gepubliceerd in Nature.

Obesitas, bekend als Ďde moderne beschaafde ziekteí, is wereldwijd een belangrijke, te voorkomen doodsoorzaak die de kans op verschillende ziekten vergroot, met name hartziekten, diabetes type 2 en andere ziekten. Er staat gemeld dat de obesitas-epidemie kan zorgen voor meer dan 700 miljoen obese mensen in 2015 en verder zal blijven groeien. Elk van onze darmen is gekoloniseerd door meer dan 3 pond micro-organismen. Steeds meer blijkt dat onze Ďandereí genoom, microbiome, grotere gevolgen kunnen hebben op het ontstaan van obesitas.

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Cacao kan de strijd tegen obesitas gerelateerde ontsteking helpen

Volgens onderzoekers van Penn State zijn een paar koppen warme chocolademelk niet alleen goed tegen de kilte van een winterdag, maar ze kunnen ook helpen zwaarlijvige mensen ontstekingsgerelateerde ziekten te controleren zoals diabetes. Muizen gevoed met cacao en een vetrijk dieet ervaren minder obesitas gerelateerde ontstekingen dan muizen gevoed met hetzelfde vetrijke dieet maar zonder het supplement, zei Joshua Lambert, universitair hoofddocent van de voedingswetenschap. De muizen aten het menselijke equivalent van 10 eetlepels cacaopoeder - ongeveer vier of vijf koppen warme chocolademelk - gedurende een periode van 10 weken.

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Onlangs ontdekte menselijke vet cel opent nieuwe mogelijkheden voor toekomstige behandeling van obesitas

De bruine vetcellen van het lichaam spelen een sleutelrol in de ontwikkeling van obesitas en diabetes. Onderzoekers aan Sahlgrenska Academie, Universiteit van GŲteborg, Zweden, hebben nu ontdekt dat wij mensen twee verschillende soorten bruine vetcellen hebben en niet een soort zoals eerder gedacht. Deze ontdekking, nu gepubliceerd in Nature Medicine, biedt nieuwe mogelijkheden voor toekomstige geneesmiddelen die gebruik maken van het vermogen van bruine vetcellen om calorieŽn te consumeren.

In tegenstelling tot de witte vetcellen, die in het lichaam de overtollige energie in de vorm van vet opslaan, hebben bruine vetcellen de unieke eigenschap de mogelijkheid om energie te verbranden en om te zetten in warmte.

De studie, nu gepubliceerd door de onderzoekers van de Universiteit van GŲteborg toont voor de eerste keer dat mensen ten minste twee verschillende soorten bruin vetcellen - niet slechts een hebben zoals eerder werd gedacht. Volgens Sven Enerbšck, die aan het hoofd van het land kopgroep onderzoek in de studie van vetcellen en metabolisme, is dit een interessante ontdekking.

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Omzetting van van slecht vet naar goed vet

Wetenschappers van het ETH Zurich hebben voor het eerst aangetoond dat bruine en witte vetcellen in een levend organisme kunnen worden omgezet van het ene type cel naar het andere. Hun werk, bij muizen als modelorganisme, bieden nieuwe inzichten in de oorsprong van bruine vetcellen wat een voorwaarde is voor de ontwikkeling van succesvolle anti-obesitas therapieŽn. Twee soorten vetcellen kunnen worden gevonden in zoogdieren en dus ook bij mensen: witte vetcellen die voornamelijk werken als zeer flexibele energiereserves die zich vullen in geval van calorie overvloed. Het vet wordt opgeslagen in de vorm van lipide druppeltjes die worden vrijgegeven wanneer energie nodig is. Haaks daarop qua functie zijn de zogenaamde bruine adipocyten: deze cellen zijn gespecialiseerd in het verbranden van energie onder de vorm van vet en suiker om warmte te produceren. Pasgeboren baby's bezitten aanzienlijke hoeveelheden bruin vet en gebruiken het om de lichaamstemperatuur te handhaven. Omdat onlangs werd aangetoond dat bruine adipocyten ook bestaan bij volwassen mensen heeft het onderzoek zich gericht op het begrijpen van hoe de bruine vetcellen worden gevormd. Het uiteindelijke doel van deze inspanningen is het bruine vetcellen aantal en activiteit bij zware personen te verhogen, zodat ze overtollige calorieŽn verbranden en daardoor gewicht verliezen.

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'Love handles' smelten weg door een druk op de knop

Onderzoekers aan de Universiteit van Bonn decodeerden een soort van trigger schakelaar voor het omzetten van vetcellen. Lange tijd droomden wetenschappers ervan om ongewenste witte vetcellen in bruine vetcellen om te zetten en gewoon overtollige kilo's weg te smelten. Onderzoekers aan de Universiteit van Bonn zijn nu een stap dichter bij dit doel: ze decodeerden een soort van "tuimelschakelaar" in muizen die aanzienlijke vetverbranding kunnen stimuleren. De resultaten worden nu gepresenteerd in het wetenschappelijk tijdschrift 'Natuur Communications'. Veel mensen worstelen met overgewicht niet alleen in de geÔndustrialiseerde landen - maar alle vet is niet het zelfde. "Love handles" bevatten bijzonder lastige witte vetcellen die overtollig voedsel op slaan. Bruine vetcellen zijn precies het tegenovergestelde: zij verbranden de overtollige energie als wenselijke "verwarmingsautomaten" van het lichaam.

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Olijfolie geeft je een vol gevoel

Hoe oliŽn en vetten een gevoel van verzadiging geven.

Werkgroepen van de Technische Universitšt MŁnchen (TUM) onder de leiding van Prof Peter Schieberle en aan de Universiteit van Wenen onder de leiding van Prof Veronika Somoza bestudeerden vier verschillende vetten en oliŽn: reuzel, botervet, koolzaadolie en olijfolie. Gedurende een periode van drie maanden aten de proefpersonen dagelijks 500 gram magere yoghurt verrijkt met ťťn van de vier vetten en oliŽn als aanvulling op hun normaal dieet.

"Olijfolie gaf het grootste verzadigingseffect", aldus prof. dr. Peter Schieberle, hoofd van de TUM Chair Food Chemistry en directeur van het Duitse Onderzoekscentrum voor Levensmiddelenchemie. "De olijfolie groep vertoonde een hogere concentratie van het verzadigingshormoon serotonine in zijn bloed. Subjectief gezien hadden deze deelnemers ook gemeld dat ze vonden dat de olijfolie yoghurt zeer verzadigend was." Gedurende de onderzoeksperiode vertoonde geen enkel lid van deze groep een toename in hun lichaamsvet percentage of gewicht.

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'Obese maar gelukkig gen' weerlegt de algemene opvatting van de link tussen depressie en obesitas

Onderzoekers van de McMaster University hebben nieuwe genetische informatie ontdekt waarom sommige mensen zijn gelukkiger dan anderen. McMaster wetenschappers hebben het bewijs ontdekt dat het gen FTO - grote genetische bijdrage aan obesitas - is gekoppeld aan een acht procent vermindering van het risico op een depressie. Met andere woorden, het is niet alleen een obesitas-gen, maar evenzeer een "happy-gen".

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Nieuwe aanwijzingen over hoe de hersenen en het lichaam communiceren om gewicht te reguleren

Het handhaven van een gezond lichaamsgewicht kan voor veel mensen moeilijk zijn maar het is geruststellend om te weten dat onze hersenen en organen zijn gemaakt om hierin samen te werken. Er bestaat een ​​fenomeen dat bekend staat als energiebalans, een strakke afstemming tussen het aantal verbruikte calorieŽn versus ingenomen calorieŽn. Deze zorgvuldige balans wordt in stand gehouden door een complexe uitwisseling van neurobiologische signalen binnen de regio's van de hypothalamus. Wanneer dit "gesprek" mis gaat kan dat leiden tot obesitas of anorexia. Gezien de ernst van deze aandoeningen is het jammer dat er weinig meer bekend is over deze complexe uitwisseling. Onderzoek aan het Beth IsraŽl Deaconess Medisch Centrum (BIDMC) verschaft nieuwe inzichten omtrent dit fenomeen. Zoals te lezen in de uitgave van 26 oktober van het tijdschrift Cell, tonen de bevindingen aan hoe de GABA neurotransmitter selectief energieverbruik stuurt, en belangrijker nog, helpt te verklaren hoe neurocircuits ten grondslag liggen aan de vet verbrandende eigenschappen van bruin vet.

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In zwaarlijvigheid veroorzaakt een micro-RNA metabole problemen

Wetenschappers hebben een moleculaire hoofdrolspeler geÔdentificeerd in een keten van gebeurtenissen in het lichaam die kan leiden tot vervetting van de lever, type II diabetes en andere metabole afwijkingen geassocieerd met obesitas kunnen leiden. Door het blokkeren van dit molecuul, waren de onderzoekers in staat om enkele van de pathologieŽn om te keren veroorzaakt in zwaarlijvige muizen. Hun bevindingen worden weergegeven in de werkzaamheden van de nationale Academie van Wetenschappen.

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Appelschil verbinding verhoogt de calorieverbranding en reduceert obesitas in muizen

Obesitas en de problemen waarmee het geassocieerd wordt, zoals diabetes en leververvetting  zijn in toenemende mate wereldwijde gezondheidsproblemen. Een nieuwe studie door onderzoekers van de universiteit van Iowa toont aan dat een natuurlijke substantie, gevonden in appelschillen, muizen ten dele kan beschermen tegen obesitas en zijn schadelijke effecten. De resultaten suggereren dat een substantie, genaamd malol, obesitas reduceert  en zijn geassocieerde gezondheidsproblemen door de spiermassa en het bruine vet te verhogen, twee weefsels die bekend staan om hun vetverbrandende kwaliteiten.

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Bent u te zwaar ?

Niet uw schuld! In het belang van de industrie- en farmalobby vertelt men u gewoon niet meer hoe u het beste kunt eten en dat is zo simpel.

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De Internationale obesitas epidemie is wijdverspreid en discrimineert niet

Maar begrijpen we echt de onderliggende factors van deze alarmerende trend? Het concept van de energie balans (gegeten energie=gebruikte energie + opgeslagen energie) is onmiskanbaar,aangevoerd door de eerste wet van de thermodynamica. Derhalve is er geen contradictie dat excessieve calorieninname en weinig  lichamelijke activiteit grotendeels schuldig zijn aan de altijd toenemende tailleomtrek.

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Einstein onderzoekers vinden link tussen hersenmolecuul, zwaarlijvigheid en diabetes

De hypothalamus in de hersenen speelt een belangrijke rol in zwaarlijvigheid met ťťn van diens grootste complicaties- diabetes type 2. Zenuwcellen in de hypothalamus herkennen voedingsstoffen en hormonen die zich in de bloedcirculatie bevinden en coŲrdineren daarna een reeks complexe processen op het gebied van gedrag en lichamelijke reacties om de balans tussen de ingenomen en verbrande calorieŽn te bewaren. Als dit mechanisme niet goed werkt kunnen zwaarlijvigheid en diabetes het gevolg zijn. Momenteel heeft onderzoek door postdoctorale collega Clťmence Blouet, Ph.D., en Gary Schwartz, Ph.D., hoogleraar medicijnen en in de Dominicaanse republiek P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience van het Albert Einstein College of Medicine van Yeshiva University opgeleverd, dat een hersen molecule mogelijk bijdraagt tot deze gezondheidsproblemen, welke buiten proporties en tot epidemische hoogte groeien. Een studie uit een tijdschrift voor zwaarlijvigheid voorspelt dat 86% van alle Amerikaanse volwassenen overgewicht of zwaarlijvigheid zal hebben in 2030 als de huidige tendens aanhoudt. En in oktober j.l. bevestigde de U.S. Centers for Disease Control dat diabetes onder volwassen Amerikanen zal kunnen stijgen van de huidige 1 op de 10 naar 1 op de 3 in 2030.

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Fructose maakt je vetter

Een van de redenen dat mensen op een laag-koolhydraten (low-carb) dieet gewicht verliezen is dat ze hun inname van fructose (fruitsuiker) verminderen. Een vorm van suiker die het lichaam heel snel omzet in vet, volgens een onderzoeker aan UT Southwestern Medical Center. “Onze studie toont voor de eerste keer de verbazingwekkende snelheid waarmee mensen lichaamsvet maken van fructose”,zegt Dr Parks. Fructose, glucose en sucrose, wat een mengsel is van fructose en glucose, zijn verschillende vormen van suiker, maar worden verschillend omgezet .

Voor de studie, werden zes gezonde individuen blootgesteld aan drie verschillende tests waarin ze een fruit sapje opdronken. In de ene zat 100 % glucose, gelijk aan wat dokters aan hun patienten geven voor diabetes test. de orale glucose test. In de tweede test dronken ze half glucose en half fructose, en in de derde, dronken ze 25% glucose en 75% fructose.

De tests waren random en blind en de proefpersonen aten een normale lunch ongeveer vier uur later. De onderzoekers vonden dat de lipogenese , het proces waarbij suikers worden omgezet in lichaams vet, aanzienlijk toenam wanneer zelfs maar de helft van de glucose werd vervangen door fructose. Fructose ingenomen tijdens het ontbijt veranderde ook de manier waarop het lichaam met voedsel omsprong tijdens de lunch. Na de fructose consumptie, verhoogde de lever de opslag van lunch vetten die anders gebruikt hadden kunnen worden. “De boodschap van deze studie is luid en duidelijk want de vet omzetting werd gemeten vlak na de zoete drankjes waren geconsumeerd”, zei Dr.Parks. De koolhydraten kwamen het lichaam in als suikers, de lever haalde de moleculen uit mekaar en zette ze weer in mekaar als vet. Dit gebeurde allemaal binnen vier uur na het fructose drankje.

Met als resultaat dat toen de volgende maaltijd gegeten werd, de lunch vetten meer kans hadden opgeslagen te worden dan verbrand.

Vertaling James Pott


Waarschuwing : zwaargepromoot vermageringsmiddel ALLI (ook in Ned en BelgiŽ) op Franse zwarte lijst

ALLIģ (orlistat)

Op de zwarte lijst 77 medicijnen in Frankrijk (hetzij onder strikte controle gezet wegens ongewenste bijwerkingen, hetzij binnenkort verboden)

Is van GSK : http://www.gsk.com/media/pressreleases/2009/2009_pressrelease_10044.htm

Ongewenste bijwerkingen :
Olie-achtige lekkage uit de anus ( gedurende eerste jaar van gebruik)
Vettige, olie-achtige ontlasting
Sterke aandrang tot ontlasting (= defaecatiedrang)
Vaker ontlasting
Verlies van ontlasting
Winderigheid (= flatulentie), met verlies van ontlasting

Link 1
Link 2

Ellen

--

Nog wat aanvullende info mbt de kans op zware leverschade

 

Xenical and Alli Receive FDA Liver Damage Warning

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved two new warnings for prescription weight-loss drug Xenical and over-the-counter pill Alli, making it clear to consumers that both drugs have had reports of severe liver injury.

Link 1


Bisphenol A (BPA) link met metabolisch syndroom in menselijk weefsel?

Nieuw research van de Universiteit van Cincinnati impliceert de belangrijkste chemische stof die gebruikt wordt voor het maken van harde plastics -bisphenol-A- als een risicof actor vooor metabolisch syndroom
en de gevolgen ervan. In een lab studie,met gebruik van vers menselijk weefsel, ontdekte het UC team dat BPA een sleutel hormoon wat veran twoordelijk is voor het regelen van insuline gevoeligheid - adiponectin- onderdrukt en daardoor mensen blootstelt aan grote gevaar voor metabolisch syndroom.

Metabolisch syndroom is een combinatie van risico factoren, waaronder insulin resistentie en hogere niveaus bloedsuiker en lipiden. Volgens de Amerikaanse Hart Stichting, hebben ongeveer 25% van de Amerikanen metabolisch syndroom. Onbehandeld kan het syndroom leiden tot kevens gevaarlijke gezondheids problemen zo als hart en vaat ziekte, beroertes en diabetes type 2. Nira Ben-Jonathan PhD, en haar team zijn de eersten die wetenschappelijk de gevolgen van BPA voor de gezondheid hebben aangetoond, met relevante doses gelijk aan de gemiddelde menselijke blootstelling.

Voorgaande studies hebben vooral gefocused op studies met dieren en hoge doses BPA. Ze hebben hun bevindingen gepubliceerd in de 14 augustus, 2008 online editie van het tijdschrift Environmental Health Perspectives. Deze wetenschappelijke gegevens komen uit net voor een belangrijke FDA vergadering over de veiligheid van de chemische stof in consumenten produkten, gepland voor 16 september. “Mensen zijn zeer bezorgd over de potentieele gevolgen voor de gezondheid. Terwijl de wetenschappelijke argumenten zich beginnen op te stapelen, wordt het zaak serieus te worden toekomstige schade te beperken,” zegt Ben-Jonathan professor kanker en cel biologie aan de universiteit, die BPA al meer dan 10 jaar bestudeerd heeft.

Vertaling James Pott


Vervuilde lucht verhoogt het obesitas risico bij jonge dieren

Blootstelling aan vervuilde lucht in de vroege jaren leidt tot een opeenstapeling van buikvet en insuline weerstand bij muizen, zelfs wanneer ze gewoon eten, aldus nieuw onderzoek. Dieren die worden blootgesteld aan fijnstofdeeltjes (vervuiling) in de lucht hebben grotere en meerdere vetcellen in hun buikgebied en een hogere bloedsuikerspiegel, dan dieren die hetzelfde eten, maar schone lucht inademen.

Onderzoekers hebben gedurende zes uur per dag, 10 weken lang muizen van 3 weken oud blootgesteld aan de vervuilde lucht. Deze periode van 10 weken komt overeen met de periode tussen de peuterjaren en de late adolescentie bij de mens. De niveaus van vervuilde lucht waaraan de dieren zijn blootgesteld komen overeen met de fijnstofdeeltjes in stedelijke gebieden in de Verenigde Staten.

"Dit is een van de eerste, zo niet de eerste studie die aantoont dat deze fijnstofdeeltjes leiden tot ontstekingen en veranderingen in de vetcellen. Beiden verhogen het risico voor type 2 diabetes", aldus Qinghua Zon, een universitair hoofddocent van het milieu Gezondheidswetenschappen aan de Ohio State University en hoofdauteur van de studie.

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Vertaling - Pauline Laumans


Het Couch Potato Effect

De uitwissing van de belangrijkste spier eiwit remt oefening. Daniel Kelly, MD, en zijn collega‘s van het Sanford-Burnham medisch onderzoek instituut (Sanford-Burnham) in Lake Nona hebben een verrassend nieuw model voor het bestuderen van de spierfunctie onthuld: de couch potato muis. Hoewel deze muizen een normale activiteit en lichaamsgewicht hebben, hebben zij niet de energie om te trainen/oefenen. In de 1 december uitgave over de celstofwisseling, rapporteert Dr. Kelly‘s team wat er gebeurt als er in spierweefsel PGC-1 ontbreekt, een eiwit coactivator die de spieren nodig hebben om brandstof om te zetten in energie. “Een deel van onze interesse, om te begrijpen welke factoren ervoor zorgen dat spieren werken, is de wetenschap dat, wat voor mechanisme het dan ook is, het inactief wordt in geval van overgewicht, vergrijzing, diabetes of andere chronische condities die effect hebben op de mobiliteit,“ legt Dr. Kelly uit.

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Vertaling Lia Keizer


Bewijs : het verband tussen obesitas en probiotica

Van Professor Didier Raoult (Research Unit Besmettelijke en Tropische Ziekten, Universiteitskliniek Marseille) verscheen in "Nature" van september 2009 een artikel betreffende zijn onderzoek naar "Het verband tussen obesitas en probiotica "

Hierbij denken we natuurljk direct aan de yoghurtjes van Danone , Activa en de alom geprezen ("dagelijks") Actimel of Yakult flesjes verrijkt met bifidobacterium en lactobacillus casei....

Het blijkt uit zijn onderzoek dat deze "actieve en levende" bacterieŽn dezelfde zijn als die al sinds jaar en dag worden toegepast bij het vetmesten van varkens en kippen. Voorbeeldje: een varken gevoed met probiotica vertoont 10% meer gewicht. Even googelen leert ons dat veehouderijen deze bijvoeding voor pluimvee, varkens en runderen inderdaad al jaren toepassen.

Prof. Raoult heeft in zijn laboratorium ook testen uitgevoerd op ťťn week oude kuikentjes en deze elke dag een aangepaste dosis Lactobacillus toegediend (probioticum dat Danone eveneens gebruikt in z'n Actimel). Na 4 weken constateerde hij een 30% gewichtstoename boven het normaal geachte en verwachte gewicht. Deze opmerkelijke resultaten werden door een onderzoeksjournalist Michel Dogna opgetekend naar aanleiding van een artikel verschenen in een maandelijks in Frankrijk verspreid "Bio" tijdschrift, dat helaas niet digitaal te raadplegen is (http://www.infomicheldogna.net/page5.html)

Vorig jaar nog kon Danone zich in Duitsland "verheugen" op de gouden onderscheiding voor de grootste reclame-leugen, " die goldenen Windbeutel " :  Link

Zou dit weleens een (de) verklaring kunnen zijn voor het almaar dikker worden van kinderen en volwassenen ?

Samenvatting/vertaling van het onderzoek van Professor Raoult in het gerenommeerde wetenschappelijke magazine "Nature" van september 2009: Link

Didier Raoult waarschuwt hier voor het feit dat het gebruik van probiotica als groeipromotors in de vee-industrie diepgaandere studies behoeven alvorens deze als veilig worden beschouwd voor mensen.
Recente studies op menselijke darmflora hebben uitgewezen, dat obesitas gelinkt wordt aan een reductie van de Gram-negatieve bacterieŽn, familie van de Bacteroidetes en een verhoging van de Gram-positieve Firmicutes. Ook constateerde men dat de darmflora van individuele zwaarlijvigen minder divers is dan die van niet-zwaarlijvigen. Het manipuleren van darmflora wordt al zo'n 50 jaar in veehouderijen toegepast met toestemming van de FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in de USA en de Europese Commissie. Probiotica die hiervoor gebruikt worden in veehouderijen bevatten Firmicutes (zie: http://www.gezonderworden.nl/2006/12/ en http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firmicutes), en met name Lactobacillus spp, Bifidobacterium spp en Enterococcus spp.

Deze producten worden veelvuldig gebruikt bij de veeteelt, in het bijzonder bij pluimvee, kalveren en varkens en meerdere studies laten een verontrustende gewichtstoename zien van jonge dieren die hiermee gevoed werden.

Firmicutes worden ook gebruikt als therapeutische additieven voor mensen, onder de naam "probiotica". In de Verenigde Staten zijn deze producten door de FDA ondergebracht onder de noemer "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS, ironisch genoeg betekent dit in het frans, "vet"). Deze concentraties zijn gelijk aan die gebruikt worden bij dieren als groeipromotors. De hoeveelheden Lactobacillus acidophilus in yoghurts of drinks zijn gelijk aan die gebruikt worden voor het vetmesten van biggetjes. Enkele studies hebben uitgewezen dat ook kinderen die regelmatig deze probiotica innemen, een gewichtstoename vertoonden, en dit onafhankelijk van de reden waarom die kinderen dit voorgeschreven kregen.

Deze studieresultaten zullen meegenomen moeten worden in het onderzoek naar de reden van de obesitasepidemie die momenteel in vele landen gaande is. Het is van groot belang om zo snel mogelijk een diepgaander onderzoek in te stellen naar de effecten van probiotica bij kinderen. Een bijzonder verontrustende vaststelling : de richtlijnen voor het gebruik van probiotica bij mensen zijn minder ingrijpend dan die voor het gebruik bij dieren !

"...verdere onderzoeken met behulp van experimentele modellen moeten worden uitgevoerd om de rol van deze producten te beoordelen alvorens deze aan te bevelen voor gebruik door kinderen."  Naar mijn mening (prof. Raoult) is het promoten van probiotica voor menselijke consumptie een gevaarlijk en verontrustend gezondheidsprobleem wanneer we kunnen concluderen dat deze bacterieŽn aan de basis liggen van gewichtstoename bij dieren. Alle chemische toevoegingen met gelijkaardige bijwerkingen zouden eerst rigoureus getest moeten worden voor dit als veilig mag worden beschouwd in voedsel voor de mens.

Ellen


Verband obesitas en probiotica in Danone Activa en Actimel
(bifidobacterium en lactobacillus casei)

Artikel in "Nature" van september 2009 over een onderzoek van de franse Professor Didier Raoult uit Marseille met de volgende verontrustende conclusie:  De "actieve en levende" bacterieŽn die we terugvinden in de Activa yoghurts en Actimel van Danone, zijn dezelfde die al sinds jaar en dag worden gebruikt bij het vetmesten van varkens en kippen. Voorbeeld: een varken gevoed met probiotica vertoont 10% meer gewicht.

Prof. Raoult heeft tevens in zijn laboratorium testen uitgevoerd op ťťn week oude kuikentjes en deze elke dag een aangepaste dosis Lactobacillus toegediend (probioticum dat Danone eveneens gebruikt in
z'n Actimel). Na 4 weken constateerde hij een 30% gewichtstoename boven het normaal geachte en verwachte gewicht.

Een link waaruit blijkt dat Danone vorig jaar in Duitsland de gouden onderscheiding voor de grootste reclame-leugen heeft gekregen " die goldenen Windbeutel ": Link

De groep Actimel Europa en Activa Europa is samen goed voor een omzet van 1,5 miljard euro.. 10% van de totale omzet van Danone.

Zou dit een (de) verklaring kunnen zijn voor het almaar dikker worden van kinderen en volwassenen ?
http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v7/n9/full/nrmicro2209.html

Ellen

 

Een samenvatting van het Franse artikel:

Probiotics and obesity: a link?

1.Didier Raoult is at Unitť de Recherche en Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales …mergentes, CNRS-IRD UMR 6236, Facultť de Mťdecine, Universitť de la Mťditerranťe, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France.
Email: didier.raoult@gmail.com

Didier Raoult cautions that the use of probiotics as growth promoters in the farming industry means that further studies should be carried out before they are regarded as safe for use in humans.

Recent studies on the human gut microbiota have shown that obesity is associated with a reduction in Gram-negative bacteria, specifically members of the Bacteroidetes, and an increase in Gram-positive Firmicutes1. Additionally, it has been shown that the gut microbiota of obese individuals is less diverse than that of non-obese individuals2. The manipulation of the gut microbiota — through the administration of probiotics and antibiotics — has been used for growth promotion in farm animals for 50 years and is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States and by the European Commission in Europe. The probiotics used for this purpose in the farming industry include products containing Firmicutes, in particular Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Enterococcus spp. These products have been marketed and used in most of the animal farming industry, including in the production of poultry, calves and pigs, and many studies have shown increases in the size and weight of the young animals that are given these bacterial additives. Antibiotics have also been used for this purpose, although this practice is now banned in Europe.

Firmicutes are also used directly as therapeutic adjuvants in humans, under the names probiotics, prebiotics or, more generally, 'functional foods'. In the United States, these products are categorized by the FDA as 'generally regarded as safe' (GRAS; ironically, 'gras' translates as 'fat' in French). Analysis of these products showed that they contain high concentrations of live Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. (up to 108 organisms per gram or millilitre). These concentrations are similar to those used in animals as growth promoters. In the United States, probiotic-containing products such as dairy drinks or yogurts typically contain >107 lactobacilli. Lactobacillus acidophilus is found in functional foods in amounts that are equivalent to those used to cause weight gain in piglets. Lactobacillus spp. have also been associated with weight gain in children treated for diarrhoea3. In addition, some studies have demonstrated weight increases in children who received Lactobacillus rhamnosus, independent of the disease for which this probiotic was prescribed4. When these data are considered in the context of the epidemic of childhood obesity that is occurring in many developed countries, it seems essential to quickly and more completely study the effects of probiotics in the paediatric population.

Functional foods, including fermented dairy products containing probiotics, are gaining popularity in many countries, among children in particular, but little research has been carried out on the connection between these products and weight gain. These food products are often sold under the guise of having positive effects on children's health, but there are little conclusive data to support these claims. Surprisingly, the level of regulation for the use of probiotics in humans is less strict than that for their use in animals. The specific bacterial species involved and the concentrations at which they are present are often not made clear to consumers, and to my knowledge the long-term effects of probiotics as human food supplements or as adjunctive therapy have never been rigorously evaluated. In my opinion, further work using experimental models should be carried out to evaluate the role of these products as animal growth promoters before they are recommended for use in children.

"...further work using experimental models should be carried out to evaluate the role of these products as animal growth promoters before they are recommended for use in children."

It is my view that there is a danger that we may be causing a real human health problem by promoting for human consumption products containing bacteria that have been associated with weight gain in the animal food industry. Any chemical compound with such a side effect in experimental animals would be rigorously tested before being allowed to be used in food. I think that before probiotic and prebiotic products can be regarded as safe, it is imperative that they are tested in experimental models that evaluate the propensity of these products to cause obesity in humans.


Rol van slaap in afslanken

Welke rol speelt onze slaap bij het afslanken? Kan je al slapend afslanken?


Minder eten? Fop je hersenen

Voor wie van zichzelf weet dat het toch echt tijd is voor een dieet en meer lichaamsbeweging hebben wetenschappers een pijnloze methode ontdekt die de eetlust bijstuurt en zelfs zittend ook wat extra
calorieŽn verbrandt. Door ’s ochtends drie keer 20 minuten flink suikervrije kauwgom te kauwen, wordt de eetlust voor de lunch afgeremd, zonder dat er in de loop van de middag honger ontstaat. Bovendien
wordt door de kauwgom kauwer ongeveer 5 procent meer energie verbrand. Professor Kathleen Melanson van de Universiteit van Rhode Island heeft ontdekt dat kauwgom kauwers ongeveer 67 calorieŽn minder eten bij de lunch dan andere vrijwillige deelnemers aan haar onderzoek, die geen kauwgom kauwden. Het experiment omvatte 35 vrijwilligers. Melanson ontdekte dat de hersenen door het kauwgom kauwen gingen aannemen dat de persoon aan het eten was. Die informatie werd verwerkt in het centrum van de hersenen dat de eetlust reguleert. Bron: University of Rhode Island;

Link

Lucas


Cortisol and Weight Gain

Recent studies have revealed that cutting calories to lose weight raises cortisol, a hormone known to interfere with thyroid hormones and insulin, cause leptin resistance, and more. High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets are also thought to consistently raise cortisol levels as well. All of this contributes to weight gain long-term, regardless of short-term apparent success. Diets make you fat.


180 Metabolism Weight Loss Audio Seminar

Boost your metabolism with Matt Stone and lose weight with this audio series on key elements of successful long-term weight loss.


Waarom je makkelijker slank blijft met olijfolie dan met verzadigd vet

Je blijft makkelijker op gewicht als de vetten in je dieet vooral enkelvoudig onverzadigd zijn, en je wordt makkelijker dik naarmate die vetten verzadigd zijn. Het lichaam verbrandt de vetten in olijfolie verhoudingsgewijs gemakkelijk, terwijl het de vetten in vlees en zuivel graag omzet lichaamsvet. Dat ontdekten Franse fysiologen die werkten voor ruimtevaartorganisaties ESA, NASDA en CNES.

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Dikkerds leven niet korter, maar hebben langer gebreken

Matige dikkerds leven even lang als mensen met een normaal gewicht. Maar ze leven aanzienlijk langer met beperkingen. Alleen ernstige zwaarlijvigheid (een BMI van 35 of meer) verhoogt sterfte. Dat blijkt uit onderzoek van demograaf Mieke Reuser. Zij promoveert op 28 oktober aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Reuser: ‘Wie oud wil worden, hoeft niet te gaan lijnen. Wie gezond oud wil worden, moet wťl op zijn BMI
letten.’

In de twintigste eeuw is de levensverwachting in West-Europa, de Verenigde Staten en Japan met ongeveer dertig jaar toegenomen. De laatste decennia is deze winst vooral te danken aan lagere sterfte op hoge leeftijd. We worden met zijn allen veel ouder. Maar hebben we ook veel meer ‘goede jaren’, jaren zonder ziekten en beperkingen? Daarnaar was, gek genoeg, nog niet veel onderzoek gedaan. Demograaf Mieke Reuser van het Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut (NIDI) en de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (RUG) analyseerde de gegevens uit de Amerikaanse Health and Retirement Study van zo’n 30.000 Amerikanen, van wie de gezondheid tussen 1992 en 2004 nauwkeurig gevolgd werd.

Het meest verrassende resultaat is dat overgewicht en matige zwaarlijvigheid niet leiden tot oversterfte. Levensverwachting bij overgewicht (BMI 25-29.9) is voor mannen zelfs significant hoger dan bij laag normaal gewicht (BMI 18.5-22.9). Alleen ernstige zwaarlijvigheid (BMI 35 of meer) verhoogt sterfte en
verlaagt dus de levensverwachting. Matig zwaarlijvige mannen leven gemiddeld twee jaar langer met beperkingen na hun 55ste dan mannen met normaal gewicht. Voor vrouwen is dat verschil maar liefst 3,2 jaar.

Aangezien het percentage mensen met ernstige zwaarlijvigheid relatief klein is, zelfs in de Amerikaanse situatie, is het effect op de levensverwachting van de totale bevolking gering. Mieke Reuser: ‘De VS bieden een blik in onze eigen toekomst. Ook in Europa worden we steeds dikker, maar we worden er niet minder oud om. Dit leidt tot een enorme toename in de zorgkosten. Willen we de zorg betaalbaar houden, dan moeten we overgewicht en zwaarlijvigheid tegengaan.’

Uit het onderzoek blijkt verder dat hoger opgeleiden langer leven, en minder lang lijden onder fysieke en cognitieve beperkingen. Hoogopgeleide mannen van 55 jaar oud leven gemiddeld nog 1,1 jaar met cognitieve beperkingen, laagopgeleide mannen 2,7 jaar. Voor vrouwen is dit respectievelijk 1,9 en 3,8 jaar. Dit onderzoek bevestigt de hypothese van de ‘cognitieve reserve’, die stelt dat hoogopgeleiden cognitief verval en geheugenverlies langer kunnen uitstellen, door schade aan de hersenen beter te compenseren. De hypothese stelt dat zodra hoogopgeleiden de grens van klinische dementie hebben bereikt, het stadium van aftakeling van de hersenen verder gevorderd is en ze sneller zullen overlijden dan laagopgeleiden.

Tot slot laat het onderzoek zien dat roken het tegenovergestelde effect heeft van overgewicht. Doordat rokers gemiddeld jonger sterven, leven ze minder jaren met lichamelijke beperkingen. Rokende mannen en vrouwen leven respectievelijk 1,3 en 1,4 jaar minder met beperkingen dan mannen en vrouwen die nooit gerookt hebben. Wie oud wil worden, moet dus stoppen met roken, maar hoeft niet te gaan lijnen. Wie oud wil worden en lang gezond wil blijven, moet bovendien op zijn BMI letten. Mieke Reuser: ‘Voor de
betaalbaarheid van de zorg is niet roken, maar overgewicht het probleem. Van roken ga je dood, door overgewicht en zwaarlijvigheid word je afhankelijk van anderen.’


Gezond vet

Sinds duizenden jaren is de mens op zoek naar gezond voedsel. Het voedsel wat het meest werd gegeten, was normaal gesproken het meest calorie rijke voedsel. Tot op vandaag de dag zijn er nog verscheidende natuurvolkeren die hun traditionele eetgewoonten in stand hebben gehouden. Al deze natuurvolkeren hebben gemeen dat ze vrij of nagenoeg vrij zijn van westerse welvaartsziekten zoals overgewicht, hart en vaatziekten, diabetes en kanker. Als men de voeding van deze geÔsoleerd levende volkeren analyseert blijkt dat deze voeding tenminste 4 maal zo veel wateroplosbare vitamines, calcium en andere mineralen bevat en tenminste tien maal zoveel vet oplosbare vitamines van dierlijke oorsprong bevat als het hedendaagse voedsel. Het betreft voedingsmiddelen als boter, vis, eieren, schaaldieren en orgaanvlees (van dieren die hun natuurlijke voedsel krijgen), juist die cholesterol rijke voedselsoorten die nu angstvallig vermeden worden door het merendeel van de bevolking als zijnde ongezond.

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Paul Blokker


Barry Groves - Eat fat Get thin - Natural Food Finder Conference

Barry Groves PhD. discusses the scientific evidence that supports the use of a low carbohydrate diet for weight loss and reveals clear evidence why a high carbohydrate diet may be contributing to our obesity crisis.


Dagenlang meer vet verbranden na 15 minuten krachttraining

Als je wilt afvallen maar weinig trek hebt in sport, sleep je luie lijf dan tenminste een paar keer per week naar de gym. Een kwartiertje trainen met gewichten is genoeg om je energieverbruik drie dagen te verhogen.

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Maakt je werk je dik?

Een baan van 9 tot 5 mag dan een wijze van bestaan zijn, maar het zou wel eens meer kunnen vullen dan de portemonnee. Volgens een nieuw onderzoek van de Universiteit van Montreal zijn de werknemers op kantoor minder actief geworden gedurende de laatste drie decennia en kan deze verminderde activiteit de oorzaak zijn voor de toename van obesitas. Hun resultaten die gepubliceerd zijn in de vroege online-editie van 'Preventive Medicine' kan consequenties hebben voor de gezondheid van miljoenen mensen die achter hun bureau zwoegen.

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Wouter


Bijna tien kilo zwaarder door je ouders

Voor sommige mensen is het veel moeilijker dan voor anderen om op gewicht te blijven. Onderzoekers vonden nu dat mensen die veel erfelijke factoren van hun ouders hebben meegekregen die van invloed zijn op gewicht zelfs 7 tot 9 kilo meer wegen dan mensen die weinig van die factoren hebben geŽrfd. Of je als gevolg van dat extra gewicht een appelvorm of een peervorm krijgt, blijkt ookal door j e erfelijk materiaal te worden bepaald. De onderzoekers, waaronder verschillende Nederlandse groepen, publiceren deze bevindingen vanavond in twee publicaties in het internationaal tijdschrift Nature Genetics.

De onderzoekers keken enerzijds naar de erfelijke factoren die mensen gevoeliger maken voor zwaarlijvigheid. Van de 18 nieuwe erfelijke varianten die daarbij boven tafel kwamen, bleken verschillende via de hersenen een rol te spelen in het ontstaan van overgewicht. Zo geven de
hersenen bijvoorbeeld aan of je honger hebt en regelen ze de voedselverwerking tot vet. Ook bepalen de hersenen hoe goed je je kunt beheersen en hoe je eetbuien onderdrukt. De nieuw gevonden erfelijke factoren bepalen samen met de factoren die al bekend waren maar een klein deel van de gewichtsvariatie tussen mensen. De overige erfelijke factoren zullen door andersoortig en nog grootschaliger onderzoek gevonden moeten worden.

Daarnaast bestudeerden de onderzoekers hoe erfelijke factoren van invloed zijn op de verdeling van het lichaamsvet. Waar we vet opslaan in ons lichaam, beÔnvloedt onze gezondheid. Mensen die meer vet hebben rondom de taille (appelvorm) hebben een grotere kans op het ontstaan van suikerziekte (type-2) en hart- en vaatziekten. Het opslaan van vet in de dijen en de billen (peervorm) lijkt echter een zekere bescherming te bieden tegen suikerziekte en hoge bloeddruk. De onderzoekers vonden nu 13 erfelijke factoren die invloed hebben op deze lichaamsvormen.

Er zijn ook duidelijke verschillen in de lichaamsvorm tussen mannen en vrouwen, maar de processen die dat bepalen worden in dit onderzoek nog niet duidelijk. Het onderzoek biedt echter wel biologische aanknopingspunten. Zeven van de dertien gevonden varianten blijken een veel sterker effect te hebben bij vrouwen dan bij mannen. Dit zou een belangrijke basis kunnen zijn voor de verschillen in vetverdeling tussen mannen en vrouwen.

De onderzoekers die deze bevindingen deden maken deel uit van het zogenoemde GIANT-consortium. Dit is een internationaal samenwerkingsverband van meer dan 400 wetenschappers uit 280 onderzoeksinstituten, met steun van diverse subsidieverstrekkers. De deelnemende Nederlandse wetenschappers komen uit Rotterdam (Erasmus MC), Amsterdam (VU), Leiden (LUMC), en Nijmegen (UMC St Radboud) en behoren tot de nationale biobank samenwerkingen CMSB, NCHA en BBMRI-NL, gesubsidieerd door de Nederlandse overheid.

Carola Zillikens, internist en onderzoeker van het Erasmus MC en betrokken bij beide onderzoeken: "Voor deze studies hebben we bijna een kwart miljoen mensen wereldwijd onderzocht. Dit is het grootste onderzoek ooit naar ons erfelijk materiaal. De gevonden resultaten geven meer inzicht in de biologische processen die kunnen leiden tot zwaarlijvigheid en de verdeling van lichaamsvet. Op termijn hopen we hiermee manieren te vinden om overgewicht te voorkomen of te behandelen."

"In het onderzoek aan complexe volksziekten als hart- en vaatziekten en diabetes hebben we het stadium bereikt waar alleen reusachtige mondiale consortia genoeg kracht kunnen bieden om het inzicht te vergroten. De Nederlandse onderzoekers zijn in het internationale veld graag geziene gasten met hun grote en goed getypeerde biobanken", zegt Gertjan van Ommen van het LUMC, leider van CMSB en BBMRI-NL." Steeds vaker lukt ons met landelijk en internationaal vereende krachten wel wat apart niet bereikbaar is".

Dorret Boomsma, betrokken bij beide onderzoeken en leidster van het Nederlandse Tweelingenregister bij de VU: "Mede door onderzoek bij Nederlandse tweelingen en families wisten we al dat erfelijke aanleg een belangrijke rol speelt bij overgewicht en lichaamsbouw en dat het voor sommige mensen veel moeilijker is dan voor anderen om op gewicht te blijven. Dit grote onderzoek wijst ons nu de juiste richting voor het karakteriseren van de genen die de erfelijke aanleg verklaren".


Dr. Oz - Obesogens - How they make you fat

How obesogens, chemicals in your food and your environment, make you fat. Dr. Mehmet C. Oz, MD with Dr. Robert Lustig, MD and Stephen Perrine, Editor-at-Large of Men's Health magazine and author of the book, The New American Diet. These chemicals include

  • Fructose
  • High fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
  • Bisphenol A (BPA)
  • PVC (Polyvinyl chloride) which contains Phthalates
  • Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), also known as C8 or perfluorooctanoate found in non-stick coating like teflon coating
  • Pesticides found in foods such as farmed salmon
  • Atrazine, 2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamin≠o)-s-triazine, which is an herbicide that ends up in our water supply
  • Fungicides such as tributyltin

Robert Lustig, MD is Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, in the Division of Endocrinology Director of the Weight Assessment for Teen and Child Health (WATCH) Program at the University of California, San Francisco, UCSF.


Mechanisme betrokken bij verslavingen en sommige vormen van obesitas.

Een onderzoeker van de Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry at the University of Alberta heeft een mechanisme ontdekt dat betrokken is bij sommige vormen van obesitas en verslavingen. Dit zou kunnen leiden naar behandelingen voor beide ziektes.

Link

Seth


Afvallen met appelazijn


Alpha-Lipoic Acid heeft positief en negatief effect op lichaamssamenstelling

Alpha-Lipoic Acid - in het Nederlands: alpha-liponzuur - is eerder een supplement voor duursporters en mensen die willen afvallen dan voor krachtsporters. Dat blijkt uit een dierstudie van China Agricultural University.

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Nieuwe theorie: virus maakt mens dik

Dik worden kun je ook van een virus. Dat vermoeden is versterkt na onderzoek onder Amerikaanse kinderen. De dikste kinderen waren driemaal zo vaak besmet geweest met adenovirus type 36 als de dunne en mollige kinderen. Het was 22 procent tegen 7 procent. En onder de dikke kinderen hadden vooral de allerdiksten afweerstoffen tegen het virus in hun bloed.

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Marjan


Gewichtstoename van eerstejaars studenten – vrouwen met zware huisgenoten komen minder pondjes aan

Uit een nieuw onderzoek van de universiteit van Michigan blijkt dat studerende vrouwen met huisgenoten die zwaarder zijn dan gemiddeld, minder aankomen tijdens het eerste studiejaar dan vrouwen met slanke huisgenoten: nog geen halve kilo tegenover ruim ťťn kilo. Dit in vergelijking tot de typische gewichtstoename van eerstejaars van ruim ťťn tot bijna drie kilo – overigens nog veel minder dan het mytische "Freshman 15", ofwel bijna zeven kilo.

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Annelies


Cell Biology Professor: US Food Pyramid diet too high in carbohydrates for weight loss

The deleterious effects of fat have been measured in the presence of high carbohydrate. A high fat diet in the presence of high carbohydrate is different than a high fat diet in the presence of low carbohydrate.


Pillen maken je tot 12 kilo dikker

Veel mensen verwachten niet dat ze bijkomen door hun medicatie, tot plots de weegschaal hen de waarheid vertelt. Veel pillen echter stimuleren de appetijt, zorgen voor een opgeblazen gevoel of vertragen het metabolisme

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Lucas


Samenspel genen en omgeving bij obesitas nader in kaart

Obesitas en insulineweerstand spelen een belangrijke rol bij het veroorzaken en laten voortbestaan van onder meer hoge bloeddruk, suikerziekte en verhoogd cholesterol. Bij deze aandoeningen (samen wel het metabool syndroom genoemd), spelen effecten van genen, omgeving en leefgewoonten samen een rol. Promovenda Gaifen Liu bracht dit samenspel nader in kaart. Zij vond enkele genetische kenmerken die de kans op obesitas beter voorspellen.

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Why Your Body Would Want To Be Fat Or Thin

Jon Gabriel talks about why your body would WANT to be fat.


Vet maakt vet? Of is het werkelijke probleem de industriŽle transvetten?

Mensen willen geloven dat vet eten vet maakt. Dat gebeurt zeker als Proctor and Gamble het heeft gemaakt. Hun hydrogenitische plantaardig vet bevat 25% verzadigde, 44% enkelvoudige onverzadigde, 28% PUFA, met in het totaal 17% van het totale vet als transvetten.

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Pieter Tau


Zelfs bescheiden gewichtstoename kan schade toebrengen aan bloedvaten

Mayo Clinic onderzoekers vonden dat gezonde jonge mensen die ook maar 9 pond aankomen, met name in de buik, het risico voor het ontwikkelen van endotheelcellen dysfunctie riskeren. Endotheelcellen regelen de bloedvaten en de controle het vermogen van het transport uit te breiden. "Endotheeldysfunctie is al een lange tijd geassocieerd met een verhoogd risico op coronaire hartziekte en cardiovasculaire gebeurtenissen" "Het opdoen van een paar kilo op school, op een cruise, of tijdens de vakantie wordt beschouwd als onschuldig, maar het kan leiden tot cardiovasculaire gevolgen, vooral als het gewicht is opgedaan in de buik. "

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Eric van Staalduinen


Afvallen met combinatie van visolie en L-arginine

In Japanse winkels ligt de maaltijdvervanger Dr Baans, een designer-food met twee bioactieve stoffen die de verbranding van lichaamsvet zouden moeten versnellen. De combinatie werkt, schrijven onderzoekers van de Niigata University in de Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition.

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Veroorzaakten olie uit zaden een epidemie van zwaarlijvigheid over meerdere generaties?

In 2006 hebben Drs. Gerard Ailhaud en Philippe Guesnet een hypothese opgesteld dat industriŽle olie uit zaden van ondermeer maÔs, sojabonen,saffloer, zonnebloemen en katoen op zijn minst voor een deel verantwoordelijk zijn voor de huidige epidemie van zwaarlijvigheid.

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Wouter


How Does Protein Help You Burn Fat

Watch as Isabel explains how protein containing foods are an essential part of any fat loss meal plan. Are you eating enough protein? Are you eating too much protein? Are you eating protein at the right times? Watch this video to find the answers. Isabel's healthy meal plans and weight loss strategies have already helped thousands of people not only lose weight, but take complete control of their health.

Gerrit


Begin de dag met een goed ontbijt!

Waarom is het zo belangrijk dat u goed ontbijt?

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Verstoring Circadiaans (ongeveer een dag) ritme kan laten triglyceriden stijgen

Als het circadiaans ritme door elkaar wordt gegooid, kan dat een onverwacht neveneffect hebben: hoge triglyceriden (het triglyceride niveau willen we graag laag hebben in ons lichaam; ck). De ontdekking, op basis van studies in muizen met een "gebroken klok," helpt de normale stijging en daling van triglyceriden te verklaren, wat elke dag op ongeveer dezelfde tijd gebeurt,   volgens onderzoekers die hun bevindingen in de Augustus-editie van Cell Metabolism, 'n Cell Press publicatie, uiteenzetten.

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Constans Kootstra


Radio - wil je afvallen, moet niet sporten

Elke donderdag in Dit Is De Dag: een update van de opiniebladen van deze week. Trouw-columniste Elma Drayer las ze allemaal en bespreekt de belangrijkste verhalen.

Download MP3


Oorzaak obesitas zit in de hersenen

De ene moet nog maar naar chocolade kijken om een kilo bij te komen, de andere overleeft op junkfood en blijft graatmager, wetenschappers hebben eindelijk een verklaring voor dit oneerlijke verschijnsel. Ze ontdekten dat de gevoeligheid voor obesitas al in de baarmoeder tijdens de ontwikkeling van de hersenen bepaald wordt.

Link

Maaike


High Protein Diets

Abel Body Experts Coaches Scott Abel and Kevin Weiss discuss the possible consequences of a overly high protein diet.


Julie Matthews - The Low Oxalate Diet


The Specific Carbohydrate Diet by Jenny Lass


Radio - Goedkope duoreep leidt tot meer snacken'

Veel snoeprepen zijn ook te koop in een goedkope duoverpakking. Gaan mensen daardoor meer snacken? En delen ze zo'n duoreep of eten ze alles alleen op? Verslaggever Colette van Nunen vroeg het na bij de snoepautomaat op een station.

Download MP3


Anti-obesitas voeding in de maak?

Bij muizen kan de consumptie van probiotica de darmflora zodanig veranderen, dat het ook de appetijt en het metabolisme verandert.

Link | Link 2


Studie over stamcellen van muizen biedt nieuw perspectief op
verspreiding van lichaamsvet

Op de UK National Stem Cell Network Annual Science Meeting in Nottingham werd een recent onderzoek voorgesteld ivm vetopslag. Wanneer aan labo-stamcellen van muizen vet wordt toegevoegd, beinvloedt dat hun respons op signalen die hen stimuleren om bepaalde vetopslagcellen te ontwikkelen – subcutane (onderhuidse) of viscerale (rondom de organen).

Link

Nelly Busschots


Jonge nieren functioneren prima bij eiwitdieet, oude nieren niet

Een dieet dat twee keer meer eiwit bevat dan normaal is voor jonge mensen niet gevaarlijk voor de nieren, als je een studie van Mayo Clinic School of Medicine mag geloven. Dat geldt niet voor ouderen. Hun nierfunctie verslechtert meetbaar door een eiwitrijk dieet.

Link


Radio - Genotype dieet

Een interview met Peter D'Adamo over het Genotype dieet

Download MP3

Cocky


Japan Gov Forces People To Be Thin


Gary Taubes on Nightline: Carbohydrates Make You Fat


Onderzoek naar genetische oorsprong obesitas

Door een sterke stijging van het aantal mensen met ernstig overgewicht en diabetes type 2 neemt ook het onderzoek naar de oorsprong van deze ziekten toe. Beide vormen namelijk een groot gezondheidsrisico en kosten de maatschappij veel geld. Inmiddels zijn experts het er vrij algemeen over eens dat de huidige obesitasepidemie niet alleen komt omdat mensen te veel eten en te weinig bewegen. Aan het ontstaan van overgewicht ligt een combinatie van genetische, gedrags- en omgevingsfactoren ten grondslag. Onderzoeker Jana van Vliet-Ostaptchouk ging na wat in dit proces de rol is van nog niet eerder onderzochte genen. Obesitas lijkt te ontstaan door genetische variatie in het deel van het brein dat onze energiehuishouding aanstuurt, de hypothalamus.

Link


Hoop voor zwaarlijvigen

Eindelijk eens een positief bericht voor mensen met obesitas! Het blijkt namelijk dat een klein percentage obesen even gezond is als slanke mensen. Dus lang niet iedereen die te dik is hoeft last te hebben van diabetes en hart- en vaatziekten. Endocrinoloog Andrť van Beek is in Noorderlicht Radio.

Download MP3


Waarom afvallen niet lukt

In deze video leg ik je (na mijn korte introductie) uit wat de 'waarheid' over calorieŽn is. Ik leg je uit waarom niet alle calorieŽn hetzelfde zijn en waarom het vooral belangrijk is om te kijken naar wat de calorieŽn met je lichaam doen, in plaats van alleen te kijken naar hoeveel calorieŽn je eet.

Link


Snel afslanken ? Kettlebeltraining

Als je interval- en kettlebelltraining met elkaar combineert kun je per minuut 20 kcal verbranden. Het lukte sportwetenschappers John Porcari en Chad Schnettler, verbonden aan University of Wisconsin, om proefpersonen zo'n training af te laten werken die 20 minuten duurde. In die periode verbrandden de proefpersonen dus - schrik niet - 400 kcal.

Link


BacteriŽn in de dikke darm spelen belangrijke rol bij gewichtsbeheersing

BacteriŽn in de dikke darm spelen een belangrijke rol bij de beheersing van het lichaamsgewicht. Dat blijkt uit een studie van het Top Institute Food and Nutrition (TIFN) dat werd uitgevoerd door onderzoekers van TNO en het Universitair Medisch Centrum in Groningen.

Link | Link 2 | Link 3


Nutritional Typing Test nu gratis online

Dr. Mercola heeft zijn 'Nutritional Typing Test' vrijgegeven voor gebruik door iedereen!

Link

Gerrit


Are Toxins Making You Fat?

JJ Virgin, author of Six Weeks to Sleeveless and Sexy, discussed the impact of toxins on our health and waistlines.


Ontwricht regelmechanisme mogelijke boosdoener bij ernstig overgewicht

Steeds meer mensen zijn veel te zwaar doordat ze teveel eten en te weinig bewegen. Toch kan overgewicht niet alleen herleid worden tot een optel- en aftreksom van het aantal genuttigde en verbruikte calorieŽn. De achtergrond van de obesitas-epidemie is complexer en heeft, behalve met dieet, ook te maken met een samenspel tussen genen, psychologische en socio-economische factoren. Immers, niet iedereen die teveel eet ontwikkelt eenzelfde mate van overgewicht. Onderzoekster Anniek Koolman onderzocht ťťn van de intrinsieke regelmechanismen dat deze verschillen kan verklaren: het endocannabinoÔd-systeem (ECS).

Het endocannabinoÔd-systeem ontleent zijn naam aan cannabis, een drug met een eetlustverhogende werking. Bij obesitaspatiŽnten zouden verstoringen optreden in het endocannabinoÔd-systeem. Koolman bevestigde dat het onderdrukken van de activiteit van het systeem een drieledige uitwerking heeft: de eetlust wordt geremd en het vetgehalte en het lichaamsgewicht nemen af. De promovenda toonde bovendien aan dat deze behandelstrategie niet, zoals eerder gedacht, leidt tot veranderingen in het vetweefsel zelf, maar tot een verminderde beschikbaarheid van vetzuren voor opslag. Tot slot vond de onderzoekster bewijs dat het toedienen van visoliesupplementen weliswaar leidt tot gunstige metabole effecten, maar ook tot een ongewenste toename in vetgehalte en gewicht.

Link


Snel groeiende kinderen hebben later veel meer kans op overgewicht

Kinderen die tussen hun tweede en zevende levensjaar snel zwaarder worden, hebben een 25 tot 35 keer grotere kans om later overgewicht te ontwikkelen. Dat geldt nog eens extra voor kinderen van wie de moeder tijdens de zwangerschap rookte. Ook kinderen met depressieve symptomen of met een impulsief karakter worden later vaker te zwaar. Dat ontdekte UMCG-onderzoekster Eryn Liem. Op 9 juni promoveert ze op het onderzoek aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Een bekende methode voor het vaststellen van overgewicht bij volwassenen is de Body Mass Index (BMI), een berekening waarbij het gewicht wordt gedeeld door de lengte in het kwadraat. Het vaststellen van overgewicht bij kinderen is lastiger. Voor kinderen in de groei zijn er aangepaste, internationale en geslachtsspecifieke versies van de BMI. Daaruit blijkt dat het aantal kinderen met overgewicht fors is
toegenomen. In onderzoeken verschuift de nadruk steeds meer van het behandelen naar het voorkomen van overgewicht. Promovenda Eryn Liem onderzocht verschillende risicofactoren voor het ontwikkelen van overgewicht.

Het TRAILS-onderzoek

Liem verrichte haar onderzoek in het kader van TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey), een groot, langlopend bevolkingsonderzoek naar de geestelijke, lichamelijke en sociale ontwikkeling van ongeveer 2.500 jongeren in Noord-Nederland. De onderzoekster onderzocht de DNA-profielen van zo’n 1.200
zestienjarigen, waarbij ze vooral keek naar genetische variaties in twee genen (FTO en MC4R) die worden geassocieerd met overgewicht. Ze vergeleek deze profielen vervolgens met eerdere groei- en meetgegevens.

Risicofactoren voor overgewicht

Liem ontdekte dat vooral de gewichtstoename tussen twee- en zevenjarige leeftijd bepaalt of kinderen later overgewicht zullen ontwikkelen. Kinderen die in de leeftijdsperiode van 2 tot 7 jaar versneld groeien maken maar liefst 25 tot 35 keer meer kans om later te zwaar te worden. Bij kinderen van wie de moeder rookte tijdens de zwangerschap is die kans zelfs nog groter. Een andere opvallende uitkomst van het onderzoek is dat de BMI op 16-jarige leeftijd direct verband lijkt te houden met genetische variaties in de twee onderzochte genen. Overgewicht in de puberleeftijd ligt met andere woorden voor een belangrijk deel genetisch vast. Tot slot concludeert Liem dat 11-jarige kinderen met depressieve symptomen meer kans maken om op 16-jarige leeftijd te zwaar te zijn, net als impulsieve kinderen.

Huidplooien meten

In het tweede deel van haar proefschrift ging de promovenda na wat de beste methode is voor het bepalen van de hoeveelheid lichaamsvet bij kinderen. De BMI maakt namelijk geen onderscheid tussen spier- en vetmassa, en andere, betrouwbaardere meetmethoden zoals CT en MRI zijn te duur om op grote schaal
gebruikt te worden. Na een onderzoek bij dertig zes- en zevenjarigen stelt de promovenda dat het meten van huidplooien de beste eenvoudige methode is om het buikvet te meten in de periode voor de puberteit.


De paradox: eet meer vetten en val af!

In 2007 leed 46,5% van de Nederlandse bevolking aan overgewicht. Overgewicht ontstaat wanneer onderhuids te veel vet opgeslagen wordt. Bij vrouwen stapelt het vet zich op rond de billen, heupen, buik en borsten (peervorm). Bij mannen concentreert het vet zich vooral in de buik (appelvorm).

Link


Slechte conditie erger dan overgewicht

Een slechte conditie is eerder dan lichaamsvet de oorzaak van gezondheidsproblemen. Tenminste, dat beweert professor Richard Weiler. Volgens de professor kun je meer gezondheidsproblemen aanpakken door je te focussen op lichaamsbeweging in plaats van op obesitas.

Link

Annemarieke (Healthylives)


Geef de hamburgers niet de schuld

Jarenlang heeft men gedacht dat vet hart-en vaatziekten, diabetes en obesitas veroorzaakt, maar nieuw bewijs suggereert dat het wellicht toch niet de oorzaak is van die ziektes, volgens Jerome Burne.

Link

Constans Kootstra


Te veel koolhydraten maken je insulineresistent


Afslanktips

Voor diegene die het Engels beheersen....

Link

Caroline van Leusden


Dik van water

Geloof het of niet: van water kun je dik worden! Althans, dit stelt professor Adam Carey, voedingsdeskundige bij de Metropolitan Universiteit in Leeds. " Water bevat verontreinigde stoffen die gezondheidsklachten veroorzaken. Zelfs gewichtstoename."

Link

Dennis/Ditte

--

Grappig dat mainstream media dit eindelijk oppakken. Juist mensen die willen afvallen grijpen als eerste naar flesje water......

Ron


Evolutionair verlies van vetaanmaak door larvaal dieet

Zoveel snoepen als je maar wilt, en toch niet dikker worden: wie wil dat niet? Onderzoekers van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam ontdekten dat sommige insecten deze zoete droom waarmaken. Parasitaire wespen, vliegen en kevers hebben in de loop van de evolutie de eigenschap verloren om suikers in vetten om te zetten en kunnen daarom tijdens hun leven geen extra vetvoorraden aanleggen, ook niet als zij overvloedig te eten krijgen. Het onderzoek onder leiding van VU-biologen Jacintha Ellers en Bertanne Visser is deze week gepubliceerd in de Early Edition van het wetenschappelijke tijdschrift PNAS. Parasitaire insecten leggen hun ei in of op andere insecten, waarna de parasitaire larve zijn gastheer langzaam levend opeet. Tijdens hun ontwikkeling vermeerderen de larven de voedingswaardevan hun gastheer, onder andere door zijn hoeveelheid vetten te verhogen.

De evolutietheorie voorspelt dat door zo'n vetrijk dieet de eigen vetproductie verloren gaat, omdat het namelijk overbodig is en kostbaarder dan directe consumptie van gastheervetten. De VU-onderzoekers zochten uit of dit inderdaad het geval is. Ze verzamelden gegevens over het vermogen tot vetaanmaak bij meer dan negentig verschillende parasitaire en vrijlevende insectensoorten en lieten zien dat telkens wanneer de parasitaire levenswijze in de evolutie ontstaat, een verlies van vetaanmaak evolueert. Zo'n sterke samenhang wijst, aldus de onderzoekers, op een aanzienlijk selectief voordeel om de aanmaak van overmatige vetvoorraden te vermijden.

De resultaten van het onderzoek zijn uitzonderlijk, omdat vrijwel alle organismen – inclusief de mens - extra calorieŽn in vet opslaan als energievoorraad voor slechtere tijden. Welke veranderingen in de stofwisseling parasitaire insecten in staat stelt deze universele regel te breken, wordt momenteel onderzocht. De westerse mens in de huidige obesitas crisis mag hopen, dat de uitkomst daarvan de zoete droom verwerkelijkt.


Lezerstip: Stefan Molyneux

Ken je Stefan Molyneux? ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stefan_Molyneux )

Hij heeft een boeiende serie op youtube, waaronder een interview met Robert Lustig ( Link ) en die heeft op zijn beurt een heel boeiend verhaal te vertellen op: Link

Robin Abu-Zeid


Chilipepers doen gewicht verliezen

Het eten van chilipepers kunnen je helpen afvallen omdat ze je metabolisme versnellen en vet doen verbranden, ontdekten wetenschappers.

Link

Maaike


Overgewichtsziekten resultaat van verstoorde stofwisseling

Steeds meer mensen kampen met overgewicht, doordat ze teveel eten en te weinig bewegen. Wanneer mensen over langere tijd veel suikers en vetten nuttigen, kunnen er overgewichtskwalen ontstaan zoals hoge bloeddruk of resistentie tegen insuline. Dergelijke symptomen verhogen de kans op suikerziekte en op hart- en vaatziekten. Promovenda Hilde Herrema onderzocht de interactie tussen suikers, vetzuren en
galzouten bij overgewicht en diabetes. Herrema stelt dat onduidelijk is wat er in stofwisselingprocessen bij mensen met overgewicht precies mis gaat. In haar proefschrift laat ze zien dat galzouten belangrijke regulatoren zijn van de stofwisseling. Ze ontdekte dat suikers de aanmaak van galzouten remmen. Tevens onderzocht Herrema hoe een verstoorde vetverbranding in de lever leidt tot afwijkingen in de suikerhuishouding.

Link


TV - Het hongerige brein

Obesitas is een groter probleem dan ondervoeding. De verwachting is dat de obesitasepidemie de komende jaren alleen nog maar groter wordt: in 2015 hebben 700 miljoen mensen last van ernstig overgewicht. Waarom is het zo moeilijk om obesitas aan te pakken? Volgens een onderzoeksgroep in Maastricht moeten we de oorzaak van zwaarlijvigheid in de hersenen zoeken. Obesitas moet worden gezien als een psychische stoornis en ook als zodanig worden behandeld. Volgens onderzoeker Nicolette Siep hebben de hersenen van dikke mensen dezelfde afwijkingen als die van drugsverslaafden. Volgens Siep kan een overdaad aan suikers en vetten al op vroege leeftijd hersenschade aanrichten. Geen maat kunnen houden heeft in veel gevallen ook een erfelijke achtergrond. Roger Adan verwacht dat deze mensen straks via medicijnen geholpen kunnen worden om af te vallen. In de levensmiddelentechnologie probeert men obesitas op een andere manier aan te pakken, namelijk door producten te ontwerpen met minder vet en minder suiker.

Link


De ene calorie is de andere niet

Het onderwerp “calorieŽn” is misschien wel het meest besproken onderwerp binnen het vakgebied voeding. Toch: de ene calorie is de ander niet en caloriebeperking geeft niet automatisch gewichtsvermindering.

Link


Overgewicht door chemische vervuiling

Volgens onderzoeker Tremblay kan een mens dik worden door de hoeveelheid gifstoffen uit de vervuilde leefomgeving. Vetweefsel neemt toe door diverse chemische verbindingen. Onderzoeker Tremblay lanceerde in 2000 een nieuwe hypothese over overgewicht en obesitas. Volgens Tremblay is deze epidemie mogelijk een aanpassingsmechanisme van de mens om te overleven in een door chemische toxines vervuilde omgeving. Er zijn steeds meer aanwijzingen dat een groot aantal chemische verbindingen al in lage concentraties gewichtstoename kunnen geven door o.a. hun negatieve effecten op schildklier, geslachtshormonen, hersenen, sympathisch zenuwstelsel en het immuunsysteem. De chemische stoffen worden in het lichaam vooral in vetweefsel opgeslagen.

Steeds meer vervuiling In toenemende mate wordt de leefomgeving van veel mensen vervuild met duizenden synthetische organische en anorganische verbindingen zoals pesticiden, insecticiden, groeibevorderende middelen, voedseladditieven (broodverbeteraars en andere "verbeteraars"), conserveringsmiddelen, kleurstoffen- en smaakstoffen. Ook is er blootstelling aan verbindingen uit cosmetica, weekmakers voor plastic, vlamvertragers, benzinedampen (formaldehyde), parfums, oplosmiddelen, etc. De chemische verbindingen verstoren de controlemechanismen die zorgen dat het lichaamsgewicht gereguleerd blijft. Uw vetweefsel als vuilnisbelt

Welke stoffen slaat het lichaam in vet op als ontgiftings- en uitscheidingsprocessen onvoldoende zijn om circulerende toxines (gifstoffen) kwijt te raken?

Lees verder


Eieren eten als ontbijt helpt calorie-inname gedurende de dag te
verminderen met 18%

Een nieuwe studie liet zien dat eiwitrijke eieren als ontbijt de honger en calorie-inname tijdens de lunch en gedurende de dag vermindert. De studie, gepubliseerd in de februari uitgave van Nutrition Research, bevond dat mensen die een ontbijt aten van eieren significant minder calorieŽn aten als ze een ongelimiteerd lunchbuffet kregen geserveerd in tegensteling tot wanneer ze een koolhydraatrijk ontbijt met bagels aten met dezelfde hoeveelheid calorieŽn (1). Deze studie ondersteunt voorgaande onderzoeken die bekend maakten dat het eten van een ontbijt van eieren als onderdeel van een calorie-beperkt dieet mensen met overgewicht helpt om 65% meer gewicht te verliezen en meer energie te hebben dan mensen met overgewicht die een ontbijt van bagels aten van hetzelfde volume en met hetzelfde aantal calorieŽn (2). "Er is groeiend bewijs voor het belang van hoog-kwalitatieve eiwitten in een dieet voor de totale gezondheid en in het bijzonder het belang van eiwitten tijdens het ontbijt," zei Maria Luz Fernandez, Ph.D., onderzoeksauteur en professor van de afdeling "Nutritional Sciences" van de Universiteit van Connecticut. "We onderzochten twee typische amerikaanse ontbijtsoorten, en uit de zelf-gerapporteerde mate van trek van de deelnemers bleek dat een eiwitrijk ontbijt de honger indamt"

Link

Cindy


Afvallen gaat iets makkelijker met groentensap

Afvallen met een caloriebeperkend dieet gaat ietsiepietsie sneller als je daarbij elke dag 1-2 glazen groentensap drinkt. Dat concluderen voedingswetenschappers van de University of California in Nutrition Journal uit een proef waaraan 81 dikke mannen en vrouwen meededen. De proefpersonen hadden diabetes-2.

Link


Why Are Thin People Not Fat

At the centre of this programme is a controversial overeating experiment that aims to identify exactly what it is about some people that makes it hard for them to bulk up.


Vet ontbijt houdt je rest van de dag slank

Een vetrijk ontbijt met spek en eieren kan het metabolisch syndroom, een aandoening die leidt tot obesitas, voorkomen.

Link


Nieuw Atkins dieet: gezonder en effectiever

Drie Amerikaanse doktoren hebben een variant voor het wereldberoemde Atkins dieet gevonden. Het 'nieuwe' dieet is gezonder, makkelijker en effectiever dan het 'oude' dieet.

Link


Why You Got Fat


Zeewier doet lichaam minder vet opnemen

Brood op basis van zeewier kan het nieuwste wapen zijn om obesitas te bestrijden. Britse onderzoekers ontdekten dat een bestanddeel uit deze zeeplant ervoor zorgt dat je lichaam drie vierde minder vet opneemt.

Link

Maaike


Why Your Body Would Want To Be Fat Or Thin

GdJ


Nooit meer honger, nooit meer dik

Niet afvallen, wel blijvend mindereten: dŠt is de kunst. Wageningse onderzoekers werken aan voedingsmiddelen die slank blijven gemakkelijker moeten maken.

Link


Met een goed humeur afvallen dankzij eiwitrijk dieet

Als je afvalt met een dieet waarin verhoudingsgewijs veel eiwitten zitten, dan val je sneller en vooral beter af: je verliest minder spierweefsel en meer vet. Bekend. Oud nieuws. Nieuw is dat je je met zo'n dieet ook beter voelt. Onderzoekers van Tufts University ontdekten dat afvallen met een normale hoeveelheid eiwit depressieve gevoelens in de hand werkt - en afvallen met een verhoogde hoeveelheid eiwit juist niet.

Link


DNA-test kan meest geschikte dieet voorspellen

Met een beetje geluk hoef je binnenkort geen vrouwenbladen meer uit te pluizen om te weten welk 'wonderdieet' het meest geschikt is voor je.

Link

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Ik kreeg even een flashback in de tijd.....[Link]. Artikel verscheen de dag voor de kerst in de Telegraaf. Ben er destijds een volle dag mee bezig geweest maar Genotrim haalde bakzeil door alle leugens..Is intussen al weer 4 jaar geleden....


Kunnen bacteriŽn je dik maken?

Bepaalde darmbacteriŽn zijn mogelijk verantwoordelijk voor overconsumptie van voedsel, wat een verklaring zou kunnen vormen voor de huidige overgewicht-epidemie.

Link

Jan Slemmer


Vetarm dieet op lange termijn effectiever

Een koolhydraatarm dieet mag dan wel snelle resultaten leveren, een nieuwe studie toont aan dat een vetarm dieet tot meer gewichtsverlies leidt op de langere termijn.

Link


Reduce Stress And Cortisol Before You Get Fat

We really need to reduce our stress because our bodies our suffering from adrenal fatigue as we keeping shooting out the hormone cortisol until it makes us fat. In this video I'm giving you some great ways to reduce stress so that you can keep your cortisol levels at bay so you don't gain weight and become fat. Adrenal fatigue is hitting a lot more people today and it can really offset your life as it makes you fat and reduces your energy levels from all the cortisol being released from stress.


Metastudie: afslanksupplementen met groene thee werken

De efedravrije stackers met extracten van groene thee en cafeÔne helpen het verminderen van de hoeveelheid lichaamsvet in de hand.

Link


Chemicals That Make You Fat

Stephen Perrine, author of "The New American Diet," spoke to Harry Smith about certain chemicals found in common foods called "obesogens" and how they play a role in the American obesity crisis.


Kan een lowcarb dieet je gek maken?

Q. Hi Anthony, I read your They're All MAD! ebook recently, nice work! You do an excellent job of showing how personal prejudice and blind dogma determine so much of what is presented to the public as 'scientific' diet and health information. Thanks for making it freely available.

Your experiences with the low-carb "MAD" movement got me thinking: I remember you wrote years ago about a study comparing the cognitive effects of a ketogenic low carb-diet with a non-ketogenic diet, and how the keto diet showed negative effects. Have you come across any more research on this? I can't help but wonder if the weird behavior demonstrated by so many online low-carb followers is related to the diet they follow.

A. Great question - and after my experiences with the online low-carb 'community' and a certain of their incoherent 'gurus', I couldn't help but wonder the same thing. These people seem to have a far greater than normal capacity for denying reality, and for going off like a wayward firecracker when someone presents views that contradict their cherished dogma. And their penchant for performing all manner of mental contortionism in order to rationalize scientifically untenable beliefs would garner envy from even the most fanatical Creationist.

Is this a case of the diet causing people to behave irrationally, or irrational people being attracted to this style of eating?

Click here for the answer: Link

Anthony Colpo


Eiwit essentieel voor succesvol afvallen

Dagelijks is 0,8-1,2 g eiwit per kg lichaamsgewicht nodig voor mensen die met succes willen afvallen. Tot deze conclusie komt Stijn Soenen die op 22 januari promoveert aan de Universiteit van Maastricht. Uit zijn proefschrift blijkt dat een energiebeperking het meest efficiŽnt is als de vet- en koolhydraatinname drastisch wordt verlaagd en men daarbij dagelijkse 0.8-1.2 g eiwit/kg lichaamsgewicht gebruikt. Met dit dieet verliest men vetmassa, maar blijft spier-, bot en orgaanmassa behouden. Bovendien leidt dit dieet tot een blijvend lager lichaamsgewicht en gunstig metabool profiel, zonder negatieve gevolgen voor de nierfunctie. In de praktijk blijkt het dieet met de meeste eiwitten in combinatie met een lage koolhydraatinname te leiden tot het meeste gewichtsverlies, maar wel moeilijker vol te houden op de lange termijn.

Bron: Universiteit Maastricht


Cortisol adn weightloss


Youtube video's van Diana Schwarzbein

Diana Schwarzbein, M.D. - Smart exercise:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2JMaNwL3xUY

Diana Schwarzbein, M.D. - Insuline Resistance:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gAi1o9xfAQo

Diana Schwarzbein, M.D. - Weight Loss:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwYA2BydQFo

Diana Schwarzbein, M.D. - Adrenal Gland Burnout:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jt6OOUEvLxY

Diana Schwarzbein, M.D. - Healthy Nutrition:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLZP8FkgK0U

Diana Schwarzbein, M.D. - Stress & Sleep:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y3e1OG8mCvk

Diana Schwarzbein, M.D. - Supplements:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LTUMxgPAvZw

Diana Schwarzbein, M.D. - Tapering off of Toxic Chemicals:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OUhQ7jTV8FY

GdJ


De ene calorie is de andere niet

Het onderwerp “calorieŽn” is misschien wel het meest besproken onderwerp binnen het vakgebied voeding. De ene calorie is de ander niet en caloriebeperking geeft niet automatisch gewichtsvermindering. Een calorie heeft vele definities, maar het komt er op neer dat een calorie min of meer de hoeveelheid energie is die nodig is om 1 gram water van 20 graden Celsius ťťn graad te verhogen naar 21 graden Celsius. Eťn van de boodschappen die vaak wordt herhaald, is dat de energie die we dagelijks innemen gecompenseerd moet worden door een bepaald activiteitsniveau. Op zich lijkt het logisch en toch is er iets heel raars aan de hand met die mysterieuze calorieŽn.

Link

Petra


Mayo-onderzoekers ontdekken zwaarlijvigheidssleutel

Onderzoekers van het Mayo-dieet werkten samen met onderzoekers van Universiteiten in Iowa, Connecticut en New York. Ze ontdekten een moleculair mechanisme dat het energieverbruik in de spieren controleert. Met andere woorden, dat het lichaamsgewicht helpt bepalen. Ze beweren dat dit zou kunnen leiden tot een nieuwe medische benadering van obesitas (zwaarlijvigheid). De onderzoeksresultaten verschijnen in het tijdschrift 'Cell Metabolism'. Het energiebesparend mechanisme wordt gecontroleerd door ATP-gevoelige kalium(KATP)-kanalen. ATP (adenosine triphosphaat) is het 'energie-betaalmiddel' dat lichaamscellen gebruiken. Genoemde kanalen kunnen ATP-voorraden opsporen en doen dan het nodige doen om de prestaties van hart en skeletachtige spieren te reguleren en aan te passen. Dieren die niet over dit energiebesparend mechanisme beschikken, verbranden het overschot aan opgeslagen energie door meer warmte af te scheiden wanneer ze in rusttoestand of normaal actief zijn. Het overschot aan energie echter dat de mens uit zijn voedsel haalt, wordt opgeslagen als glycogeen of vet. Alnaargelang de energievraag wordt dit omgezet in ATP. Door de KATP-kanalen te elimineren wordt het lichaam gedwongen om minder efficiŽnt om te springen met zijn energie. Het gaat meer verbruiken en minder opslaan. Met als gevolg gewichtsverlies, zelfs bij een calorierijke 'Westerse' voeding.

Link

Vertaling Nelly Busschots


Afvallen met meer maaltijden per dag gaat niet vlotter

Als je wilt afvallen moet je je inname van voedsel verdelen over meerdere momenten per dag. Zo voorkom je dat je stofwisseling inzakt. Dat vertellen dieetgoeroes nu al tientallen jaren aan iedereen die wil afvallen. Helemaal niet nodig, aldus een kleine studie van de University of Ottawa.

Link


Dieet met veel enkelvoudig en meervoudig onverzadigd vet houdt slank

Vetten zijn al lang niet meer taboe, maar de discussie over wat nu gezonde en ongezonde vetten zijn is nog lang niet voorbij. De dominante stroming in de voedingswetenschap propt ons het liefst vol met meervoudig onverzadigde vetzuren uit zonnebloemolie, maar de kritiek op die benadering groeit. Een groeiende groep voedingswetenschappers gelooft dat we vooral enkelvoudig onverzadigde vetzuren, zoals je vindt in olijfolie, zouden moeten eten.

Link


Merck probeert afslankpil Alli te pushen via het ANP

Merck wil graag zijn afslankpil aan de vele Sonja Bakker volgelingen slijten dus plaatst een verkapt reclame bericht op de ANP site in de hoop dat de media dit voor de kerst nog even meepakken. Niets zou mooier zijn als de zwaargewichtjes in januari je wonderpil zouden oppikken.....

Link

Alleen vervelend dat die luis van leefbewust zich net die waarschuwingen mbt Alli herinnerde uit oa de VS over gevolgen voor de lever...... recent ook nog waarschuwingen voor nierpatiŽnten:

FDA onderzoekt leverschade door afslankpil Alli (Orlistat)

The Food and Drug Administration is investigating reports of liver damage in patients taking alli, the only nonprescription weight loss drug approved by the agency.

Link

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Afslankpil Alli niet zonder risico's voor nierpatiŽnten

PatiŽnten met een nieraandoening moeten, voordat ze de vrij verkrijgbare afslankpil Alli gaan gebruiken, contact opnemen met hun arts. Aan de bijsluiter van de capsules is een aantal mogelijke bijwerkingen toegevoegd, waaronder een vorm van nierschade.

Link

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Paar kilo's eraf, misschien wat nier- en/of leverschade, help Merck de winter door.....tijdens het surfen ontdekten we ook nog een professor die graag samenwerkt met onze vrienden van Merck (link)

Ron


Vitamin D levels may predict weight loss success

A persons level of vitamin D may actually be a predictor of his or her ability to lose fat, according to Shalamar Sibley, a researcher in the University of Minnesota Medical School. In a clinical study of 38 people, Sibley found that higher baseline levels of vitamin D predicted fat loss, especially in the abdominal area. The research suggested that if you start out with an inadequate vitamin D level, its possible that this might inhibit or impede your ability to lose weight on a reduced caloric diet.


David Kessler MD "End of Overeating"


Afslankpil Alli niet zonder risico's voor nierpatiŽnten

PatiŽnten met een nieraandoening moeten, voordat ze de vrij verkrijgbare afslankpil Alli gaan gebruiken, contact opnemen met hun arts.

Link


Het gezonde dieet dat niet bestaat

Het mediterrane dieet is gezond. Wil je gezond eten? Eet dan zoals de Grieken, Spanjaarden en de Italianen, vertellen voorlichters de Nederlandse bevolking. Maar als je het land waar het mediterrane dieet vandaan komt bezoekt, ontdek je al snel dat de Italianen zelf helemaal niet zo gezond eten.

Link


Video - Do low fat foods make you fat?
Do you have to follow a low fat diet in order to lose weight? The answer might surprise you as you discover the true value of those supposedly low fat foods. Some food items marked as "healthy" such as low fat yoghurts often have more energy than unsweetened full fat versions. This begs the question, is the low fat food market one of the drivers of the obesity epidemic? View the one hour lecture from UniSA's Gift of Knowledge 2009 lecture series.


Vet oorzaak overgewicht? De grote voedingsleugen

Jarenlang zijn we voorgelogen door de industrie, overheid, voedingscentrum, dietisten etc dat we minder vet moesten gaan eten. Maar dat betekent wel dat je meer koolhydraten zult gaan eten met alle gevolgen van dien. Het plaatje laat goed zien waar dit beleid voor heeft gezorgd. Flikker die light rommel in de prullenbak en ga weer vetter eten met minder suikers en stoffen die je eetlust opjagen (aspartaam, smaakversterkers zoals MSG/ E 621). Vet is cruciaal voor je gezondheid, speelt belangrijke rol bij de hormonen, verzadiging en is essentieel voor je hersenen die grotendeels uit verzadigd vet bestaan.

vet.jpg (39309 bytes)

Bekijk de video

Ron


Video - Starvation "Diets" Make You Fat
You wanna gain weight, er, fat? Drastically cut your calorie intake and start fasting. That's how you pack on fat. Send your body into "Starvation mode" and you'll pack on that fat. In preparing itself to live through this starvation period, your body does everything it can to protect the heart. That means turning muscle and lean fiber and everything else into fat to protect the bodes organ for the long haul.


Video - Killer at Large
Obesity rates in the United States have reached epidemic proportions in recent years. The Centers for Disease Control estimate that at least 110,000 people die per year due to obesity and 1/3 of all cancer deaths are directly related to it. Former Surgeon General Richard Carmona remarked that obesity is a more pressing issue than terrorism, 'Obesity is a terror within. It's destroying our society from within and unless we do something about it, the magnitude of the dilemma will dwarf 9/11 or any other terrorist event that you can point out...' From our human evolution and our changing environment to the way our government's public policies are actually causing obesity, Killer at Large shows how little is being done and more importantly, what can be done to reverse it. Killer at Large also explores the human element of the problem with portions of the film that follow a 12-year old girl who has a controversial liposuction procedure to fix her weight gain and a number of others suffering from obesity, including filmmaker Neil Labute. The film features interviews and covers events with such notable public figures as Former President Clinton, Ralph Nader, Senators Tom Harkin and Sam Brownback, Arnold Schwarzenegger, former Surgeon General Richard Carmona and a number of bestselling authors and renowned experts like Michael Pollan, Barry Glassner (Bowling for Columbine), Dr. Kelly Brownell (Supersize Me), Dr. Barry Popkin (Penn and Teller's Bullshit) and many others.


Secret to Effective Dieting? Portion Control - David Kessler

Former FDA commissioner David Kessler argues that eating, even while trying to lose weight, must be pleasurable and rewarding. Dr. Kessler argues for moderation and portion control. There's no "magic bullet," he says. Drawing on years of extensive research and interviews with medical experts and industry insiders, former FDA commissioner David. A Kessler tears the brightly colored packaging off the food business to reveal the startling cultural, biological and psychological influences that have produced a nation of people hardwired to overeat.   The more hooked on these foods we become, the more of them we will buy. - Commonwealth Club of California David A. Kessler, M.D., is the Dean of the School of Medicine and the Vice Chancellor for Medical Affairs at the University of California, San Francisco. Prior to this appointment, Dr. Kessler served for six years as the Dean of the Yale University School of Medicine. Dr. Kessler, who served as Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration from November 1990 until March 1997, was appointed by President George H. W. Bush and reappointed by President Clinton. As Commissioner of the FDA, he acted to speed approval of new drugs and placed high priority on getting promising therapies for serious and life-threatening diseases to patients as quickly as possible. He introduced changes in the device approval process to make it more efficient and ensure that it meets high standards. Under his direction, the FDA announced a number of new programs, including: user fees for drugs and biologics; the regulation of the marketing and sale of tobacco products to children; and preventive controls to improve food safety.


CafeÔne meest effectieve afslankcomponent

Een bescheiden dosis cafeÔne verhoogt het energieverbruik van het lichaam meer dan doses van gedoodverfde metabole boosters als groene thee-extract en tyrosine.

Link


Mens mag 400 calorieŽn per dag extra eten

Een doorsnee mens zou misschien meer mogen eten dan tot dusver werd aangenomen. De bekende calorierichtlijn van 2000 calorieŽn per dag voor een vrouw en 2500 voor een man, zou te zuinig zijn.

Link


Met magere vis gaat afvallen vlotter dan met mager vlees

Een dieet dat je dagelijks 30 procent minder energie levert dan je verbrandt werkt beter als je daarbij kabeljauw gebruikt als eiwitbron.

Link


Dieettrend - Body Oracle pakt specifieke probleemzones aan

De nieuwste manier om lichaamsvet kwijt te raken is 'Body Oracle'. De uitvinders beweren dat je ermee heel gericht probleemzone's kunt aanpakken zonder zonder dat je ervoor moet staan zwoegen in het fitnesscentrum.

Link


Is Stress Making You FAT?

Stress can be packing the pounds on you! Adrenal Fatigue can significantly reduce your quality of life. Common symptoms are:
* Fat around midsection
* Belly fat
* Poor memory
* Loss of bone
* Hypothyroid
* Mentrual irregularities
* Frequent infections
* Poor blood sugar regulation
Unfortunately, most medical practitioners and insurance companies do not recognize Adrenal Fatigue as a legitimate medical condition. However, you can't live without your adrenals! Stage 3 AF (very common) is a ticket to chronic degenerative disease.
Get your adrenals back in shape!


Jeffrey Friedman discusses research on leptin and obesity

Jeffrey Friedman, winner of this year's Shaw Prize in Life Science and Medicine and Keio Medical Science Prize, discusses his nearly three decades of research on obesity. Dr. Friedman discovered leptin, a hormone that regulates food intake and energy expenditure.


Van vet word je niet vet

Om te bepalen welke vetten wel en niet goed zien voor de mens moeten we eerst kijken naar het voedsel waar hij evolutionair op ingesteld is. Uit de verhalen en onderzoeken van onderzoekers, ontdekkingsreizigers en antropologen kunnen we opmaken dat de mens zich van het begin af aan heeft gevoed met zowel plantaardige als dierlijke voeding. De vroege mens wordt afgeschilderd als een jager-verzamelaar, met het woord ‘jager’ vooraan. Deze conclusies zijn vaak gebaseerd op fossielen van mensen zelf of voedselresten die ze hebben achtergelaten, bijvoorbeeld beestenbotten. Toch is dat niet allemaal doorslaggevend bewijs dat de mens hoofdzakelijk een jager was.

Lees verder

Mike Donkers


Brisbane conference targets obesity

Obesity rates are continuing to rise putting serious pressure on health services. A symposium in Brisbane today brought together health care professionals to tackle the issue Jane Chuddleigh reports.


FDA onderzoekt leverschade door gebruik afslankpil Alli
/Xenical (orlistat)

De FDA is een onderzoek naar dit afslankmiddel begonnen naar aanleiding van 32 rapporten over leverschade door het gebruik van dit populaire afslankproduct dat in de VS ook zonder recept verkrijgbaar is. Xenical wordt door het Zwitserse bedrijf Roche geproduceerd en zowel Alli als Xenical worden door GlaxoSmithkline op de markt gebracht.

Link

FDA Issues Early Communication about Ongoing Safety Review of Weight Loss Drug Orlistat

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced today that it is reviewing adverse event reports of liver injury in patients taking the weight loss drug orlistat, marketed as the prescription drug Xenical and the over-the-counter medication Alli. Between 1999 and 2008, the FDA received 32 reports of serious liver injury in patients taking orlistat. Of those cases, 27 reported hospitalization and six resulted in liver failure. Thirty of the adverse events occurred outside the United States. The most commonly reported adverse events included yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes (jaundice), weakness, and stomach pain. The FDA is reviewing additional data submitted by orlistat manufacturers on suspected cases of liver injury, and the issue has been discussed at the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Drug Safety Oversight Board. “The issues here are complex, but FDA has benefited from the input of the Board, including comments from representatives from three FDA Centers and several other Agencies in the Department of Health and Human Services,” said Steven Osborne, M.D., executive director of the Board. The FDA’s analysis of these data is ongoing, and no definite association between liver injury and orlistat has been established at this time. Consumers taking Xenical should continue to take it as prescribed, and those using over-the-counter Alli should continue to use the product as directed.

Full text of the Early Communication about an Ongoing Safety Review can be found here. The Early Communication is a risk communication tool used by the FDA to inform the public about its ongoing safety reviews of drugs. The FDA will release its findings on orlistat as soon as the review is completed. Consumers who have used orlistat should consult a health care professional if they experience symptoms possibly associated with development of liver injury, particularly weakness or fatigue, fever, jaundice, or brown urine. Other symptoms may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, light-colored stools, itching, or loss of appetite.

The FDA urges both health care professionals and consumers to report suspected side effects from the use of orlistat to FDA's MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program either online, or by regular mail, fax, or phone.
-- Online
--Regular Mail: use postage-paid FDA form 3500 and mail to MedWatch, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20852-9787
--Fax: 800-FDA-0178
--Phone: 800-FDA-1088


Brainwashing: The Key to Weight Loss? - Elizabeth Loftus

Elizabeth Loftus discusses her psychological work using false memories to influence food choices. By embedding a false food experience, Loftus found subjects avoided fattening foods after being convinced the food caused them to be extremely sick.


Is Cardio Sabotaging Your Weight Loss Program?


Get Lean with Glutamine

Glutamine is essential for protein synthesis and fat loss. In the former case, it promotes anabolism (muscle building) and in the later it reduces the fat content of your body thus promoting lean muscle growth.

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Dietary Oil May Need Help In Avoiding Any Side Effects Of Weight Loss

An oil made of natural fatty acids that is sometimes used as a weight-loss supplement may need to be paired with hormones or other substances to prevent health problems that can follow rapid weight loss, a new study suggests. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a compound naturally found in some meat and dairy products, can reduce body fat in some studies in humans. But a recent study in mice found that the hormone leptin adds an element of protection against side effects that can accompany fat loss with CLA.

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Gene therapy shows early promise for treating obesity

With obesity reaching epidemic levels, researchers at the Ohio State University Medical Center are studying a potentially long-term treatment that involves injecting a gene directly into one of the critical feeding and weight control centers of the brain. "Obesity significantly increases the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke and some cancers," says Dr. Matthew During, senior author and professor in Ohio State Medical Center's department of molecular virology, immunology and medical genetics. "Our findings represent a promising new treatment for obesity that could ultimately provide a much safer and more effective approach than some conventional therapies." Scientists have discovered that a particular gene, BDNF, can result in improved insulin sensitivity, reduced fat mass and weight loss when active in the hypothalamus. The findings are published online in the journal Nature Medicine. According to first author Lei Cao, assistant professor in the department of molecular virology, immunology and medical genetics, the study involved injecting the BDNF gene in normal mice, diabetic mice and mice fed with a high fat diet, to determine how the gene transfer would affect their weight. "The gene was active in the overweight mice, but as they lost weight the gene expression was essentially 'dialed down,' using a novel RNA interference approach, thus stopping the weight from continuing to decrease and allowing a stable target weight to be reached," she says. During indicated that with the initial results showing great promise, the next step is to obtain the necessary FDA approvals to begin studying the therapy in humans at OSU Medical Center and other centers around the country.

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Calorie-Burning Fat? Studies Say You Have It

Originally believed to be lost after infancy, calorie-burning brown fat has been discovered in adults.

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Fat-cell biologist Perry Bickel Joins UT’s fight against obesity

Bickel is particularly interested in an intriguing relationship between elevated fat stores in muscles cells and the body’s ability to utilize insulin, a blood-sugar regulating hormone. While elevated fat stores can be found in the muscle cells of both endurance athletes and of people with type 2 diabetes, the athletes are sensitive to insulin and those with type 2 diabetes are resistant to insulin. “This paradox has not been explained,” he said. “And, I predict that we’ll find the lipid droplets within muscles of such athletes will have different coat proteins than those that coat the lipid droplets of people with type 2 diabetes.”

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Scientists Identify Another Piece of the Weight-Control Puzzle

Controlling body weight is a complicated process, as any frustrated dieter might attest. But as scientists continue to investigate the brain’s intricate neurocircuitry and its role in maintaining energy balance, they are forming a clearer picture of the myriad events that lead to weight gain and weight loss.In the August 10 on-line issue of Nature Neuroscience, a study led by scientists at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) identifies another piece of this complex puzzle, demonstrating that the neurotransmitter GABA --one of the master communicators among neurons – plays a role in controlling energy balance.

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Sleep may be factor in weight control

Could sleep be a critical component to maintaining a healthy body weight? According to new research to be presented on Sunday, May 17, at the American Thoracic Society's 105th International Conference in San Diego, body mass index (BMI) is linked to length and quality of sleep in a surprisingly consistent fashion. As part of the Integrative Cardiac Health Project at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, researchers analyzed the sleep, activity and energy expenditures of 14 nurses who had volunteered for a heart-health program at the Walter Reed, where the nurses were employed. The program included nutritional counseling, exercise training, stress management and sleep improvement. Each participant wore an actigraphy armband that measured total activity, body temperature, body position and other indices of activity and rest. "When we analyzed our data by splitting our subjects into 'short sleepers' and 'long sleepers,' we found that short sleepers tended to have a higher BMI, 28.3 kg/m2, compared to long sleepers, who had an average BMI of 24.5. Short sleepers also had lower sleep efficiency, experienced as greater difficulty getting to sleep and staying asleep," said lead investigator Arn Eliasson, M.D. Surprisingly, overweight individuals tended to be more active than their normal weight counterparts, taking significantly more steps than normal weight individuals: 14,000 compared to 11,300, a nearly 25 percent difference, and expending nearly 1,000 more calories a day—3,064 versus 2,080.

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Chronic ear infections linked to increased obesity risk

Ear infections are a painful rite of passage for many children. New research suggests the damage caused by chronic ear infections could be linked to people's preference for fatty foods, which increases their risk of being overweight as they age. Scientists from around the country presented their findings on this unexpected connection at the American Psychological Association's 116th Annual Convention here Thursday.

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UNC researchers find MSG use linked to obesity

People who use monosodium glutamate, or MSG, as a flavor enhancer in their food are more likely than people who don't use it to be overweight or obese even though they have the same amount of physical activity and total calorie intake, according to a University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health study published this month in the journal Obesity. Researchers at UNC and in China studied more than 750 Chinese men and women, aged between 40 and 59, in three rural villages in north and south China. The majority of study participants prepared their meals at home without commercially processed foods. About 82 percent of the participants used MSG in their food. Those users were divided into three groups, based on the amount of MSG they used. The third who used the most MSG were nearly three times more likely to be overweight than non-users. "Animal studies have indicated for years that MSG might be associated with weight gain," said Ka He, M.D., assistant professor of nutrition and epidemiology at the UNC School of Public Health. "Ours is the first study to show a link between MSG use and weight in humans." Because MSG is used as a flavor enhancer in many processed foods, studying its potential effect on humans has been difficult. He and his colleagues chose study participants living in rural Chinese villages because they used very little commercially processed food, but many regularly used MSG in food preparation. "We found that prevalence of overweight was significantly higher in MSG users than in non-users," He said. "We saw this risk even when we controlled for physical activity, total calorie intake and other possible explanations for the difference in body mass. The positive associations between MSG intake and overweight were consistent with data from animal studies."

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Two studies question the validity of the BMI in the assessment of health

However, when the researchers started looking at the results of the obese individuals according to whether they were insulin resistance or not the results became a bit more revealing. Distinct differences were found between these two “types” of obese person. In particular, compared to those who were insulin sensitive, the insulin resistance individuals were found to have significantly more fat in their livers and thicker arteries.

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Sick of the same old thing? U of Minnesota researcher finds satiation solution

Have you ever gotten sick of pizza, playing the same computer game, or had a song stuck in your head for so long you never wanted to hear it again? If you have, you may suffer from variety amnesia. In new research, Joseph Redden, professor of marketing at the University of Minnesota's Carlson School of Management, may have found a cure for your satiation blues. "People forget about the abundance of different experiences they have had and tend to focus on the repetition," said Redden. "Simply thinking about the variety of songs they have listened to or meals they have eaten will make people enjoy the activity again." Satiation, the process of consuming products and experiences to the point where they are less enjoyable, is a big problem for consumers and retailers. In the past, time and variety have been seen as the only ways to cure satiation. In their new article forthcoming in the Journal of Consumer Research, Redden and co-authors find that just recalling variety may cure satiation faster. "Intuition says that if time passes we will like something again: we call this 'spontaneous recovery,' " said Redden. "This isn't the whole story. People don't fully recover on their own with the mere passage of time. If I'm sick of chocolate, simply thinking about all the other desserts I've had since the last time I had chocolate helps cure my satiation. Time doesn't seem to do that very well." In one of the three studies conducted for this research, Redden and his co-authors asked participants to listen to the chorus of a favorite song 20 times in a row. Then they were asked to rate the clip. Not surprisingly, after 20 repetitions their enjoyment of the song dropped a great deal. Three weeks later, the participants came back and half were asked to recall any television shows they'd seen since the study, while the other half listed all of the musicians they'd listened to since the first session. The group that listed the TV shows was still just as satiated – they didn't like the song. However, those recalling variety in the music category almost totally recovered. "The participants' comments were the most revealing," said Redden. "Those who recalled the TV shows were actually angry to have a song they like 'ruined,' but the ones who recalled musicians enjoyed taking a study with music, etc. If something seems like 'more of the same,' people are just less interested."

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A diet rich in calcium aids weight loss

Boosting calcium consumption spurs weight loss, according to a study published in the most recent issue of the British Journal of Nutrition, but only in people whose diets are calcium deficient. Angelo Tremblay and his team at Universitť Laval’s Faculty of Medicine made the discovery in a 15-week weight loss program they conducted on obese women. The participants consumed on average less than 600 mg of calcium per day, whereas recommended daily intake is 1000 mg. In addition to following a low calorie diet, the women were instructed to take two tablets a day containing either a total of 1200 mg of calcium or a placebo. Those who took the calcium tablets lost nearly 6 kg over the course of the program, the researchers found, compared to 1 kg for women in the control group. “Our hypothesis is that the brain can detect the lack of calcium and seeks to compensate by spurring food intake, which obviously works against the goals of any weight loss program,” said Angelo Tremblay, holder of the Canada Research Chair in Environment and Energy Balance. “Sufficient calcium intake seems to stifle the desire to eat more,” he added.

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How and where fat is stored predicts disease risk better than weight

A new study in mice indicates that overeating, rather than the obesity it causes, is the trigger for developing metabolic syndrome, a collection of heath risk factors that increases an individual’s chances of developing insulin resistance, fatty liver, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. How and where the body stores excess, unused calories appears to matter most when determining a person’s risk of developing metabolic syndrome, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center suggest. “Most people today think that obesity itself causes metabolic syndrome,” said Dr. Roger Unger, professor of internal medicine at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study. “We’re ingrained to think obesity is the cause of all health problems, when in fact it is the spillover of fat into organs other than fat cells that damages these organs, such as the heart and the liver. Depositing fatty molecules in fat cells where they belong actually delays that harmful spillover.”

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Student-designed device provides new way to track calorie burning

Counting calories that burn through activity is a constant quandary. One can only run on a treadmill so long, watching intently as the pedometer reads out the number of calories melted during a session of exercise. Not to mention the question of how many calories are burned through basic daily movements and even during sleep. But technology – and youthful ambition – is presenting a round-the-clock solution for those consumed with this calculation. A group of Georgia Tech students has crafted a device that allows individuals to constantly compute the amount of calories they burn – even as they sleep. “It’s a completely converged device,” said Garrett Langley, 21, a senior in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) who spearheaded the project. “It’s a single unit that provides complete fitness monitoring and management.”

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Not enough vitamin D in the diet could mean too much fat on adolescents

Too little vitamin D could be bad for more than your bones; it may also lead to fatter adolescents, researchers say. A Medical College of Georgia study of more than 650 teens age 14-19 has found that those who reported higher vitamin D intakes had lower overall body fat and lower amounts of the fat in the abdomen, a type of fat known as visceral fat, which has been associated with health risks such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and hypertension. The group with the lowest vitamin D intake, black females, had higher percentages of both body fat and visceral fat, while black males had the lowest percentages of body and visceral fat, even though their vitamin D intake was below the recommended levels. Only one group – white males – was getting the recommended minimum intake of vitamin D. “This study was a cross-section so, while it cannot prove that higher intake of vitamin D caused the lower body fat, we know there is a relationship that needs to be explored further," says Dr. Yanbin Dong, a molecular geneticist and cardiologist at the MCG Gerogia Prevention Institute. Dr. Dong, who also co-directs the MCG Diabetes & Obesity Discovery Institute, and Inger Stallman-Jorgensen, a research dietician at the GPI, present their findings this week at the American Heart Association’s Joint 49th Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention and Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism in Palm Harbor, Fla.

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Packaging Chemical Linked to Childhood Obesity

Phthalates used in food packaging could be linked to childhood obesity, according to two recent studies conducted by the Mount Sinai School of Medicine that included research conducted on more than 900 children in East Harlem and surrounding communities. The studies have added to a growing body of evidence that link phthalates to health problems.

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Project launched by VTT develops computer models for predicting dietary effects on health

The ETHERPATHS project focuses on the balance of lipid metabolism in the body, the effects of foods in tissues and the role of gut microbiota in these processes. Lipid metabolism disorders are associated with several common health care problems, such as ageing, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The balance can be influenced by dietary means. The risk of chronic diseases decreases with a diet containing particularly omega-3 fatty acids and foods that contain fibres and phenol. Therefore, fatty fish, berries, fruits and vegetables may be favourable foods in terms of lipid metabolism balance. The body's own phospholipids are assumed to mediate the health-promoting effects, but their mechanisms of action are still unknown.

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Making 'good' fat from muscle and vice versa

A surprise discovery -- that calorie-burning brown fat can be produced experimentally from muscle precursor cells in mice -- raises the prospect of new ways to fight obesity and overweight, say scientists from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Reporting in the Aug. 21 issue of the journal Nature, the researchers demonstrated that brown fat, which is known as the "good" form of fat -- so called because it burns calories and releases energy, unlike "bad" white fat that simply stores extra calories -- can be generated from unspecialized precursors that routinely spawn skeletal muscle. The team led by Dana-Farber's Bruce Spiegelman, PhD, showed that a previously known molecular switch, PRDM16, regulates the creation of brown fat from immature muscle cells. They also determined that the process is a two-way street: Knocking out PRDM16 in brown fat cells can convert them into muscle cells. However, Spiegelman called the latter an "experimental lab trick" for which he currently envisions no practical applications. The "huge surprise" of the study results, he said, was that muscle precursor cells known as "satellite cells" are able to give birth to brown fat cells under the control of PRDM16. Spiegelman said the finding confirms that PRDM16 is the "master regulator" of brown fat development. The confirmation will spur ongoing research in his laboratory, he said, to see if drugs that rev up PRDM16 in mice -- and potentially, in people -- could convert white fat into brown fat and thereby treat obesity. Another strategy, he said, might be to transplant brown fat cells into an overweight person to turn on the calorie-burning process.

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Doubled calorie intake from beverages likely contributes to adult obesity

It's not just sugary sodas that are adding to the obesity crisis -- it's fruit drinks, alcohol and a combination of other high-calorie beverages, say University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health researchers. And during the holidays, when eggnog, cocktails and spiced cider are abundant, the problem can be even more apparent.

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Joslin study identifies protein that produces 'good' fat

A study by researchers at the Joslin Diabetes Center has shown that a protein known for its role in inducing bone growth can also help promote the development of brown fat, a "good" fat that helps in the expenditure of energy and plays a role in fighting obesity. "Obesity is occurring at epidemic rates in the U.S. and worldwide and that impacts the risk and prognosis of many diseases," said Yu-Hua Tseng, Ph.D. an Assistant Investigator in the Joslin Section on Obesity and Hormone Action and lead author of the paper published in the August 21 issue of Nature. "We hope this study can be translated into applications to help treat or prevent obesity." Tseng noted that obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and is closely linked to the metabolic syndrome, a collection of medical problems associated with insulin resistance that can lead to an increased risk of atherosclerosis, the buildup of plaque in coronary arteries that leads to heart attack and stroke. In laboratory studies of mouse cells, Tseng and her colleagues identified that a bone-inducing protein called BMP-7 drives precursor cells that give rise to mature brown fat cells. According to Tseng, there are two main types of fat cells in the body – white and brown. "White fat cells are the 'conventional' form of fat designed to store energy. By contrast, the main role of brown fat is to burn calories by generating heat. Brown fat cells largely disappear by adulthood in humans, but their precursors still remain in the body," Tseng explained. A 2005 Joslin study by Dr. Tseng and colleagues discovered genes that control the creation of the precursor cells of brown fat. Another more recent 2007 Joslin study led by C. Ronald Kahn, M.D., head of the Joslin Section on Obesity and Hormone Action and also a co-author of the current Nature study, found clusters of brown fat cells dispersed between bundles of muscle fibers in an obesity-resistant strain of mice. Now, this latest study identified BMP-7 as the protein capable of inducing the formation and function of brown fat cells. According to the paper, delivery of BMP-7 into mice using adenovirus as a vector resulted in an increase in the development of brown fat tissue. In one of the experiments, the mice that developed brown fat tissue gained less weight than those that did not. In another experiment, mice that received injections of progenitor cells – similar to stem cells – that had been pre-treated with BMP-7 also developed additional brown fat tissue.

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Eat less while eating more?

It may not be a licence for a liquid lunch exactly, but consuming foods high in water could be the key to losing weight, nutritionists say.

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Vit B 'reduces obesity risk'

Mothers with healthy levels of B vitamins are less likely to produce offspring who will develop health problems such as obesity in later life, a new study claims.

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Gladstone scientists reveal key enzyme in fat absorption

Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes of Cardiovascular Disease (GICD) have found that a key enzyme involved in absorbing fat may also be a key to reducing it. The enzyme, acyl CoA: monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 or Mgat2 is found in the intestines and plays an important part in the uptake of dietary fat by catalyzing a critical step in making triglyceride, a kind of fat. Triglyceride accounts for nearly one-third of the fat eaten by people in developed countries. Researchers in the laboratory of Robert V. Farese, Jr. MD, found that mice that were genetically modified to lack Mgat2 remain normal on a low-fat diet. However, when fed a high-fat diet that is similar to that eaten by many Americans, the mice do not get fat and do not develop other symptoms of obesity, such as glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolemia, and fatty livers. The mice eat the same number of calories as other mice, and the calories are fully absorbed. Results of their study were published in the current issue of the journal Nature Medicine. "Because mice that lack this enzyme do not gain weight on a high-fat diet, it is an intriguing target for future interventions to prevent weight gain and the problems associated with that extra weight," said Dr. Farese. The mechanism of action, the researchers identified was that the lack of Mgat2 may reduce the uptake of fat in the small intestine and delay its entry into the blood. This process may dissociate fat from carbohydrate absorption and insulin secretion and ultimately lower the amount of fat stored and used. How this happens is not clear. One possibility is that the absorbed fat is partitioned more to tissues where it is burned up. "Differences in Mgat2 expression may contribute to the propensity of some people to gain weight from diets rich in fat," said Eric Yen, PhD, lead author of the study. "Our findings suggest that inhibiting this enzyme in the small intestine might be an effective way to treating metabolic diseases that result from excessive fat intake."

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UH sociologist has different perspective on obesity 'epidemic'

Headlines tell us the nation is getting fatter, and that obesity has become an epidemic. But there is more to the story, according to one University of Houston sociologist. While she acknowledges that there has been a shift in body weight over the years, assistant sociology professor Samantha Kwan looks at obesity from a different perspective. The term obesity was constructed by the medical community, Kwan says. And the use of the Body Mass Index, which measures obesity, as the main factor to define obesity, has resulted in the media greatly overstating the rise of the condition. "This epidemic has been constructed to the benefit of the medical industry that has in part medicalized the treatment of obesity over the years," Kwan says. "While there may be a rise in 'obesity,' the BMI is not always accurate. Some scholars describe this epidemic more as a moral panic. While there may be some truths to rising rates, they have been overstated." Kwan, who has been studying gender and body image since 2001, examines how cultural beauty messages about fat interact with other cultural messages about fat, such as health discourses. This is summarized in her article "Framing the Fat Body: Contested Meanings between Government, Activists and Industry," published in February's Sociological Inquiry. "I am trying to get students and audiences to understand that there are competing cultural meanings about the fat body," Kwan says. "Fat does not, in itself, signify unhealthy and unattractive. These are cultural constructions. We as a society say what it means to be fat, and right now cultural discourses say it's ugly and unhealthy to be fat. … It's also assumed that the body is a reflection of the psyche, including one's moral fiber." Kwan has found that women's self-esteem is more closely tied to weight than men's.

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New direction needed for obesity research, Deakin health expert claims

Most of the current obesity research is not proving helpful in finding solutions to the growing international epidemic, according to a Deakin University public health expert. Professor Boyd Swinburn believes that research funding would be better directed at testing possible solutions rather than continuing to unpick what is causing the rise in obesity. "It seems counter intuitive, but knowing the causes or mechanisms for weight gain does not always help with identifying the solutions," he said. "For an individual person, we know the causes of weight gain over time include the obesogenic environment, genetic predisposition, and increasing age – none of which can be influenced by the health professional trying to help the person lose weight. At a population level, the commercial drivers which promote our overconsumption of food are unlikely to be reversed by the private sector because there is no commercial gain for the food industry to promote eating fewer calories. "The twin bottom line is that we need to re-orient our research towards testing potential solutions rather than just better identifying the problem. The most promising approaches for individuals and populations will involve identifying the right set of 'rules' or policies which lead to sustainable environmental and behavioural changes." Professor Swinburn says that identifying solutions needs specific solutions-oriented research and unfortunately most of the current research into obesity is problem-oriented. "Interestingly, the solutions that are the most likely to work seem to be 'rule-based' solutions," Professor Swinburn explained.

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Sleep duration related to having the metabolic syndrome

A study published in the May 1 issue of the journal Sleep is the first known to report that short and long sleepers are more likely to have metabolic syndrome, or a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

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New Study in the Journal SLEEP Finds a Consistent, Worldwide Association Between Short Sleep Duration and Obesity in Children and Adults

A study published in the May 1 issue of the journal SLEEP is the first attempt to quantify the strength of the cross-sectional relationships between duration of sleep and obesity in both children and adults. Cross-sectional studies from around the world show a consistent increased risk of obesity among short sleepers in children and adults, the study found. Francesco P. Cappuccio, MD, of Warwick Medical School in the United Kingdom, and colleagues performed a systematic search of publications on the relationship between short sleep duration and obesity risk. Criteria for inclusion were: report of duration of sleep as exposure, body mass index (BMI) as continuous outcome and prevalence of obesity as categorical outcome, number of participants, age and gender.

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A University of Navarra study has revealed that the consumption of fruits and legumes aids in losing more than 6% of body weight

Foods rich in compounds with antioxidant capacity, such as fruits and legumes, help to lose more than 6% of body weight when they are included in low-calorie diets for nutritional treatment of obesity. This conclusion was derived from the doctoral research of the biologist Ana Belťn Crujeiras, a researcher of the Department of Diet, Physiology and Toxicology of the University of Navarra. In addition to the effects associated with weight loss, Dr. Crujeiras added that another consequence of this diet is an improvement in cholesterol levels thanks to dietary fiber, and a reduction in body fat. This is due to “protection against oxidative stress, a mechanism which underlies the development of pathologies associated with obesity, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and even cancer,” she indicated.

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Exposure to insecticide may play role in obesity epidemic among some women

Prenatal exposure to an insecticide commonly used up until the 1970s may play a role in the obesity epidemic in women, according to a new study involving several Michigan State University researchers. More than 250 mothers who live along and eat fish from Lake Michigan were studied for their exposure to DDE – a breakdown of DDT. The study, published as an editor’s choice in this month’s edition of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, analyzed DDE levels of the women’s offspring. Compared to the group with the lowest levels, those with intermediate levels gained an average of 13 pounds excess weight, and those with higher levels gained more than 20 pounds of excess weight. “Prenatal exposure to toxins is increasingly being looked at as a potential cause for the rise in obesity seen worldwide,” said Janet Osuch, a professor of surgery and epidemiology at MSU’s College of Human Medicine, who was one of the lead authors of the study. “What we have found for the first time is exposure to certain toxins by eating fish from polluted waters may contribute to the obesity epidemic in women.” Though DDT was banned in 1973 after three decades of widespread use, the chemical and its byproducts remain toxic in marine life and fatty fish. The study was funded by a $300,000 grant from the federal Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Osuch said the study’s findings can have a huge impact on how researchers treat – and seek to prevent – obesity. The research team has been awarded a $1 million grant from the same federal agency, the ATSDR, to assess the impact of pollutants and toxins on a wide variety of disorders by determining the importance of second- and third-generation health effects.

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Is the Environment Making Us Fat and Sick?

Conventional wisdom says that the meteoric rise in obesity and related health conditions - the early stages of which are now called metabolic syndrome - is due to the West having a bad case of "couch potato syndrome." That is, over the past few decades, we have been eating too much and not exercising enough. While poor diet and inactivity play an undeniable role in fostering metabolic syndrome, that's not the whole story. Clinical and epidemiological evidence increasingly implicates another culprit: the environment. An insufficient explanation Some scientists suspect that a combination of environmental factors, including a group of chemicals called obesogens, share the blame for the explosion of metabolic syndrome and its later stages: diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and even Alzheimer's. "Despite what we've heard," said Dr. Bruce Blumberg, Professor of Developmental and Cell Biology and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the Univeristy of California, Irvine, "diet and exercise alone are insufficient to explain the obesity epidemic."

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Not all fat is created equal

A Temple University study finds fat in obese patients is “sick” when compared to fat in lean patients. When our bodies don’t work properly, we say we’re sick. A study published in the September issue of Diabetes finds that the same could be said for fat tissue found in obese patients. The cells in their fat tissue aren’t working properly and as a result, are sicker than cells found in lean patients’ fat tissue. Lead author Guenther Boden, M.D. theorizes that “sick fat” could more fully explain the link between obesity and higher risk of diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Researchers from the departments of endocrinology, biochemistry and surgery at the Temple University School of Medicine took fat biopsies from the upper thighs of six lean and six obese patients and found significant differences at the cellular level. “The fat cells we found in our obese patients were deficient in several areas,” said Boden, Laura H. Carnell Professor of Medicine and chief of endocrinology. “They showed significant stress on the endoplasmic reticulum, and the tissue itself was more inflamed than in our lean patients.”

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Low Levels of Brain Chemical May Lead to Obesity, NIH Study of Rare Disorder Shows

A brain chemical that plays a role in long term memory also appears to be involved in regulating how much people eat and their likelihood of becoming obese, according to a National Institutes of Health study of a rare genetic condition. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is, as its name implies, produced in the brain. Studies of laboratory animals have suggested it also helps control appetite and weight. The NIH study, appearing in the August 28 New England Journal of Medicine, provides the first strong evidence that BDNF is important for body weight in human beings as well. The NIH researchers studied children and adults with WAGR syndrome, a rare genetic condition. The researchers found that some of the people with this syndrome lack a gene for BDNF and have correspondingly low blood levels of the substance. The people in this subgroup also have unusually large appetites and a strong tendency towards obesity. “This is a promising new lead in the search for biological pathways that contribute to obesity,” said Duane Alexander, M.D., director of the NIH’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. “This finding may eventually lead to the development of new drugs to regulate appetite in people who have not had success with other treatments.” The study’s first author was Joan C. Han, M.D. and the senior author was Jack A. Yanovski, M.D., Ph.D., both of NICHD’s Unit on Growth and Obesity. Other authors of the study were from the National Human Genome Research Institute and the National Institute on Drug Abuse, also part of the NIH. Funding for the study was provided by the NICHD and the NIH Office of Rare Diseases.

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New master switch found in the brain that regulates appetite and reproduction

Body weight and fertility have long known to be related to each other – women who are too thin, for example, can have trouble becoming pregnant. Now, a master switch has been found in the brain of mice that controls both, and researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies say it may work the same way in humans.Findings from the study, published ahead of print in the Aug. 31 online edition of Nature Medicine, suggest that variations in the gene that produces this master switch, known as TORC1, could contribute a genetic component to obesity and infertility, and might be regulated with a novel drug. "This gene is crucial to the daisy chain of signals that run between body fat and the brain," says Marc Montminy, Ph.D., a professor in the Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, who led the study. "It likely plays a pivotal role in how much we, as humans, eat and whether we have offspring."It is just as important as leptin, the well-known star regulator of appetite, Montminy says, because leptin turns on TORC1, which in turn activates a number of genes known to help control feeding and fertility. Judith Altarejos Ph.D., first author on this study, had been trying to understand human energy balance, and what can go awry to promote obesity, diabetes and other metabolic syndromes. In this study, she looked at the signals that travel from body fat to the brain, informing the brain of how well fed the body is. The primary hormone that performs that function is leptin, which travels through the bloodstream to the hypothalamus in the brain (the appetite center), keeping the brain aware of the body's nutritional status. "Leptin tells the brain that times are good, your body is full, and that it is not necessary to eat more at the moment," Montminy says. The hormone also is known to play a role in reproduction - although, until this study, no one understood what is was. (Very thin women often do not have periods.) "Controlling appetite and reproduction together provides a big evolutionary advantage," Montminy says. "If there is no food, the brain believes the body should not reproduce because without body fat, a baby's growth in the womb could be stunted, and without food to replenish the body's energy reserves, there will be nothing to feed the offspring." "Leptin works remarkably well to give the brain a good indication of how much food has been eaten; 99.9 percent of the time it balances food intake with energy use," he says. "The problem is that no machine works 100 percent of the time, and that slight bit of inefficiency can lead to extra body weight." Obesity results when the brain becomes "deaf" to the leptin signal, so one goal of Montminy's research is to "try to make a way to make sure the brain signals are being heard." But to do that, he and his research team first have to understand all of the signals involved in the satiety pathway. Through years of research, they have uncovered a family of genes that act as energy switches, turning other genes on or off. One gene, TORC2, acts like a fasting switch that flips on the production of glucose in the liver when blood glucose levels run low, usually during sleep. During the day, the hormone insulin normally shuts down TORC2, ensuring that blood sugar levels don't rise too high. Problems along the pathway, however, can help lead to diabetes.

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4 Things That Make You Fat

Stress, lack of sleep, babyfood and endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

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French paradox redux? US vs. French on being full

It's the French paradox redux: Why don't the French get as fat as Americans, considering all the baguettes, wine, cheese, pate and pastries they eat? Because they use internal cues -- such as no longer feeling hungry -- to stop eating, reports a new Cornell study. Americans, on the other hand, tend to use external cues -- such as whether their plate is clean, they have run out of their beverage or the TV show they're watching is over.

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Protein-rich Diet and Exercise Help Seniors Live longer

Conducted by researchers at the Manchester Metropolitan University, the new study, has found that exercise, low to moderate workouts, and a diet containing proteins and carbohydrates can help old people live longer and stay healthier.

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Middle age spread link to frailty

People who are overweight or obese in middle-age run the risk of being frail in later life, say Finnish researchers.

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This Hormone Makes Counting Calories Irrelevant

It is amazing how the little twists and turns of researchers can have such a profound impact on what we generally come to realize as “scientific truth.” Let me share a recent fascinating example of how this impacted one of the most powerful hormones in your body.

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Johns Hopkins researchers suppress 'hunger hormone'

Johns Hopkins scientists report success in significantly suppressing levels of the “hunger hormone” ghrelin in pigs using a minimally invasive means of chemically vaporizing the main vessel carrying blood to the top section, or fundus, of the stomach. An estimated 90 percent of the body’s ghrelin originates in the fundus, which can’t make the hormone without a good blood supply. “With gastric artery chemical embolization, called GACE, there’s no major surgery,” says Aravind Arepally, M.D., clinical director of the Center for Bioengineering Innovation and Design and associate professor of radiology and surgery at the John Hopkins University School of Medicine. “In our study in pigs, this procedure produced an effect similar to bariatric surgery by suppressing ghrelin levels and subsequently lowering appetite.” Reporting on the research in the September 16 online edition of Radiology, Arepally and his team note that for more than a decade, efforts to safely and easily suppress grehlin have met with very limited success.

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New study reveals higher protein breakfast may help dieters stay on track

A new study published online today in the British Journal of Nutrition found that timing of dietary protein intake affects feelings of fullness throughout the day. The study concluded that when people ate high-quality protein foods, from sources such as eggs and lean Canadian bacon, for breakfast they had a greater sense of sustained fullness throughout the day compared to when more protein was eaten at lunch or dinner. "There is a growing body of research which supports eating high-quality protein foods when dieting to maintain a sense of fullness," said Wayne W. Campbell, PhD, study author and professor of Foods and Nutrition at Purdue University. "This study is particularly unique in that it looked at the timing of protein intake and reveals that when you consume more protein may be a critical piece of the equation." The study included overweight or obese men who ate a reduced calorie diet. The diet consisted of two variations of protein intakes, both which were within federal nutrition recommendations: normal protein intake (11-14 percent of calories) or increased protein (18-25 percent of calories). The researchers tested the effect of consuming the additional protein at specific meals – breakfast, lunch or dinner – or spaced evenly throughout the day. Purdue researchers found that the feeling of fullness was greatest and most sustained throughout the day when the additional protein, from eggs and lean Canadian bacon, was eaten at breakfast – versus lunch or dinner.

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What is the risk of obesity while taking antidepressant drugs?

Cross-sectional studies have reported an association between major depressive episode (MDE) and obesity. The objective of this longitudinal analysis was to determine whether MDE increase the risk of becoming obese over a 10-year period. Data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS) were used, a longitudinal study of a representative cohort of household residents in Canada. The incidence of obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30, was evaluated in respondents who were 18 years or older at the time of a baseline interview in 1994. MDE was assessed using a brief diagnostic instrument. At the end of the investigation, the risk of obesity was not elevated in association with MDE, either in unadjusted or covariate-adjusted analyses. The strongest predictor of obesity was a BMI in the overweight (but not obese) range. Effects were also seen for (younger) age, (female) sex, a sedentary activity pattern, low income and exposure to antidepressant medications. Unexpectedly, significant effects were seen for serotonin-reuptake-inhibiting antidepressants and venlafaxine, but neither for tricyclic antidepressants nor antipsychotic medications.

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Nutritionists of the UGR suggest diet improvements during Ramadan

Researchers from the UGR have analysed the diet followed by thirty students aged between 19 and 27 during Ramadan. They tested that the diet led to an increase in corporal fat and a reduction in muscular mass. They suggest modifications in diet to reduce fat and increase proteins and carbohydrates, according to the nutritional needs of this population group.

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Bisphenol A linked to metabolic syndrome in human tissue

New research from the University of Cincinnati (UC) implicates the primary chemical used to produce hard plastics—bisphenol A (BPA)—as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and its consequences. In a laboratory study, using fresh human fat tissues, the UC team found that BPA suppresses a key hormone, adiponectin, which is responsible for regulating insulin sensitivity in the body and puts people at a substantially higher risk for metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of risk factors that include lower responsiveness to insulin and higher blood levels of sugar and lipids. According to the American Heart Association, about 25 percent of Americans have metabolic syndrome. Left untreated, the disorder can lead to life-threatening health problems such as coronary artery disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. Nira Ben-Jonathan, PhD, and her team are the first to report scientific evidence on the health effects of BPA at environmentally relevant doses equal to "average" human exposure. Previous studies have primarily focused on animal studies and high doses of BPA. They report their findings in the Aug. 14, 2008, online edition of the journal Environmental Health Perspectives. This scientific data comes just before a key Federal Drug Administration meeting about the safety of the chemical in consumer products scheduled for Sept. 16, 2008. "People have serious concerns about the potential health effects of BPA. As the scientific evidence continues to mount against the chemical, it should be given serious attention to minimize future harm," says Ben-Jonathan, a professor of cancer and cell biology at UC who has studied BPA for more than 10 years.

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Intellectual work induces excessive calorie intake

A Universitť Laval research team has demonstrated that intellectual work induces a substantial increase in calorie intake. The details of this discovery, which could go some way to explaining the current obesity epidemic, are published in the most recent issue of Psychosomatic Medicine. The research team, supervised by Dr. Angelo Tremblay, measured the spontaneous food intake of 14 students after each of three tasks: relaxing in a sitting position, reading and summarizing a text, and completing a series of memory, attention, and vigilance tests on the computer. After 45 minutes at each activity, participants were invited to eat as much as they wanted from a buffet. The researchers had already shown that each session of intellectual work requires only three calories more than the rest period. However, despite the low energy cost of mental work, the students spontaneously consumed 203 more calories after summarizing a text and 253 more calories after the computer tests. This represents a 23.6% and 29.4 % increase, respectively, compared with the rest period.

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Older people who diet without exercising lose valuable muscle mass

A group of sedentary and overweight older people placed on a four-month exercise program became more fit and burned off more fat, compared to older sedentary people who dieted but did not exercise. The new study also showed that when older people diet without exercising, they lose more lean muscle compared to those who exercise. When they combined weight loss with exercise, it nearly completely prevented the loss of lean muscle mass.

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Can't Stop Eating? For Some People, Obesity Is Not a Simple Failure of Self-Control

People with PWS have dramatically higher levels of ghrelin than the general population, and researchers posited that reducing ghrelin would reduce appetite.

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Body mass index higher among bariatric surgery patients with 2 genetic variations

The combination of two obesity-related genetic variations may be associated with an increased body mass index among severely obese patients undergoing bariatric weight loss surgery, according to a report in the March issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

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Is the Environment Making Us Fat and Sick?

Some scientists suspect that a combination of environmental factors, including a group of chemicals called obesogens, share the blame for the explosion of metabolic syndrome and its later stages - diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and even Alzheimer’s.

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A New Class of Hormone from Healthy Fat Cells Benefits Body Metabolism, HSPH Researchers Find in Mice

Scientists at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) have identified in mice a newly discovered class of hormones -- lipokines, according to a report in the September 19, 2008, issue of Cell. Furthermore, they have implicated a lipokine as a molecule in mice that helps stop or even reverse obesity-related conditions such as insulin resistance and "fatty liver." Lipokines are hormones made from lipids, or fats. All other known hormones -- chemical signals secreted into the blood that regulate distant cells and organs -- are steroid- or protein-based. Researchers, led by HSPH Professor GŲkhan Hotamisligil, knew from previous experiments that an unidentified factor in the fat tissue of genetically engineered mice sent signals to regulate metabolism in liver and muscle tissues. The researchers suspected that elucidating the mechanism could be of significance.

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Enzyme promotes fat formation

The enzyme TPPII may contribute to obesity by stimulating the formation of fat cells, suggests a study in EMBO reports this week. The enzyme, TPPII, has previously been linked to making people feel hungry, but Jonathan Graff and colleagues now show that it may be even more deeply involved in causing obesity.

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Prolactin reduces fat metabolism

The hormone prolactin is necessary for the production of breast milk, but it also affects adipose (fatty) tissue and the body’s metabolism. This has been shown by a thesis from the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Raised prolactin levels in a woman who is not pregnant or breast feeding reduces lipid (fat) metabolism. Over 30 000 Swedish men and women may have raised levels of prolactin. Women who are pregnant or breast feeding have naturally raised levels of prolactin, but stress, some medicines and benign brain tumours can also lead to raised levels of the hormone. In many cases doctors don’t know what causes the rise in hormone levels. In women, an abnormally high level can cause menstrual disturbances and infertility, and may also result in insulin resistance. “In recent years scientists have also recognised the role of prolactin in the development of obesity, but little research has been done into the precise mechanism by which prolactin regulates metabolism,” says Louise Nilsson. In her thesis Louise Nilsson shows that there are receptors for the breast feeding hormone in human fatty tissue.

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A few extra pounds helps you live longer, study finds

Carrying a few extra pounds may actually be good for you, according to a new study which found overweight people live longer than their more slender peers.

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Dioxin-like Compounds and Metabolic Syndrome

Environmental exposure to some persistent organic pollutants has been associated with metabolic syndrome in the United States. Uemura et al. (p. 568) conducted a cross-sectional study during 2002–2006 to evaluate associations between metabolic syndrome and body burden levels of dioxins and related compounds in Japan. They measured lipid-adjusted concentrations of 10 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, 7 polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fasting blood samples. Metabolic syndrome was assessed based on body mass index, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and hemoglobin A1c measurements, and measured or self-reported hypertension. The authors report that body burden levels of dioxins and related compounds were associated with metabolic syndrome, with high blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, and glucose intolerance most closely associated with these pollutants.

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Genetic variation implicated in Pima obesity

New evidence that genetics plays a key role in obesity is published today in the International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications. The findings relate to the genetics of modern Pima Indians who have an unusually high rate of obesity but could be extrapolated to all people. Their obesity is thought to be linked to a thrifty metabolism that allowed them to metabolize food more efficiently in times when little was available but causes problems when food is in abundance.

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Late-life weight gain boosts disability risk

Gaining weight after age 50 increases a person's risk of becoming disabled, especially if he or she is already obese, new research from Italy shows.

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Is there a prospective association between obesity and periodontal disease?

This is the question asked by a team of investigators from the Harvard School of Public Health and the University of Puerto Rico, reporting their findings today during the 87th General Session of the International Association for Dental Research, convening at the Miami Beach Convention Center. The investigators evaluated the association between different measures of obesity and risk of periodontal disease. They analyzed data from 36,903 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who were free of reported periodontal disease at the start of follow-up, and we followed them for up to 16 years (1986-2002). Height was assessed at the start of follow-up, and weight and self-reported periodontal disease data were collected at baseline and on follow-up questionnaires mailed every two years. Measures of central obesity were made by waist and hip circumference through self-assessed measurements and reported in 1987 with the aid of printed instructions and a tape measure. Self-reported periodontal disease and adiposity measures had been previously validated. They evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI kg/m2), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), on first report of periodontal disease diagnosis. The team observed significant associations between all measures of obesity and periodontal disease when accounting for age, smoking, race, dental profession, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and diabetes status at baseline. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m¨2) at the beginning of follow-up and over follow-up was significantly associated with a 25% and 29% increased risk compared with normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), respectively. Men with WC > = 40 inches compared with <40 inches was significantly associated with a 19% increased risk of periodontal disease, compared with men with a WC < 40 inches. WHR> = 0.95 compared with <0.95 exhibited a significant 16% increased risk of periodontal disease. When BMI was accounted for (i.e., overall obesity), the effects of WC and WHR (i.e., central obesity) were weakened. The associations of BMI and WC were significant even among non-diabetics and among those who had never smoked. These results provide the first evidence following a large group of people over time with clear evidence of obesity occurring prior to periodontal disease, and support an association between obesity and risk of periodontal disease. Given the high prevalence of obesity and periodontal disease, this association may be of substantial public health importance.

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Fat-derived inflammatory factor may explain diseases that come with obesity

An inflammatory factor already linked to several diseases, including pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and arthritis, may also be responsible for the insulin resistance that comes with obesity, according to a new study published in the April issue of Cell Metabolism, a Cell Press publication. Researchers have found that the inflammatory chemokine known as CXCL5 rises and falls with obesity and subsequent weight loss in humans. (Chemokines are structurally related signaling proteins that are secreted by cells.) They found further evidence tying the inflammatory factor, which is produced and secreted at high levels by fat tissue, to insulin resistance in mice. What's more, they show that treatments designed to block its action improves the animals' sensitivity to insulin. "Clearly, this finding could be a big development for understanding the side effects of obesity," said Lluis Fajas of INSERM in France. "It offers a new target for therapy and new hope for subjects to improve their pathology." Fat tissue known as white adipose tissue (WAT) is primarily involved in energy storage in the form of triglycerides and energy release in the form of free fatty acids, Fajas' team explained. However, WAT is more than a fat storage organ; it also secretes numerous other factors with roles in both health and disease. In the new study, the researchers show that CXCL5 is one of those factors. The chemokine is expressed at high levels in WAT, particularly in immune cells known as macrophages. Moreover, they report that CXCL5 is dramatically increased in the blood of people who are obese compared to those who are lean. Those CXCL5 levels drop when obese people lose weight and are also lower in obese individuals that continue to respond to insulin than in those who are insulin resistant. They further found that treatment with recombinant CXCL5 blocks insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the muscles of mice. What's more, treatment of obese, insulin-resistant mice with either anti-CXCL5 neutralizing antibodies or drugs that block the receptor it triggers (known as CXCR2) reverses those symptoms. Mice lacking the CXCL5 receptor are also protected against obesity-induced insulin resistance. Overall, the findings show that CXCL5 produced by fat tissue "represents a link between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance." Interestingly, they added, the CXCR2 receptor is active outside of muscle, in cells that line blood vessel walls and in the lung and intestine, for example. Therefore, increased CXCL5 circulating levels as observed in obesity could lead to other problems, including atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases."Studies aiming to elucidate the role of WAT-secreted CXCL5 in all these obesity-related pathologies are likely to be forthcoming in the near future," they wrote. "Inhibiting CXCL5 secretion or function in obese individuals may not only ameliorate their insulin sensitivity, but could also decrease the risk of developing other major obesity-related pathologies."

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For Overweight Patients With Insulin Sensitivity, Even One Session Of Exercise Can Improve Metabolic Health

One out of every three Americans is obese. These individuals are at greater risk for additional diseases, since obesity leads to other health problems, such as diabetes. Obesity-related complications are associated with an abnormal fat metabolism in the muscle. As a result, accumulated fat by-products inside the muscle affect insulin resistance. To avoid the build up of fat by-products, fat must either be oxidized (burned, as in exercise) or stored (as benign fat) in muscle. A team of researchers has examined the effect of exercise on fat accumulation in a new study involving five obese women. In one session the women overate and did not exercise; in a follow-on session they overate and did exercise.

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High-Fiber in the Morning Burns More Fat During Exercise

It’s a small study about how eating a certain type of breakfast can help you burn more fat, but it could nonetheless have a huge impact on losing unwanted pounds or maintaining a healthy weight. British researchers have determined that high-fiber, low-glycemic foods are best for kick-starting your weight-loss program.

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Chewing Gum May Help Reduce Cravings and Control Appetite

A research study to be presented at the 2007 Annual Scientific Meeting of The Obesity Society, found that chewing gum before an afternoon snack helped reduce hunger, diminish cravings and promote fullness among individuals who limit their overall calorie intake. Calorie intake from snacks was significantly reduced by 25 calories. Overall, this study demonstrates clearly the benefits of chewing gum and highlights the potential role of chewing gum in appetite control and weight management.

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Mayo Clinic Proceedings article explores possible link between obesity and viral infections

Experts don't dispute the important role that diet and activity play in maintaining a healthy weight. But can poor eating habits and a less active lifestyle fully explain the prevalence of obesity in the US today? That question has led some researchers to ask whether there might be other causes for this serious problem.

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Low-glycemic foods make their way into the U.S. market

Add one more label to the list consumers are increasingly being asked to parse - This one declares food items as "low glycemic," and refers to a food's effects on blood sugar levels. Low-glycemic diets have become popular in England and Australia, based on studies that suggest they could help manage diabetes and prevent heart disease and obesity, and they're now making headway here in the U.S.

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The Deadly Condition You May Be Suffering From and Not Know It

According to a new book by former FDA chief Dr. David Kessler, many neuroscientists believe that certain people have an addiction to harmful foods, much like those who are addicted to alcohol or drugs.

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Shed Pounds without Dieting

Weight loss with vegetable juice is achieved in a number of other ways, including boosting your energy levels to make you more active overall, as well as balancing the acids that are stored in fat cells. When your body is more energized, it can burn off more calories.

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Researchers engineer metabolic pathway in mice to prevent diet-induced obesity

In recent years, obesity has taken on epidemic proportions in developed nations, contributing significantly to major medical problems, early death and rising health care costs. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates, at least a quarter of all American adults and more than 15 percent of children and adolescents are obese.While recent research advances and treatment methods have had little effect in reducing obesity levels, researchers at the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, in collaboration with the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, may have discovered a completely new way to approach the problem. In a study to be published in the June 3 issue of the journal Cell Metabolism, chemical and biomolecular engineering professor James Liao, associate professor of human genetics and pediatrics Katrina Dipple and their research team demonstrate how they successfully constructed a non-native pathway in mice that increased fatty acid metabolism and resulted in resistance to diet-induced obesity. "When we looked at the fatty-acid metabolism issue, we noted there are two aspects of the problem that needed to be addressed," Liao said. "One is the regulation; fatty acid metabolism is highly regulated. The other is digestion of the fatty acid; there needs to be a channel to burn this fat." "We came up with an unconventional idea which we borrowed from plants and bacteria," said Jason Dean, a graduate student on Liao's team and an author of the study. "We know plants and bacteria digest fats differently from humans, from mammals. Plant seeds usually store a lot of fat. When they germinate, they convert the fat to sugar to grow. The reason they can digest fat this way is because they have a set of enzymes that's uniquely present in plants and bacteria. These enzymes are called the 'glyoxylate shunt' and are missing in mammals." To investigate the effects of the glyoxylate shunt on fatty acid metabolism in mammals, Liao's team cloned bacteria genes from Escherichia coli that would enable the shunt, then introduced the cloned E. coli genes into the mitochondria of liver cells in mice; mitochondria are where fatty acids are burned in cells.

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Rare syndrome provides clues on obesity, blood pressure

Researchers have found a clue about how resistance to the hormone leptin might disrupt the brain signals that tell the body when to stop eating. The research, which focused on the rare genetic disorder Bardet-Biedl syndrome, also found an association between leptin resistance and high blood pressure. The findings, which were based on mouse models, have implications for treating BBS as well as obesity and high blood pressure in people without BBS.

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Findings show insulin - not genes - linked to obesity

Researchers have uncovered new evidence suggesting factors other than genes could cause obesity, finding that genetically identical cells store widely differing amounts of fat depending on subtle variations in how cells process insulin. Learning the precise mechanism responsible for fat storage in cells could lead to methods for controlling obesity. "Insights from our study also will be important for understanding the precise roles of insulin in obesity or Type II diabetes, and to the design of effective intervention strategies," said Ji-Xin Cheng, an assistant professor in Purdue University's Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Chemistry.

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Tighter tummies: a new way to combat weight gain

Two cell proteins that relax the gut and help accommodate a big meal have been identified by UCL scientists. The proteins could offer a future drug target against weight gain, by preventing the stomach from expanding.

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Cold and brown fat raise the prospect of a new method of treating obesity

Sven Enerbšck, Professor at the Institute of Biomedicine at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden, is one of the scientists who published their results in The New England Journal of Medicine this week. Studies carried out by Enerbšck and others show that adults use brown fat to convert energy to heat - a discovery that may provide new possibilities in treating overweight and obesity. It has previously been believed that the brown fat found in infants disappears as we grow up, but the new study shows that this is not the case. Brown fat cells have been found in adults, in the lower part of the neck just above the collarbone.

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It's Not How Fat You Are, It's What You Do with It That Counts

The spiralling increase in obesity rates in the Western and developing worlds has brought with it a host of related metabolic complications including diabetes, dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular complications, and cancer. Whereas obesity itself presents its own independent health problems—such as sleep apnoea or psychological issues—the vast majority of obesity-related mortality is caused by these secondary metabolic complications. The link between obesity and such complications as insulin resistance is well established on a population level but poorly understood mechanistically. Efforts to tackle the obesity epidemic through public health initiatives and drugs have so far been notable for their lack of success. With little prospect for halting the obesity epidemic, treatment of its associated diseases becomes of paramount importance both for public health and associated costs.

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'Knocking out' cell receptor may help block fat deposits in tissues, prevent weight gain

University of Cincinnati pathologists have identified a new molecular target that one day may help scientists develop drugs to reduce fat transport to adipocytes in the body and prevent obesity and related disorders, like diabetes.

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'Shunt' makes mice super fat burners

By inserting a molecular shunt into the livers of mice, researchers have shown they can make the animals burn more fat. That so-called glycoxylate shunt consists of two metabolic enzymes normally found in bacteria and plants, but not in mammals, according to the report in the June issue of Cell Metabolism, a Cell Press publication. "It's an additional channel for burning fat to control obesity," said James Liao of the University of California, Los Angeles. "This creates a shortcut through [the normal pathway]," added Katrina Dipple, also of UCLA. "It's like putting in a toll road." In the beginning, the researchers really didn't know what to expect the enzymes taken from E. coli bacteria would do when placed in mammalian cells. In fact, the glycoxylate shunt actually prevents the complete oxidation of fat in the organisms in which it is normally found. "There was no guarantee it would work," Liao said. "But we were brave enough to try." Remarkably, they found that human liver cells expressing the enzymes burn more fat. Likewise, mice with the shunt resist becoming obese despite eating a high-fat diet.

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How to get obese mice moving -- and cure their diabetes

Mice lacking the fat hormone leptin or the ability to respond to it become morbidly obese and severely diabetic—not to mention downright sluggish. Now, a new study in the June Cell Metabolism shows that blood sugar control in those animals can be completely restored by returning leptin sensitivity to a single class of neurons in the brain, which account for only a small fraction of those that normally carry the hormone receptors. "Just the receptors in this little group of neurons are sufficient to do the job," said Christian Bjorbaek of Harvard Medical School. What's more, animals with leptin receptors only in the so-called pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons spontaneously increase their physical activity levels despite the fact that they remain profoundly obese. While understanding exactly how the POMC neurons act on other organs remains a future challenge, the discovery suggests that drugs designed to tap into the pathway—turning up or down the dial, so to speak—might have benefit for those with severe diabetes and obesity, according to the researchers. Such drugs might even encourage obese individuals to get moving. "This gives us the opportunity to search for drugs that might induce the desire or will to voluntarily exercise," Bjorbaek said. Leptin was first identified 15 years ago and made famous for its ability to curb appetite and lead to weight loss. It is known to play a pivotal role in energy balance through its effects on the central nervous system, specifically by acting on a hypothalamic brain region known as the arcuate nucleus (ARC). The ARC contains two types of leptin-responsive neurons, the POMC neurons, which cause a loss of appetite, and the so-called Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons, which do the opposite. Studies had also revealed a role for leptin in blood sugar control and activity level, also via effects on the ARC. However, scientists still didn't know which neurons were responsible, until now.

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Normal weight obesity - An emerging risk factor for heart and metabolic problems

The researchers defined "normal weight" by body mass index. They found that people with normal BMI who had the highest percentage of body fat were also those who had metabolic disturbances linked to heart disease.

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Natural brain substance blocks weight gain in mice, UT Southwestern researchers discover

Mice with increased levels of a natural brain chemical don't gain weight when fed a high-fat diet, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have found.The chemical, orexin, works by increasing the body's sensitivity to the "weight-loss hormone," leptin, the researchers report. Finding a way to boost the orexin system may prove useful as a therapy against obesity, said Dr. Masashi Yanagisawa, professor of molecular genetics at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study, which appears in the January issue of Cell Metabolism. "Obese people are not deficient in leptin," Dr. Yanagisawa said. "They have tons of leptin floating around. The problem is that their brain isn't very sensitive to it." Orexin, which Dr. Yanagisawa discovered about a decade ago, is involved in controlling appetite and sleep. He found that reduced levels of orexin lead to the sleep disorder narcolepsy in both rodents and humans. Orexin can boost the appetite in the short term, but, paradoxically, a lack of orexin leads to obesity in the long run. "It's been confusing," said Dr. Yanagisawa, an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at UT Southwestern. Part of the confusion comes about because orexin acts on two different molecules in the brain, OX1R and OX2R. In the current study, the researchers aimed to distinguish which action was involved in weight control. The researchers increased the levels of orexin in mice, either through genetic engineering or by administering the hormone into the brain.

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Are you what you eat? New study of body weight change says maybe not

If identical twins eat and exercise equally, must they have the same body weight? By analyzing the fundamental equations of body weight change, NIH investigators Carson Chow and Kevin Hall find that identical twins with identical lifestyles can have different body weights and different amounts of body fat.

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'Skinny gene' does exist, UT Southwestern researchers find

Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have found that a single gene might control whether or not individuals tend to pile on fat, a discovery that may point to new ways to fight obesity and diabetes.

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Burning extra calories with a 'futile protein cycle'

A new study in the September issue of Cell Metabolism, a publication of Cell Press, points to a new method for burning off all those irresistible extra calories—by turning on an energy-draining, but otherwise futile, cycle of protein synthesis and breakdown. Christopher Lynch of The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine and his colleagues found that they could drive such heightened protein turnover in mice by disrupting an enzyme involved in the metabolism of some amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. The enzyme-deficient animals showed elevated blood levels of the essential amino acid leucine, an important nutrient signal, and became slimmer than normal mice despite eating more food. They also showed “remarkable” improvements in glucose and insulin tolerance, and resistance to becoming obese on a high-fat diet. “The mice on the outside look normal, just skinnier and smaller,” Lynch said. “After looking at their metabolism, we found that for the same activity, they were using more energy.” Moreover, the researchers found that the animals that ate the most food also expended the most energy. “That would be ideal for people who are overweight,” Lynch said. “They could continue to eat and just waste the energy and be thin.”

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Genes Affect Weight Loss Drug Effectiveness

A study conducted by researchers at Mayo Clinic shows that obese patients with specific genetic makeup had enhanced response to the weight loss drug sibutramine, while others who lack these genetic factors lost little or no weight.The findings are published in the October issue of Gastroenterology. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, Mayo researchers measured the impact of two different dosage levels of sibutramine (10 or 15 mg daily) combined with behavioral therapy for 12 weeks in 181 overweight or obese participants. Participants received structured behavioral therapy for weight management at four, eight and 12 weeks.As has been previously shown in trials with this approved medication, patients who received sibutramine and behavioral therapy lost significantly more weight than those who received placebo and the same behavioral therapy. Researchers also confirmed that weight loss at four weeks was a significant predictor of weight at 12 weeks, even after adjusting for baseline weight, gender, BMI and treatment.Researchers explored the influence on weight and body composition of specific genetic markers indicative of variation in the function of two hormones/transmitters and an intracellular protein that mediates the function of those hormones. Patients with a certain pattern of variations of the genes lost an average of 10-12 pounds over the 12-week study, and those with unfavorable variations did worse.

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Breakfast choices impact hunger and calorie consumption throughout day

New studies presented this week at Experimental Biology 2009 enhance the growing body of evidence supporting the nutritional benefits of eggs. Research presented at the meeting demonstrates that choosing eggs for breakfast can help adults manage hunger while reducing calorie consumption throughout the day. Additional research shows that teens who choose a protein-rich breakfast are less hungry and eat fewer calories at lunch.

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Researchers identify protein that may explain 'healthy' obesity

Mice whose fat cells were allowed to grow larger than fat cells in normal mice developed “healthy” obesity when fed a high-fat diet, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center found in a new study. The fat but healthy mice lacked a protein called collagen VI, which normally surrounds fat cells and limits how large they can grow, like a cage around a water balloon. The findings appear online and in a future edition of Molecular and Cellular Biology. “The mice lacking collagen VI fared much better metabolically than their counterparts that retained this particular collagen,” said Dr. Philipp Scherer, director of the Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research at UT Southwestern and the study’s senior author. “The mice without collagen VI don’t develop inflammation or insulin resistance. They still get obese, but it’s a ‘healthy’ obesity.” When people take in more calories than needed, excess calories are stored in adipose or fatty tissue. The fat cells are embedded in and secrete substances into an extracellular matrix, a type of connective tissue that provides support to fat tissue, like scaffolding. Collagen VI is one component of the extracellular matrix. Too much of this connective tissue prevents individual cells from expanding and can lead to fibrosis and eventually inflammation.

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The Obesity Bug

There’s no doubt about it, people all over the world are getting fatter. Could a virus be to blame, asks Bob Holmes? WHAT IF YOU COULD CATCH OBESITY as easily as you can catch a cold? Just one unlucky sneeze in a crowded railway carriage or lift, and that’s it. Bang! Never mind that you’ve been a string bean all your life. Never mind that you’ve always taken plenty of exercise and watched what you eat. Pick up the wrong virus, and you’re almost certain to get fat. It sounds preposterous, but remember that only a few years ago the idea that a bacterium could give you ulcers or heart disease sounded crazy. Those theories are now well accepted—and the “obesity virus” could be the next one to become respectable. Traces of the virus show up in enough overweight people to suggest that the “epidemic of obesity” in today’s world may be more than a mere metaphor. But don’t sidle away from that extra-large person on the train just yet. Your greatest risk of catching obesity might come from someone you least expect.

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Human adenovirus-36 is associated with increased body weight

Ad-36 is associated with increased body weight and lower serum lipids in humans. Prospective studies are indicated to determine if Ad-36 plays a role in the etiology of human obesity.

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Key to evolutionary fitness - Cut the calories

Charles Darwin and his contemporaries postulated that food consumption in birds and mammals was limited by resource levels, that is, animals would eat as much as they could while food was plentiful and produce as many offspring as this would allow them to. However, recent research has shown that, even when food is abundant, energy intake reaches a limit, even in animals with high nutrient demands, such as lactating females. Scientists at the Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology in Vienna suggest that this is due to active control of maternal investment in offspring in order to maintain long-term reproductive fitness. The research, to be presented by Dr Teresa Valencak at the Society for Experimental Biology Annual Meeting in Glasgow has shown that, when their energy reserves are low or when their offspring are kept in cooler temperatures, Brown hares are able to increase their energy turnover and rate of milk production above that normally observed. This indicates that, ordinarily, the hares are operating at below their maximum capacity and shows that this is not due to any kind of physiological constraint, such as length of digestive tract or maximum capacity of mammary glands. Also, as the hares were provided with plentiful food, there could be no limitation of energy turnover due to food availability. The way that females regulated their energy expenditure according to pup demand and their own fat reserves but did not exceed certain levels fitted with the group's theory that using energy at close to the maximum rate has costs for animals which may compromise their ability to successfully reproduce in the future. If a hare puts most of its energy into a litter of pups then it will have little left over for growth and body repairs for example, which may shorten its life or make it less able to produce or care for young in the future. By actively limiting the rate of energy turnover, a mother can prevent this and maintain a higher level of reproductive success over her lifetime.

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Making metabolism more inefficient can reduce obesity

In a discovery that counters prevailing thought, a study in mice has found that inactivating a pair of key genes involved in "fat-burning" can actually increase energy expenditure and help lower diet-induced obesity. These unusual findings, appearing this week in the JBC, might lead to some new roads in weight-loss therapy. Humans and other warm-blooded animals need to continually "burn fat" in order to maintain body temperature, and it's currently believed that an individual's fat-burning capacity, or thermogenic potential, is connected with obesity risk; that is, people with more thermogenic potential are less likely to become obese. In fact, bodybuilders and dieters looking to burn fat commonly use thermogenic supplements like ephedra. In theory, lowering thermogenesis should increase the chances of obesity, but Leslie Kozak and colleagues at Pennington Biomedical Research Center found that this may not be the case. They knocked-out two thermogenic genes in mice, Ucp1 (mitochondrial uncoupling protein) and Gdm (glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and then fed the mice a high-fat diet while rearing them at a cool 20 įC (68 įF). Surprisingly, these mice were actually quite resistant to obesity, which resulted from the mice turning on backup heat generators, so to speak. Lacking Ucp1 and Gdm, genes that have been designed for the efficient production of heat, mouse white fat cells activated alternate, and more inefficient, fat burning pathways. In this case, though, inefficiency is beneficial, as the mice had to burn more fat than normal to stay warm (by analogy you burn more wood by warming your house with an open fire then with a well designed wood stove). Importantly, after spending 10 weeks at 20 įC the mice retained these alternate pathways even after transferring to 28 įC (82 įF), suggesting their bodies had adapted to the change. Thus, Kozak and colleagues note, fat burning does not necessarily require making thermogenesis easier; by making it harder and forcing the body to use inefficient methods to stay warm, the same goals can be reached.

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Mayo Clinic Proceedings examines link between bacteria in the digestive system and obesity

According to John DiBaise, M.D., a Mayo Clinic Arizona gastroenterologist and lead author of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings article, several animal studies suggest that gut microbiota are involved in regulating weight, and that modifying these bacteria could one day be a treatment option for obesity.

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Common virus may contribute to obesity in some people, new study shows

A common virus may cause obesity in some people, according to new evidence in a controlled laboratory study. Scientists showed that infection with human adenovirus-36 (Ad-36), long recognized as a cause of respiratory and eye infections in humans, transforms adult stem cells obtained from fat tissue into fat cells. The study, which might lead to new treatments for obesity, will be reported in August at the American Chemical Society national meeting in Boston.

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Foods may soon be modified 'to make you feel full for twice as long'

Millions of dieters have been offered hope after scientists discovered a way to modify everyday foods such as cakes and pastries to make diners feel full for twice as long.

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Controlling your appetite requires PI3K signaling

How much we want to eat, in other words our appetite, and how much energy we burn, are both controlled by a hormone known as leptin. Leptin is made by fat tissue and it passes through the circulation to the brain, where it modifies the activity of several types of nerve cell, including POMC nerves, to signal to the body that it does not need to eat more and that it needs to burn more energy. As obesity can be caused if leptin-mediated signaling goes awry, much effort is being expended trying to identify the signaling pathways activated by leptin. Joel Elmquist and colleagues, at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, have provided new insight into the signaling pathways by which leptin mediates its effects on POMC nerves in mice.

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Why exercise might be bad for your fat loss

Have you ever wondered why some healthy-looking people drop dead from a heart attack after exercise? It’s never when they are exercising; it is when they stop and rest. It’s not the exercise that killed them; it’s the poor recovery time. Exercise is stress to the body and a healthy body is supposed to adapt to stress and rebound or bounce back.

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A chocolate cookie a day puts 20 pounds on an energetically-balanced kid in 4 years

So-called "miracle diets," such as the South Beach diet, the Atkins diet or the Artichoke diet, lack scientific foundations and are a danger for health. Specialists' recommendations include a daily 500 to 700 calorie deficit, depending on body weight, age and physical exercise, as well as a high-fiber diet to gradually lose 6.5 pounds a month.

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Protein that could fight obesity discovered

Researchers in Sweden have discovered a protein that stimulates the formation of fat cells, a finding that could potentially be used to treat obesity, the Karolinska Institute said Wednesday.

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Newly identified cells make fat

To understand where fat comes from, you have to start with a skinny mouse. By using such a creature and observing the growth of fat after injections of different kinds of immature cells, Rockefeller Fat chance. Using an animal strain called the leptin-luciferase mouse, Rockefeller University researchers observed the formation of fat from precursor cells over 12 weeks. A luminescent marker (red) switches on to indicate where mature fat cells have developed. University scientists have discovered an important fat precursor cell that may in time explain how changes in the numbers of fat cells might increase and lead to obesity. The finding, published online in this week’s issue of the journal Cell, could also have implications for understanding how fat cells affect conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

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Study Finds Evidence of Genetic Response to Diet

Researchers studying the enzyme that converts starch to simple sugars like glucose have found that people living in countries with a high-starch diet produce considerably more of the enzyme than people who eat a low-starch diet.

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Fatty foods -- not empty stomach -- fire up hunger hormone

New research led by the University of Cincinnati (UC) suggests that the hunger hormone ghrelin is activated by fats from the foods we eat—not those made in the body—in order to optimize nutrient metabolism and promote the storage of body fat. The findings, the study's author says, turn the current model about ghrelin on its head and point to a novel stomach enzyme (GOAT) responsible for the ghrelin activation process that could be targeted in future treatments for metabolic diseases. The laboratory study, led by Matthias TschŲp, MD, UC associate professor of psychiatry and internal medicine, is published online ahead of print Friday, June 5, 2009, in the journal Nature Medicine. Ghrelin is a hormone that was believed to accumulate during periods of fasting and is found in the body in high concentrations just before meals. It is dubbed the "hunger hormone" because it has been shown that administration of pharmacological doses acts in the brain to stimulate hunger and increase food intake in animal models and humans. The ghrelin hormone is unique in that it requires acylation (the addition of a fatty acid) by a specific enzyme (ghrelin O-acyl transferase, or GOAT) for activation. Originally it was assumed that the fatty acids attached to ghrelin by GOAT were produced by the body during fasting.The new data by TschŲp and his team suggests that the fatty acids needed for ghrelin activation actually come directly from ingested dietary fats. In a departure from an earlier model that was upheld for nearly a decade, TschŲp says, it appears that the ghrelin system is a lipid sensor in the stomach that informs the brain when calories are available—giving the green light to other calorie-consuming processes such as growing. TschŲp and his team used mouse models to test the effects of over expressing the GOAT enzyme, or "knocking it out." They found that, when exposed to a lipid-rich diet, mice without GOAT accumulated less fat than normal mice, while those with over-expressed GOAT accumulated more fat mass than normal mice. "When exposed to certain fatty foods, mice with more GOAT gain more fat," says TschŲp. "Mice without GOAT gain less fat since their brain does not receive the 'fats are here, store them' signal."

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Shining light on leptin’s role in brain

In investigating the complex neurocircuitry behind weight gain and glucose control, scientists have known that the hormone leptin plays a key role in the process. But within the myriad twists and turns of the brain’s intricate landscape, the exact pathways that the hormone travels to exert its influence have remained a mystery.Now, a study led by Harvard investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) sheds further light on the subject. Reported in the journal Cell Metabolism, the findings demonstrate that when leptin sensitivity is restored to a tiny area of neurons in the brain’s hypothalamus, a group of mice deficient in the leptin receptor are cured of severe diabetes – and also spontaneously double their activity levels – independent of any change in weight or eating habits.

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Arginine discovery could help fight human obesity

A Texas AgriLife Research scientist and fellow researchers have discovered that arginine, an amino acid, reduces fat mass in diet-induced obese rats and could help fight human obesity. "Given the current epidemic of obesity in the U.S. and worldwide, our finding is very important,” said Dr. Guoyao Wu, an AgriLife Research animal nutritionist in College Station and Senior Faculty Fellow in the department of animal science at Texas A&M University. The research found dietary arginine supplementation shifts nutrient partitioning to promote skeletal-muscle gain, according to the researchers. The findings were published recently in the Journal of Nutrition (http://jn.nutrition.org). In laboratory experiments, rats were fed both low-and high-fat diets. They found that arginine supplementation for a 12-week period decreased the body fat gains of low-fat and high-fat fed rats by 65 percent and 63 percent, respectively. The long-term arginine treatment did not have any adverse effects on either group. “This finding could be directly translated into fighting human obesity,” Wu said. “At this time, arginine has not been incorporated into our food (but could in the future).”

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Possible drug target for obesity treatment a no-brainer

Scientists at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine have discovered a gene that when mutated causes obesity by dampening the body's ability to burn energy while leaving appetite unaffected. The new research could potentially lead to new pharmacologic approaches to treating obesity in humans that do not target the brain, according to study senior author Yi Zhang, Ph.D., Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and professor of biochemistry and biophysics in the UNC School of Medicine. Zhang is also a member of the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center. The findings also add new knowledge to the burgeoning field of epigenetics, in which heritable changes in gene expression or physical appearance are caused by mechanisms besides changes in the underlying DNA. The gene in question encodes for a specific epigenetic factor, an enzyme called Jhdm2a. In 2006, Zhang showed that Jhdm2a was able to demethylate, or remove, a methyl group from one of four histone proteins bound to all genes. Because they are so intimately associated with DNA, even slight chemical alterations of histones can have profound effects on nearby genes. The new study focused on a line of so-called "knockout" mice that lacked the Jhdm2a gene. Zhang found impairment in two molecular signaling pathways important for normal function in brown fat tissue and muscle cells. Both pathways exert a major influence on metabolism, the body's conversion of food to energy. Without the enzyme, the mice had reduced metabolisms, becoming visibly obese. To Zhang's knowledge, this is the first mouse model to exhibit obese traits that do not resulting from an alteration in appetite, which is largely a brain function. "Given that this gene is not expressed in the brain, any drug that targets this gene would not have an effect on brain function," he said. "Therefore, we are really looking for a pure effect on metabolism."

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Researchers discover correlation between GERD and obesity in females

An interesting discovery was published in the Sept. 14 issue of the World Journal of Gastroenterology. A research group led by Dr. Corazziari from the University La Sapienza° of Rome discovered that gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is more popular with overweight women than within the average population. Meanwhile, there is no correlation between GERD and being overweight in men. Dr. Corazziari suggested that higher oestrogen concentration, which is common in overweight females, is an important factor in causing GERD

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Teen girls on diets more apt to become smokers

Teenage girls who start dieting are nearly two times more likely to also take up smoking regularly, compared with teenage girls who are not dieting.

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Obesity associated with higer risk for urinary tract infections

As body mass increases, so does a patient’s risk of urinary tract infection (UTI), according to Baltimore researchers. A new study, presented at the 104th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA) assesses and stratifies this risk. Researchers evaluated insurance claims of 95,962 subjects over a five year period (from 2002 through 2006) to identify whether obesity is associated with a UTI diagnosis. The results show that, as BMI increased, the odds of being diagnosed with a UTI increased as well. This association was strongest for morbidly obese patients. “The effect of the obesity epidemic in the United States transcends any one medical specialty or condition,” said Anthony Y. Smith, MD, an AUA spokesman. “Patients with elevated body mass index should be vigilant about urologic health because even the most simple of urinary tract infections can be deadly if left untreated.”

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Georgia State researchers shed light on fat burning

Researchers at Georgia State University have found that fat cells give feedback to the brain in order to regulate fat burning much the same way a thermostat regulates temperature inside a house. With an increase in obesity threatening the health and life expectancies of people across the world, the research may help scientists better understand how weight is shed. C. Kay Song and Tim Bartness of Georgia State, along with Gary J. Schwartz of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, found that during the process of burning fat — called lipolysis — fat cells use sensory nerves to feed information to the brain. Using viruses to trace communications in the nerves of Siberian hamsters, they found that the brain uses part of the nervous system used to regulate body functions, called the sympathetic nervous system, to in turn communicate back to the cells to initiate, continue or stop the fat burning depending upon the information the brain receives from the fat. "The brain can trigger lipid burning by fat cells and through these sensory nerves, the fat cell can give the brain feedback," Bartness explained. "This is a really important concept in biology, as it can regulate the process of lipolysis much like how a thermostat regulates temperature in your house, using input from the air and output to a furnace or heating unit. "The presence and function of the sensory nerves has been completely ignored and the areas in the brain that receive this sensory information were unknown until we did these studies," he said. When the body has a low amount of a type of readily available fuel, a carbohydrate called glycogen, the body starts lipolysis to release energy stored in fats. At the end nerves which are part of the sympathetic nervous system, a chemical called norepinephrine is released to trigger the breakdown of fat.

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Lose Weight for Good with this Inexpensive Tool

You see the commercials television and advertisements in magazines touting the benefits of the newest weight loss tool or diet on the market. But don’t get carried away with your credit card. You can forget spending tons of money on expensive exercise machines or fad diets. A new research study shows that by using this simple tool you can dramatically increase your weight loss success. And it doesn’t cost a fortune! Keep reading to find out about this simple, inexpensive investment into your weight loss efforts.

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How Bad Are 'America's Unhealthiest Meals'?

A consumer group recently caught our attention with a list of some of the unhealthiest dishes from popular chain restaurants.

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Pathologically Elevated Blood Fat Levels in Obesity

Scientists at the German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ) have discovered a mechanism in liver metabolism that is responsible for pathologically elevated blood fat levels found in severe metabolic disorders. Mice suffering from metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes produce only small amounts of a molecule called LSR in the liver, as reported by researchers headed by Dr. Stephan Herzig of DKFZ in the specialist journal Diabetes. As a result, only small amounts of fat are transported from the blood into the liver and blood fat levels rise immensely. Stephan Herzig heads the Research Group "Molecular Metabolic Control" at DKFZ.

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Slimming pill Alli monitored over liver fears

A popular slimming pill available in the high street is being monitored over fears it could be linked to liver damage.

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Nutrition model stresses positive experience of eating

Enjoying the eating process without focus on dietary restrictions may be key to managing weight and staying healthy, according to researchers who have unveiled a new and effective model for managing eating.

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Maternal obesity not strongly linked to obesity in offspring says study

Greater maternal body mass index during offspring development does not have a marked effect on offspring fat mass at ages nine to eleven years, according to a new study from the University of Bristol published today in PLoS Medicine.

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Health risks begin in overweight range, BMI doesn’t tell whole story

Being overweight is a health concern, and using only body mass index (BMI) to determine weight classification may not give an accurate picture of a person’s health, according to an advisory published in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association. About one-third of the U.S. population is overweight — the middle range between normal weight and obesity. Overweight in adults is a BMI of 25.0 to 29.9. BMI is a numerical value of weight in relation to height. Studies that examined the relationship between overweight (as measured by BMI) and risk of death from all causes (often referred to as total mortality) have had contradictory results. However, considering death from all causes overlooks the role that overweight may play in the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Even among the young, overweight is related to the development of serious risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, obesity, elevated levels of cholesterol and type 2 diabetes.

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Alternate-day fasting may shrink fat cells

Alternate-day fasting -- fasting or eating half as much as usual every other day -- may shrink fat cells, a University of California, Berkeley study found.

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Plant-based, low-carb diet may promote weight loss and improve cholesterol levels

Overweight individuals who ate a low-calorie, low-carbohydrate diet high in plant-based proteins for four weeks lost weight and experienced improvements in blood cholesterol levels and other heart disease risk factors, according to a report in the June 8 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. A high-carbohydrate, low-fat vegetarian diet also resulted in weight loss but without the additional cardiovascular benefits. "There is a dilemma relating to the proportion and source of fat, protein and carbohydrate that constitutes the optimal weight loss and cholesterol-lowering diet," the authors write as background information in the article. Newer dietary approaches for the prevention and treatment of chronic disease emphasize increased fruit and vegetable intake and reduced meat consumption. However, low-carbohydrate diets with increased meat consumption have also been promoted for body weight reduction and the prevention and treatment of diabetes and coronary heart disease. These diets have been shown to be effective in inducing weight loss, reducing insulin resistance, lowering blood fats known as triglycerides and raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, or "good" cholesterol) levels, but have tended to increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, or "bad" cholesterol) levels. "This lack of a benefit for LDL-C control is a major disadvantage in using this dietary strategy in those already at increased risk of coronary heart disease," the authors write. David J.A. Jenkins, M.D., of St. Michael's Hospital and the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and colleagues tested the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet high in vegetable proteins from gluten, soy, nuts, fruits, vegetables, cereals and vegetable oils among overweight men and women with high LDL cholesterol levels. A total of 25 participants were randomly assigned to consume this diet—the "Eco-Atkins" diet—for four weeks, while an additional 25 participants ate a control diet that was high-carbohydrate, lacto-ovo vegetarian and based on low-fat dairy and whole grain products. Study food was provided to participants at 60 percent of their estimated calorie requirements. Of the 47 participants who began the study, 44 (22 in each group) completed the four-week period. Weight loss was similar—about 4 kilograms or 8.8 pounds—in both groups. However, reductions in LDL-C levels and improvements in the ratios between total cholesterol and HDL-C were greater for the low-carbohydrate diet compared with the high-carbohydrate diet. The low-carbohydrate diet also appeared to produce beneficial changes in levels and ratios of apolipoproteins, proteins that bind to fats. In addition, small but significantly greater reductions were seen in both systolic (top number) and diastolic (bottom number) blood pressure for the low-carbohydrate vs. the high-carbohydrate group.Pending answers to important questions, including whether further reducing carbohydrate intake would produce additional benefits, "a plant-based low-carbohydrate diet high in vegetable proteins and oils may be an effective option in treating those with dyslipidemia for whom both weight loss and lower LDL-C concentrations are treatment goals," the authors conclude.

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New culprit behind obesity's ill metabolic consequences

Obesity very often leads to insulin resistance, and now researchers reporting in the July 8 issue of Cell Metabolism, a Cell Press publication, have uncovered another factor behind that ill consequence. The newly discovered culprit—a protein known as pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF for short)—is secreted by fat cells. They also report evidence to suggest that specifically blocking that protein's action may reverse some of the health complications that come with obesity. "With obesity, PEDF release is increased from fat, leading to higher levels of PEDF in the bloodstream," said Matthew Watt of Monash University in Australia. "PEDF sends a signal to other body tissues, causing insulin resistance in muscle and liver, a major defect that leads to the development of type 2 diabetes." Elevated PEDF is also associated with increased release of fatty acids from fat stores, which causes blood lipid levels to rise. That "dyslipidemia" may be associated with other complications including cardiovascular disease. What's more, they found that treatments designed to block the action of PEDF in obese mice lowered the animals' blood lipid levels and reversed some of their insulin resistance, Watt said. In recent years, scientists have come to appreciate fat cells as important regulators of metabolism, at least in part through the hormones and other chemicals they secrete. Changes in fat-cell size are also accompanied by reprogramming of the fat-cell secretory profile, a shift that is thought to play an important role in the link between obesity and insulin resistance, the researchers said. That has led scientists in search of all the chemicals issued by fat tissue—the so-called adipocyte secretome—in hopes of identifying regulatory players with as-yet-unidentified roles in whole-body metabolism.

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Sleep Restriction Results in Weight Gain Despite Decreases in Appetite, Food Cravings and Consumption

According to a research abstract that will be presented on Monday, June 8 at SLEEP 2009, the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies, in the presence of free access to food, sleep restricted subjects reported decrease in appetite, food cravings and food consumption; however, they gained weight over the course of the study. Thus, the finding suggests that energy intake exceeded energy expenditure during the sleep restriction Results indicate that people whose sleep was restricted experienced an average weight gain of 1.31 kilograms over the 11 days of the study. Of the subjects with restricted sleep who reported a change in their appetite and food consumption, more than 70 percent said that it decreased by day 5 of the study. A group of well rested control subjects did not experience the weight gain. According to lead investigator Siobhan Banks, PhD, a research fellow at the University of South Australia and former assistant research professor at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, it was surprising that participants did not crave foods rich in carbohydrates after sleep restriction, as previous research suggested they might. Results indicate that even though physiologically the desire to eat was not increased by sleep loss in participants, other factors such as the sedentary environment of the laboratory and the ability to snack for longer due to reduction in time spent asleep might have influenced the weight gain.

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Individuals who are overweight or obese in mid-life have a greater risk of reduced memory and thinking skills in late life

Individuals with higher mid-life Body Mass Index (BMI) in the 1960s have been found to have lower memory and thinking skills and a sharper decline in these abilities in old age, compared to those with lower BMI in mid-life. “The adverse effects of being overweight and obese are not limited to cardiac function, but also extend to brain function,” says Anna Dahl doctoral student at the School of Health Sciences, JŲnkŲping. Several studies, including studies from the Swedish Twin Registry, have shown that individuals who are overweight or obese in mid-life are at an increased risk of suffering from dementia. “We have extended this knowledge and shown that being overweight or obese in mid-life also negatively affects memory and thinking skills independent of dementia. Moreover, these skills decline more rapidly in old age among those who were overweight or obese in mid-life,” writes Anna Dahl in an article published in the Journal of Gerontology. “The steeper decline in memory and thinking skills observed among individuals who were overweight or obese in mid-life, cannot be explained in our study by an increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases,” says Anna Dahl. “There are probably other mechanisms that explain this link.”

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The Link Between Obesity, Cancer, and Toxicity

Many conventional media sources, known collectively as “Mainstream Media,” or MSM, repeat the conventional wisdom of obesity’s causes: sedentary lifestyle and poor nutrition. These factors are irrefutable contributors to the worldwide, growing obesity epidemic. Yet lifestyle and nutrition factors do not tell the whole story. There are much more nuanced and insidiously dangerous implications in the massive increase in obesity: connections to rising cancer rates, and correlations to stored body toxicity. This article illustrates the growing evidence linking this “unholy triad” of obesity, cancer, and toxicity.

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Take that Mediterranean - Why a Nordic Diet is Just as Good for You

The Nordic diet is one of the latest diets to come along that involves foods from a certain region and their health benefits. The Nordic diet is a diet that is rich in rapeseed oil, elk and cowberries. It is considered to be more suitable for those who live in Northern climates than the traditional Mediterranean diet.

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The More You Sleep, The Longer You Live

Chronic lack of sleep increases ghrelin and decreases leptin, leading you to feel hungry when you don't really need to eat and to keep eating after you have gotten the calories you need.

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Deprived of a sense of smell, worms live longer

Many animals live longer when raised on low calorie diets. But now researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have shown that they can extend the life spans of roundworms even when the worms are well fed — it just takes a chemical that blocks their sense of smell. Three years ago, the researchers, led by Kerry Kornfeld, M.D., Ph.D., reported they found that a class of anticonvulsant medications made the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans live longer. But until now, they didn't quite know what the drugs did to give the worms their longevity. They report their latest findings in the Oct. 24 issue of the Public Library of Science Genetics. "We've learned that the drugs inhibit neurons in the worm's head that sense chemicals in their surroundings — the neurons are like the worm's nose," says Kornfeld, professor of developmental biology. "Like roundworms that are grown in a food-scarce environment, the worms exposed to the anticonvulsant ethosuximide lived longer. But these worms ate plenty of food. That suggests that the worms' sensation of food is critical to controlling their metabolism and life span." If roundworms sense that food is abundant, their metabolism adjusts accordingly. Their bodies respond to promote rapid ingestion, rapid growth and rapid aging, Kornfeld explains. In contrast, when the worms sense a shortage of food, they make "metabolic decisions" to delay growth, delay energy use and extend lifespan.In the long term, Kornfeld's goal is to identify compounds that could potentially delay human aging. The research group for this project also included James Collins, Ph.D., Kim Evason, M.D., Ph.D., Chris Pickett, Ph.D., and Daniel Schneider. Kornfeld's lab studies C. elegans because they live only about two to three weeks, so experimental results can be obtained quickly. In addition, the worms' genome has been sequenced and extensively studied.

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Physiological response may explain why some severely obese patients overeat

Don't feel like you are getting full when eating a large meal? New research from The Miriam Hospital suggests that a physiological response may partially explain why severely obese individuals may not feel satisfied after eating and often have difficulty controlling the amount of food they consume during a meal. Researchers led by Dale Bond, PhD, of The Miriam Hospital's Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center focused on habituation, or the idea that continual exposure to a specific food decreases one's physical response to that food. Habituation theory suggests that if one habituates, or adjusts, slowly to food cues, they are less likely to feel satisfied with that particular food and can consume more of it. In the study, published online in Obesity Surgery, the research team looked at saliva production following repeated exposure to lemon juice. They compared the responses of two groups – severely obese patients preparing for bariatric surgery and normal weight individuals – and found that the bariatric surgery candidates continued to salivate at a consistent rate throughout the tastings, indicating that very little habituation occurred. Meanwhile, the salivation rate of the normal weight controls decreased with successive exposures to the lemon juice. "The failure of bariatric surgery candidates to habituate suggests that satiation, or the feeling of fullness while eating, is impaired in this population. This could play a role in the inability of some severely obese individuals to regulate or control the amount of food that they eat during a meal," says Bond. He adds that the findings make a case for the use of habituation as a model to study why some patients who have undergone bariatric surgery continue to engage in problematic behaviors, such as binge eating, which contributes to poorer weight loss outcomes. The study included 34 severely obese bariatric surgery candidates and 18 individuals of normal weight. Saliva was collected from cotton balls positioned in each participant's mouth during two baseline water trials and ten lemon juice trials. Participants also completed questionnaires to assess the level of conscious control over eating as well as the frequency of binge eating episodes during the previous 28 days.

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New promising obesity drug may have huge potential

According to trials, a new obesity drug, Tesofensine, which may be launched on the world market in a few years, can produce weight loss twice that of currently approved obesity drugs. The Danish company Neurosearch and a number of researchers at the Faculty of Life Sciences at University of Copenhagen are behind the promising findings. Tesofensine can produce weight loss twice that of currently approved obesity drugs, and should be studied in phase III trials. These are the conclusions of an Article published early Online and in an upcoming edition of The Lancet, written by Professor Arne Astrup, Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and colleagues. Increased obesity prevalence worldwide, in both developed and developing countries, results in more people with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders, and cancer. Whilst gastric bypass surgery substantially reduces bodyweight and obesity-related disease, the researchers believe a treatment gap exists between the effectiveness of currently marketed obesity drugs and gastric-bypass surgery. Tesofensine – which inhibits the presynaptic uptake of the neurotransmitters noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin in the brain – has been shown to be safe and effective in animal models. It also caused unintended weight loss when it was given obese patients with Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease when it was researched for those conditions. The drug works by suppressing hunger, leading to an energy deficit which burns off excess body fat. This randomised, placebo-controlled phase II study was done in five Danish obesity management centres, and involved 203 obese patients (body mass index 30-40 kg/m2), weighing a mean of just over 100kg. They were prescribed a limited-energy diet and assigned to tesofensine 0.25mg (52 patients), 0.5 mg (50), 1.0 mg (49), or placebo (52), all once daily for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was percentage change in bodyweight. A total of 161 patients completed the study, and an analysis showed that the mean weight loss recorded for placebo and diet was 2.2kg and for tesofensine 0.25mg, 0.5mg and 1.0mg it was 6.7kg, 11.3kg, and 12.8kg respectively. For the 0.5mg and 1.0mg doses, this represented a weight loss around twice that attained using sibutramine or rimonabant*, the currently-approved therapies in Europe. Blood pressure was increased in the 1.0mg group.The most common side-effects caused by tesofensine were dry mouth, nausea, constipation, hard stools, diarrhoea, and insomnia. The authors conclude that the 0.5mg dose of tesofensine is more promising than the 1.0mg dose because it produces a similar weight loss with less side-effects. They say: "We conclude that tesofensine 0.5 mg, once daily for 6 months, has the potential to produce twice the weight loss as currently approved drugs; however, larger phase III studies are needed to substantiate our findings."

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White tea -- the solution to the obesity epidemic?

Possible anti-obesity effects of white tea have been demonstrated in a series of experiments on human fat cells (adipocytes). Researchers writing in BioMed Central's open access journal Nutrition and Metabolism have shown that an extract of the herbal brew effectively inhibits the generation of new adipocytes and stimulates fat mobilization from mature fat cells. Marc Winnefeld led a team of researchers from Beiersdorf AG, Germany, who studied the biological effects of an extract of white tea – the least processed version of the tea plant Camellia sinensis. He said, "In the industrialized countries, the rising incidence of obesity-associated disorders including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes constitutes a growing problem. We've shown that white tea may be an ideal natural source of slimming substances". After treating lab-cultured human pre-adipocytes with the tea extract, the authors found that fat incorporation during the genesis of new adipocytes was reduced. According to Winnefeld, "The extract solution induced a decrease in the expression of genes associated with the growth of new fat cells, while also prompting existing adipocytes to break down the fat they contain". White tea is made from the buds and first leaves of the plant used to make green tea and the black tea most commonly drunk in Western countries. It is less processed than the other teas and contains more of the ingredients thought to be active on human cells, such as methylxanthines (like caffeine) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) – which the authors believe to be responsible for many of the anti-adipogenic effects demonstrated in their study.

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Is obesity an oral bacterial disease?

The world-wide explosion of overweight people has been called an epidemic. The inflammatory nature of obesity is widely recognized. Could it really be an epidemic involving an infectious agent? In this climate of concern over the increasing prevalence of overweight conditions in our society, investigators have focused on the possible role of oral bacteria as a potential direct contributor to obesity. To investigate this possibility, the study's researchers J.M. Goodson, D. Groppo, S. Halem and E. Carpino measured salivary bacterial populations of overweight women. Saliva was collected from 313 women with a body mass index between 27 and 32, and bacterial populations were measured by DNA probe analysis. Levels in this group were compared with data from a population of 232 healthy individuals from periodontal disease studies. The median percentage difference of seven of the 40 bacterial species measured was greater than 2 percent in the saliva of overweight women. Classification tree analysis of salivary microbiological composition revealed that 98.4 percent of the overweight women could be identified by the presence of a single bacterial species (Selenomonas noxia) at levels greater than 1.05 percent of the total salivary bacteria. Analysis of these data suggests that the composition of salivary bacteria changes in overweight women. It seems likely that these bacterial species could serve as biological indicators of a developing overweight condition. Of even greater interest, and the subject of future research, is the possibility that oral bacteria may participate in the pathology that leads to obesity.

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Why the average physically inactive person should eat a Mediterranean diet

If you are a health conscious person physical activity is part of daily life. Unless you get injured, most people who regularly perform some physical activity enjoy it because it helps them keep fit and feel great. Conversely, health conscious people like their fruits and veggies and eat a healthy diet. But what if you get injured? Or are starting out a workout routine, having been physically inactive for some time? According to a recent study published by the Public Library of Science, the first step would be to eat a Mediterranean diet.

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Obesity chokes up the cellular power plant

The machinery responsible for energy production in fat cells is working poorly as a result of obesity. This may aggravate and work to maintain the obese state in humans, suggests the recent Finnish study. Studying rare cases of young identical twins with large differences in bodyweight a Finnish research group has shown that already in the very early stages of obesity, clear changes in the function of the cellular mitochondria can be observed.

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Atkins Diet, Sans Meat, Shows Promise

It could be the key to a healthy low-carb diet -- and a healthier planet -- according to a new study released Monday.

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Protein intake is key to weight management after weight loss concludes the DIOGENES 8 European country dietary intervention study

"Protein intake holds the key to effective weight maintenance after weight loss," stated Professor Arne Astrup of the University of Copenhagen and Co-ordinator of the EC-funded Diogenes diet and weight regain prevention study, today at the Diogenes Symposium (Tuesday 5th May 2009, The Netherlands). Professor Astrup continued "Taking all 8 centres together and the results from 548 adults, we are able to see that those subjects randomised to the higher protein diet after weight loss were able to maintain that weight loss most successfully. Some subjects randomised to the lower glycemic index (GI) diet also had some success with weight maintenance but it was less marked than those on the higher protein diet.” 548 adult subjects completed the study with clinical measurements taken on three different occasions (i) before the weight loss period (when at least 8% of initial bodyweight had to be lost); (ii) end of weight loss and prior to dietary intervention period and (iii) end of 6 month intervention period. The aim for the diets was a difference in protein intake of > 10 energy% and in GI of > 10 units. Two centres provided subjects with all foods for free using a shop system and 6 centres provided dietary instruction only to subjects. Subjects also undertook tests that have fed into other aspects of the Diogenes study. Professor Astrup continued "This study confirms the view that the diet chosen after weight loss does help with weight maintenance, contrary to other recently released studies which concluded that the diet makes no difference. We can have confidence in our findings and conclusions as each subject was closely monitored during the study and there was a much lower drop-out rate in the high protein group - possibly due to successful weight management during the study period."

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Genetically engineered mice don't get obese, but do develop gallstones

Obesity and gallstones often go hand in hand. But not in mice developed at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Even when these mice eat high-fat diets, they don't get fat, but they do develop gallstones. Researchers say the findings offer clues about genetic factors related to gallstones, and they believe better understanding of those factors may one day allow physicians to monitor people at risk and even, perhaps, to intervene before gallstones become a serious problem. Learning more about susceptibility to gallstones is an important public health issue, particularly in the United States. Between 16 million and 22 million Americans have gallstones, which are deposits of cholesterol or calcium salts that form in the gallbladder or in the bile ducts. In many cases, people require surgery, and more than half a million undergo operations to treat gallstones and remove the gallbladder each year.

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Natural hormone offers hope for treatment of the metabolic syndrome

Angiotensin 1-7, a hormone in the body that has cardiovascular benefits, improves the metabolic syndrome in rats, according to a new study. The results will be presented Wednesday at The Endocrine Society's 91st Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C. "No specific form of medical therapy for the metabolic syndrome presently exists," said the study's lead author, Yonit Marcus, MD, a PhD student at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. "But an estimated 20 to 25 percent of the world's adult population has the metabolic syndrome." The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that raise the risk of developing heart disease, stroke and diabetes. A diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome comes from having at least three of the following: increased waist circumference (abdominal obesity), low HDL ("good") cholesterol, high triglycerides (fats in the blood), high blood pressure and high blood glucose (blood sugar). The renin-angiotensin system and its key player, the hormone angiotensin II, normally help control blood pressure, but when overactive, this hormone likely contributes to the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. A product of angiotensin II metabolism, a hormone called angiotensin 1-7, counteracts many of the negative effects of excess angiotensin II, including high blood pressure, kidney disease, heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythms), according to Marcus. With the other researcheres, Marcus examined whether angiotensin 1-7 has a beneficial effect on the metabolic syndrome, using an established model of the syndrome, "the fructose-fed rat." In this model, rats are fed a diet heavy in fructose sweetener, and over time they develop similar characteristics to the human metabolic syndrome.

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Hormone therapy plus physical activity reduce belly fat, body fat percentage after menopause

Older women who take hormone therapy to relieve menopausal symptoms may get the added benefit of reduced body fat if they are physically active, according to a new study. The results were presented at The Endocrine Society's 91st Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C. The study provides new information on the health benefits of any type of physical activity, not just exercise, said the presenting author Poli Mara Spritzer, MD, PhD, a professor at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in Porto Alegre, Brazil, and chief of the Gynecological Endocrinology Unit at the university's Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre. After menopause, a woman's percentage of body fat tends to increase and redistribute to the abdomen, Spritzer said. Excess belly fat is a risk factor for diabetes and heart disease. Postmenopausal women who exercise have a lower percentage of body fat than sedentary women, past research shows. However, Spritzer said less is known about the influence on body fat composition of physical activity in women receiving hormone replacement therapy, or HRT. Some data suggest that estrogen treatment may add to the effect of exercise in reducing fat. Spritzer and her colleagues studied 34 healthy women who had an average age of 51 years, had experienced menopause for less than 3 years and sought HRT to relieve hot flashes, night sweats and vaginal dryness. They evaluated the women's cholesterol levels, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (a measure of abdominal fat) and percentage of body fat before and after 4 months of HRT. The women received estrogen plus progesterone therapy in either non-oral (nasal and vaginal) or low-dose oral preparations. For 6 consecutive days before starting HRT and 6 days at the end of HRT, women wore a pedometer to estimate their level of physical activity. The device measured the steps they took, including walking, working, and doing house chores and leisure activities. They were instructed to not change their usual activities. Most of the women did not play sports or do any structured physical exercise, according to Spritzer. Results showed that 24 of the women were physically active—defined as taking 6,000 steps or more per day—and 10 were inactive (less than 6,000 steps a day). For a woman who has a step, or stride, length of 2 feet (60 cm), 6,000 steps would be around 2.25 miles (3.6 km), Spritzer estimated. For active women, the higher the number of steps they took, the lower was their waist measurement and the better their level of "good" (high-density-lipoprotein, or HDL) cholesterol, the authors reported. The inactive women did not have any changes in body fat or cholesterol. However, when all 34 women were considered in the analysis, body fat still declined significantly after HRT.

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Vibration plate machines may aid weight loss and trim abdominal fat

New research suggests that, if used properly, vibration plate exercise machines may help you lose weight and trim the particularly harmful belly fat between the organs. In a study presented on Friday at the European Congress on Obesity, scientists found that overweight or obese people who regularly used the equipment in combination with a calorie restricted diet were more successful at long-term weight loss and shedding the fat around their abdominal organs than those who combined dieting with a more conventional fitness routine. "These machines are increasingly found in gyms across the industrialized world and have gathered a devoted following in some places, but there has not been any evidence that they help people lose weight. Our study, the first to investigate the effects of vibration in obese people, indicates it's a promising approach. It looks like these machines could be a useful addition to a weight control package," said the study's leader, Dirk Vissers, a physiotherapist at the Artesis University College and the University of Antwerp in Belgium. Vissers and his colleagues studied the effects of the Power Plate in 61 overweight or obese people - mostly women - for a year. The intervention lasted six months, after which the scientists advised all the volunteers to do the best they could with a healthy diet and exercise regime on their own for another six months. Body measurements, including CT scans of abdominal fat, were taken at the beginning of the study and after three, six and 12 months. The researchers divided the volunteers into four groups. One group was prescribed an individually calculated calorie restricted diet. Dietician visits were scheduled every fortnight for the first three months and every month for the second three months. The dieters were asked not to engage in any exercise for the duration of the six-month intervention. A second group received the same diet intervention, with the addition of a conventional fitness regime. They attended supervised exercise classes twice a week for an hour and were urged to exercise on their own a third time each week. The sessions included group cycling, swimming, running, step aerobics and some general muscle strengthening exercises. A third group got the diet intervention plus supervised vibration plate training instead of conventional exercise. They were asked not to do any aerobic exercise during the six-month intervention phase. The physiotherapists gradually increased the speed and intensity of the machine each week, as well as the variety and duration of the exercises from 30 seconds for each of 10 exercises to 60 seconds for each of 22 exercises, such as squats, lunges, calf raises, push-ups and abdominal crunches. The average time spent on the machine was 11.9 minutes per session in the first three months and 14.2 minutes in the second three months. A fourth group got no intervention. There were no significant differences between the groups in obesity and abdominal, or visceral, fat at the start of the study. "Over the year, only the conventional fitness and vibration groups managed to maintain a 5% weight loss, which is what is considered enough to improve health," Vissers said.

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Study in pregnant women suggests probiotics may help ward off obesity

One year after giving birth, women were less likely to have the most dangerous kind of obesity if they had been given probiotics from the first trimester of pregnancy, found new research that suggests manipulating the balance of bacteria in the gut may help fight obesity. Probiotics are bacteria that help maintain a healthy bacterial balance in the digestive tract by reducing the growth of harmful bacteria. They are part of the normal digestive system and play a role in controlling inflammation. Researchers have for many years been studying the potential of using probiotic supplementation to address a number of intestinal diseases. More recently, obesity researchers have started to investigate whether the balance of bacteria in the gut might play a role in making people fat and whether adjusting that balance could help. "The results of our study, the first to demonstrate the impact of probiotics-supplemented dietary counselling on adiposity, were encouraging," said Kirsi Laitinen, a nutritionist and senior lecturer at the University of Turku in Finland who presented her findings on Thursday at the European Congress on Obesity. "The women who got the probiotics fared best. One year after childbirth, they had the lowest levels of central obesity as well as the lowest body fat percentage." "Central obesity, where overall obesity is combined with a particularly fat belly, is considered especially unhealthy," Laitinen said. "We found it in 25% of the women who had received the probiotics along with dietary counselling, compared with 43% in the women who received diet advice alone." In the study, 256 women were randomly divided into three groups during the first trimester of pregnancy. Two of the groups received dietary counselling consistent with what's recommended during pregnancy for healthy weight gain and optimal foetal development. They were also given food such as spreads and salad dressings with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as fibre-enriched pasta and breakfast cereal to take home. One of those groups also received daily capsules of probiotics containing Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which are the most commonly used probiotics. The other group received dummy capsules. A third group received dummy capsules and no dietary counselling. The capsules were continued until the women stopped exclusive breastfeeding, up to 6 months. The researchers weighed the women at the start of the study. At the end of the study they weighed them again and measured their waist circumference and skin fold thickness. The results were adjusted for weight at the start of the study. Central obesity - defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more or a waist circumference over 80 centimetres - was found in 25% of the women who had been given the probiotics as well as diet advice. That compared with 43% of the women who got dietary counselling alone and 40% of the women who got neither diet advice nor probiotics. The average body fat percentage in the probiotics group was 28%, compared with 29% in the diet advice only group and 30% in the third group.

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Increased food intake alone explains the increase in body weight in the United States

New research that uses an innovative approach to study, for the first time, the relative contributions of food and exercise habits to the development of the obesity epidemic has concluded that the rise in obesity in the United States since the 1970s was virtually all due to increased energy intake. How much of the obesity epidemic has been caused by excess calorie intake and how much by reductions in physical activity has been long debated and while experts agree that making it easier for people to eat less and exercise more are both important for combating it, they debate where the public health focus should be. A study presented on Friday at the European Congress on Obesity is the first to examine the question of the proportional contributions to the obesity epidemic by combining metabolic relationships, the laws of thermodynamics, epidemiological data and agricultural data. "There have been a lot of assumptions that both reduced physical activity and increased energy intake have been major drivers of the obesity epidemic. Until now, nobody has proposed how to quantify their relative contributions to the rise in obesity since the 1970s. This study demonstrates that the weight gain in the American population seems to be virtually all explained by eating more calories. It appears that changes in physical activity played a minimal role," said the study's leader, Professor Boyd Swinburn, chair of population health and director of the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Obesity Prevention at Deakin University in Australia. The scientists started by testing 1,399 adults and 963 children to determine how many calories their bodies burn in total under free-living conditions. The test is the most accurate measure of total calorie burning in real-life situations. Once they had determined each person's calorie burning rate, Swinburn and his colleagues were able to calculate how much adults needed to eat in order to maintain a stable weight and how much children needed to eat in order to maintain a normal growth curve. They then worked out how much Americans were actually eating, using national food supply data (the amount of food produced and imported, minus the amount exported, thrown away and used for animals or other non-human uses) from the 1970s and the early 2000s. The researchers used their findings to predict how much weight they would expect Americans to have gained over the 30-year period studied if food intake were the only influence. They used data from a nationally representative survey (NHANES) that recorded the weight of Americans in the 1970s and early 2000s to determine the actual weight gain over that period.

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Scripps research scientists develop a new strategy to fight obesity

The antibody works against the gastric hormone ghrelin (pronounced "grell-in"), which has been linked to weight gain and fat storage through its metabolic actions. These findings point towards a potentially novel treatment for obesity that would interfere directly with the some of the biological mechanisms determining weight. The study is being published the week of October 27, 2008, in an advance, online Early Edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). In the study, which was led by investigators Kim Janda and Eric P. Zorrilla of The Scripps Research, the antibody catalyst GHR-11E11 led to a higher metabolic rate in fasting mice and suppressed feeding following 24-hour food deprivation. "Our study showed that this novel catalytic ghrelin antibody could specifically seek out and degrade ghrelin," said Janda, who is Ely R. Callaway, Jr. Professor of Chemistry, member of The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, and director, Worm Institute of Research and Medicine (WIRM), at Scripps Research. "While this antibody lacks a high level of catalytic efficiency, our study clearly demonstrates that even a basal level of catalysis can effectively modulate feeding behavior. These findings not only validate antibody-based therapeutics, but strongly suggest that catalytic anti-ghrelin antibodies might help patients reach and maintain their weight loss goals." According to recent reports from the World Health Organization, about 1 billion people worldwide are overweight or obese, with most of these in the developed world. In the United States, for example, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found that, in 2003-2004, approximately 66 percent of all adults 20 years of age or older were overweight or obese. Almost four out of every five American men aged 40 to 59 were classified as overweight, according to a 2006 study published by the Journal of the American Medical Association. While non-surgical treatments can be modestly effective against obesity, weight loss or gain can be affected by ghrelin, which is released by the body to encourage eating during periods of calorie restriction. A gastric endocrine hormone produced primarily in the stomach, ghrelin promotes weight gain and fat storage through its metabolic actions, decreasing the break down of stored fat for energy as well as energy expenditure itself.

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Extended and Shortened Sleep Durations Linked to Weight Gain

Body mass index (BMI) varies as a function of habitual sleep duration, according to a research abstract that will be presented on Thursday, June 11, at SLEEP 2009, the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies. Results indicate that twins who slept between 7 and 8.9 hours each night had a lower mean BMI (25.0 kg/m2) compared to those who regularly slept either more (25.2 kg/m2) or less (26.4 kg/m2) per night. The relationship between sleep duration and BMI remained significant after controlling for genetics and shared environment. According to lead author Nathaniel Watson, MD, co-director at the University of Washington Sleep Institute in Seattle, sleep habits have a significant impact on weight and BMI. “Findings of the study point towards an environmental cause of the relationship between sleep duration and BMI,” said Watson. “Results were robust enough to be present when the sample was limited to identical twins.” The study involved data from 1,797 twins, including 634 twin pairs (437 monozygotic, 150 dizygotic and 47 indeterminate pairs) and 529 individual twins with a mean age of 36.8 years. Habitual sleep duration was obtained by self-reported length of sleep per night, and BMI was calculated by self-reported height and weight. Of the sample, 68.3 percent was female, and 88.2 percent was Caucasian. Results persisted in a co-twin control analysis of within twin pair differences in sleep duration and BMI.

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Everyday Chemicals and Toxins that Make You Fat

Everyone seems to feel that lack of physical activity and improper nutrition are the reason why children and adults are so obese. However, some feel that while lifestyle choices such as eating unhealthy foods and not exercising may contribute to obesity, chemical exposure can be a huge factor when it comes to increasing weight in both children and adults.

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Researchers Uncover 'Obesity Gene' Involved In Weight Gain Response to High-Fat Diet

Scientists have determined that a specific gene plays a role in the weight-gain response to a high-fat diet. The finding in an animal study suggests that blocking this gene could one day be a therapeutic strategy to reduce diet-related obesity and associated disorders, such as diabetes and liver damage, in humans.The researchers found that a diet rich in fat induced production of this gene, called protein kinase C beta (PKC beta), in the fat cells of mice. These mice rapidly gained weight while eating a high-fat diet for 12 weeks.

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Weight loss -- not one size fits all

There is no "one size fits all" when it comes to weight loss through exercise, says Queensland University of Technology behavioral scientist Neil King. Dr. Neil King, from QUT's Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, is the lead author of a study conducted in collaboration with the University of Leeds in the UK, which has been published in the latest edition of the International Journal of Obesity.

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New drug target in obesity - Fat cells make lots of melanin

As millions of Americans gear up for the Thanksgiving holiday, a new report published online in the FASEB Journal, may provide some relief for those leery second helpings. Researchers describe a discovery that may allow some obese people avoid common obesity-related metabolic problems without losing weight: they make a common antioxidant, melanin, in excess. Even more promising is that some of the antioxidant drugs that can mimic the melanin effect are FDA-approved and available.

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U of I study shows benefits of hormone found in fat tissue

It's called the obesity paradox. Although obese people are more apt to suffer from inflammatory diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and stroke, they are also more likely to survive a major attack caused by one of those conditions. University of Illinois scientists Gregory Freund and Christina Sherry shed light on the reasons for this phenomenon in a study in this month's issue of Endocrinology. "Fat is a very complex and active tissue—it has important functions beyond providing energy and insulating us from the cold," said Freund, a professor in the U of I College of Medicine's Department of Pathology and a faculty member in the U of I Division of Nutritional Sciences. "We now know that leptin, a hormone secreted by fat tissue, plays a key role in regulating the immune system. When we exposed mice to hypoxia (simulating an event, such as a heart attack, in which a part of the body is deprived of oxygen), leptin triggered the immune system to increase production of an anti-inflammatory molecule, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA)," he said. "And, when we gave non-obese mice leptin injections, they recovered three times faster. Leptin did not hasten recovery though in IL-1RA knockout mice," Sherry said. That earlier work was published in a recent issue of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.

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Study finds citrus-derived flavonoid prevents obesity

A flavonoid derived from citrus fruit has shown tremendous promise for preventing weight gain and other signs of metabolic syndrome which can lead to Type 2 Diabetes and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The study, led by Murray Huff of the Robarts Research Institute at The University of Western Ontario looked at a flavonoid (plant-based bioactive molecule) called naringenin. The findings are published online in the journal Diabetes. In the study one group of mice was fed a high-fat (western) diet to induce the symptoms of metabolic syndrome. A second group was fed the exact same diet and treated with naringenin. Naringenin corrected the elevations in triglyceride and cholesterol, prevented the development of insulin resistance and completely normalized glucose metabolism. The researchers found it worked by genetically reprogramming the liver to burn up excess fat, rather than store it. "Furthermore, the marked obesity that develops in these mice was completely prevented by naringenin," says Huff, Director of the Vascular Biology Research Group at Robarts and Professor of Medicine and Biochemistry at the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry. "What was unique about the study was that the effects were independent of caloric intake, meaning the mice ate exactly the same amount of food and the same amount of fat. There was no suppression of appetite or decreased food intake, which are often the basis of strategies to reduce weight gain and its metabolic consequences." While grapefruit has long been linked to weight loss diets, the concentrations of the citrus-derived flavonoid being studied are at higher levels than you could get from dietary components. "We are examining the pharmacological properties of naringenin," explains Huff. "The next step is to find out if naringenin prevents heart disease in animal models and to explore the feasibility of clinical trials to determine its safety and efficacy in humans." This study investigated naringenin's preventative properties, but Huff is also investigating whether it can treat obesity and other existing metabolic problems. "These studies show naringenin, through its insulin-like properties, corrects many of the metabolic disturbances linked to insulin resistance and represents a promising therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome."

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Short, long sleep duration is associated with future weight gain in adults

Both short and long sleeping times predict an increased risk of future body weight and fat gain in adults.

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Childhood obesity link to parents

Like father, like son -- new research points to gender relationships between parents and their children as vital factor in childhood obesity. The relationships between children and their parent of the same gender in the earliest years of life could be the key to understanding why some young people become obese and others do not, new research conducted by the EarlyBird Diabetes Study has shown. A study published today in the International Journal of Obesity indicates that girls whose mothers are classified as clinically obese are significantly more likely to struggle with weight problems in childhood, with a similar relationship existing between obese fathers and their sons. The findings showed that the same trend does not exist between mothers and their sons and fathers and their daughters – meaning that behavioural, rather than genetic, factors could be the key to unravelling the causes of the current obesity epidemic affecting children in the UK.

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Health campaigns that promote exercise may cause people to eat more

New research from the University of Illinois suggests that weight-loss campaigns that promote exercise may actually cause people to eat more. People who viewed posters suggesting that they "join a gym" or "take a walk" ate more food after looking at the posters than people who saw similarly designed posters prompting them to "make friends" or "be in a group," the researchers found. Subliminal words about being active had a similar effect on study participants, said psychology professor Dolores AlbarracŪn, who led the research. "Viewers of the exercise messages ate significantly more (than their peers, who viewed other types of messages)," she said. "They ate one-third more when exposed to the exercise ads." Those exposed to subliminal words about activity during a computer task ate about 20 percent more than those exposed to neutral words, she said. The study, which appears in the journal Obesity, builds on previous research by AlbarracŪn that suggests that general messages to be active can prompt people to behave in a variety of ways, some of which may have negative consequences.

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Cologne Scientists find Relevance of genetic Elicitor for Obesity

Obesity has become an epidemic in many parts of the western hemisphere; over 30 % of the population of Germany are overweight. Scientists from the University of Cologne, in cooperation with scientists from the University of DŁsseldorf, have been able to verify the relevance of a certain gene with regard to obesity for the first time. The results of this work have been published in the international journal of science, Nature. In 2006, scientists discovered increased amounts of variations of the FTO genes were in overweight people. However, the relevance of this gene and its regular function remained unclear for a long time. The team working for Prof. Dr. Jens BrŁning, coordinator of the Cluster of Excellence "Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases", CECAD Cologne, and Prof. Dr. Ulrich RŁther, University of DŁsseldorf, have now been able to show that mice which do not have FTO gene, do not become overweight and burn more energy. These findings verify the importance of the FTO gene for the regulation of body weight. The results of this research will become very important for the development of new ways of treating obesity

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Adults, especially women, have calorie-burning 'brown fat'

Keeping your baby fat turns out to be a good thing, as long as it is "brown fat"—the kind that burns calories, according to a study that found adults have much more of this type of fat than previously thought. The results, which suggest a new way to treat obesity, were presented at The Endocrine Society's 91st Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C. Brown fat burns off calories and generates heat in babies and small mammals. Most of our body fat is white fat, which also provides insulation but stores calories. It becomes "bad" fat when you have too much. The "good" fat—brown fat—was considered essentially nonexistent in human adults. "We now know that it is present and functional in adults," said the study's lead author, Aaron Cypess, MD, PhD, MMSc, of the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston. "Three ounces of brown fat can burn several hundred calories a day." For the first time, the researchers were able to measure patches of brown adipose tissue—brown fat—in people, thanks to a high-tech imaging method that combines positron emission tomography and computed tomography, called PET/CT. By evaluating biopsy tissue of what appeared to be brown fat on PET/CT scans in some patients who had neck surgery, the authors confirmed that they were, indeed, looking at stores of brown fat. More than 1,970 study participants had PET/CT scans, from mid-skull to mid-thigh.

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Successful weight loss with dieting is linked to vitamin D levels

Vitamin D levels in the body at the start of a low-calorie diet predict weight loss success, a new study found. The results, which suggest a possible role for vitamin D in weight loss, were presented at The Endocrine Society's 91st Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C. "Vitamin D deficiency is associated with obesity, but it is not clear if inadequate vitamin D causes obesity or the other way around," said the study's lead author, Shalamar Sibley, MD, MPH, an assistant professor of medicine at the University of Minnesota. In this study, the authors attempted to determine whether baseline vitamin D levels before calorie restriction affect subsequent weight loss. They measured circulating blood levels of vitamin D in 38 overweight men and women before and after the subjects followed a diet plan for 11 weeks consisting of 750 calories a day fewer than their estimated total needs. Subjects also had their fat distribution measured with DXA (bone densitometry) scans. On average, subjects had vitamin D levels that many experts would consider to be in the insufficient range, according to Sibley. However, the authors found that baseline, or pre-diet, vitamin D levels predicted weight loss in a linear relationship. For every increase of 1 ng/mL in level of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol—the precursor form of vitamin D and a commonly used indicator of vitamin D status—subjects ended up losing almost a half pound (0.196 kg) more on their calorie-restricted diet. For each 1-ng/mL increase in the active or "hormonal" form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), subjects lost nearly one-quarter pound (0.107 kg) more. Additionally, higher baseline vitamin D levels (both the precursor and active forms) predicted greater loss of abdominal fat. "Our results suggest the possibility that the addition of vitamin D to a reduced-calorie diet will lead to better weight loss," Sibley said.

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Australian researchers develop treatment to treat obesity

A team of Australian researchers have developed a novel way to control the extreme weight loss, common in late-stage cancer, which often speeds death. The findings published today in Nature Medicine suggest it may soon be possible to prevent this condition, giving people the strength to survive treatment and improve their chances of recovery.

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Moderately reduced carbohydrate diet keeps people feeling full longer

A modest reduction in the amount of carbohydrates eaten, without calorie restriction and weight loss, appears to increase a sense of fullness, which may help people eat less, a preliminary study found. The results were presented at The Endocrine Society's 91st Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C. "There has been great public interest in low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss, but they are difficult to maintain, in part because of the drastic reduction in carbohydrates," said coauthor Barbara Gower, PhD, a professor in the Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham. In this study funded by the National Institutes of Health, Gower and her co-workers investigated whether a modest reduction in dietary carbohydrates, or "carbs," would improve feelings of fullness better than a carbohydrate level comparable to that of the typical U.S. diet. In a standard American diet, according to Gower, 55 percent of daily calories consumed come from carbohydrates: sugars, starches and fiber. The control diet used in their study contained 55 percent of daily calories from carbohydrates, in contrast to their "moderate-carb diet" which was 43 percent of calories from carbohydrates. The moderate-carb diet had more fat than their control diet—39 percent versus 27 percent of calories—so that protein intake could be the same percentage. The researchers matched the protein intake of both diets studied (18 percent of calories) because protein may influence both satiety ("fullness") and insulin secretion. The authors assigned the moderate-carb diet to 16 adults and the standard diet to 14 adults for a month. Subjects received enough calories to maintain their weight at what it was before the study. During the study they were weighed each weekday, and if a participant gained or lost weight, the amount of food was modified individually so weight could stay the same. After the subjects adjusted to their diet for 4 weeks, they ate a test meal, a breakfast that was specific to their diet.

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Blocking a muscle growth-limiting hormone protects against obesity and atherosclerosis

Knockout of myostatin, a growth factor that limits muscle growth, can decrease body fat and promote resistance against developing atherosclerosis, or "hardening" of the arteries, according to a new study conducted in mice. The results will be presented Thursday at The Endocrine Society's 91st Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C. "Obesity increases the risk of atherosclerosis, which accounts for 75% of all cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks and strokes," said study co-author Shalender Bhasin, MD, professor of medicine at Boston University School of Medicine and chief of the Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition at Boston Medical Center. "Current strategies aimed at preventing heart disease consist primarily of lowering cholesterol levels, but patients reaching the desired cholesterol levels are still at risk for atherosclerosis if they have other risk factors, such as obesity." Humans and animals with a mutation in the myostatin gene are extremely muscular and have little fat, past research shows. Also, when the gene encoding myostatin is knocked out in mice, their muscle mass increases. Bhasin and his co-workers wanted to find out if inhibiting myostatin in mice could resist the development of diet-induced obesity and of atherosclerosis, the buildup of lipid deposits called plaque that can narrow and clog coronary arteries. The researchers took mice that were genetically altered to develop atherosclerosis and then cross-bred them with myostatin knockout mice. Ten generations later, they had mice who were genetically predisposed to both atherosclerosis and inactivation of myostatin. For controls, they studied mice with a genetic predisposition for atherosclerosis but with intact myostatin gene. All mice received a high-fat diet for 12 weeks, to spur the development of atherosclerosis.

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Obesity health risk cause 'found'

Scientists believe they may have uncovered a key reason why obese people have a raised risk of health complications such as type 2 diabetes.

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Extended or shortened sleep duration linked to weight gain

Body Mass Index (BMI) varies as a function of habitual sleep duration, according to a research abstract that will be presented on Thursday, June 11, at SLEEP 2009, the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies. Results indicate that twins who slept between 7 and 8.9 hours each night had a lower mean BMI (25.0 kg/m2) compared to those who regularly slept either more (25.2 kg/m2) or less (26.4 kg/m2) per night. The relationship between sleep duration and BMI remained after controlling for genetics and shared environment. According to the lead author of the story, Nathaniel Watson, MD, co-director at the University of Washington Sleep Institute, in Seattle, sleep habits have a significant impact on weight and BMI. "Findings of the study point towards an environmental cause of the relationship between sleep duration and BMI," said Watson. "Results were robust enough to be present when the sample was limited to identical twins." The study included data from 1,797 twins, including 634 twin pairs (437 monozygotic, 150 dizygotic and 47 indeterminate pairs) and 529 individual twins with a mean age of 36.8. Habitual sleep duration was obtained by self-reported length of sleep per night and BMI was calculated by self-reported height and weight. Of the sample, 68.3 percent female, 88.2 percent were Caucasian. Results persisted in a co-twin control analysis of within twin pair differences in sleep duration and BMI.

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Modest gain in visceral fat causes dysfunction of blood vessel lining in lean, healthy humans

When lean, healthy young adults gained about nine pounds, the functioning of their blood vessel lining became impaired -- but shedding the weight restored proper functioning, according to a Mayo Clinic research report.

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Study sheds new light on link between obesity and infertility

Obese women have alterations in their ovaries which might be responsible for an egg's inability to make an embryo, according to a new study accepted for publication in The Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM). Obese women trying to become pregnant experience longer times to conception, even if they are young and have a regular menstrual cycle. This study sought to determine if there are alterations in an egg's environment in obese women which contribute to poorer reproductive outcomes. "Characteristics of eggs are influenced by the environment in which they develop within the ovary," said Dr. Rebecca Robker, PhD, of Adelaide University in Australia and lead author of the study. "Our study found that obese women have abnormally high levels of fats and inflammation in the fluid surrounding their eggs which can impact an egg's developmental potential." According to Dr. Robker, the fats might alter the very sensitive metabolism of the egg and such changes are known to be harmful to embryo formation. In addition, inflammation can damage cells and when this happens to eggs it can affect embryo survival. For this study, researchers followed 96 women seeking assisted reproduction at a private clinic in South Australia from February 2006 to April 2007. Dr. Robker and her colleagues measured hormone and metabolite levels in follicular fluid obtained from the subjects' ovaries during their egg collection procedures. They found that obese women exhibited an altered ovarian follicular environment, particularly increased metabolite and androgen activity levels, which may be associated with poorer reproductive outcomes. "Obesity is well known to cause changes in blood lipids and heightened inflammation which detrimentally affects a person's general health," said Dr. Robker. "Our research shows that obesity similarly changes the environment in the ovary which bathes and nourishes a woman's developing eggs."

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Obesity linked to hormone imbalance that impacts sexual quality of life

Hormonal changes and diminished sexual quality of life among obese men are related to the degree of obesity, and both are improved after gastric bypass surgery according to a new study accepted for publication in The Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM). "Previous studies have found that obesity is correlated to lower sperm count and can be associated with infertility, but we wanted to know if obesity was biologically associated with an unsatisfying sex life, and if so, could it be reversible," said Dr. Ahmad Hammoud, MD, of the University of Utah and lead author of the study. "Our results show that the answer to both questions may be yes." For this study, researchers followed 64 men over two years who participated in the Utah Obesity Study, which investigated the two-year morbidity of severely obese men undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery compared to controls. Researchers measured weight, BMI (body mass index) and reproductive hormone levels of participants at the beginning of the study and once more two years later. Similarly subjects completed a questionnaire designed to assess the impact of weight on quality of life in obese individuals at the onset of the study and again two years later. "In our study population, we found that lower testosterone levels and diminished ratings for sexual quality of life were correlated with increased BMI," said Dr. Hammoud. "Subjects who lost weight through bariatric surgery experienced a reduction in estradiol levels, an increase in testosterone levels and an increase in ratings of sexual quality of life."

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Hormone link to fat storage

It's a paradox that has flummoxed women for generations – their apparent ability to store fat more efficiently than men, despite eating proportionally fewer calories. While it has long been suspected that female sex hormones are responsible, a UNSW research review has for the first time drawn a link between one hormone – oestrogen – and its impact on fat storage for childbearing. On average, women have six to 11 percent more body fat than men. Studies show oestrogen reduces a woman’s ability to burn energy after eating, resulting in more fat being stored around the body. The likely reason is to prime women for childbearing, the review suggests. "Female puberty and early pregnancy – times of increased oestrogen – could be seen as states of efficient fat storage in preparation for fertility, foetal development and lactation," the study’s author Associate Professor Anthony O’Sullivan, from UNSW’s St George Clinical School, said.

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Anti-obesity pill 'could cut weight by a quarter'

In tests on mice the new therapy reduced their body weight by a quarter and fat mass by 42 per cent after a week - with greater effect from repeated treatment.

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Penn Scientists Map Molecular Regulation of Fat-Cell Genetics

A research team led by Mitchell Lazar, MD, PhD, Director of the Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, has used state-of-the-art genetic technology to map thousands of positions where a molecular “master regulator” of fat-cell biology is nestled in DNA to control genes in these cells. The findings appear online this week in Genes & Development. The international obesity epidemic is leading to major health risks, including increased rates of diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Obesity is caused by increased numbers of fat cells that store more fat than normal. “This research has the potential to lead to new ways to think about therapies aimed at reducing the number of fat cells or altering fat cell function in ways that reduce the complications of obesity,” says Lazar.

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Obesity research boosted by watching hunger in the brain

Scientists can now measure how full or hungry a mouse feels, thanks to a new technique which uses imaging to reveal how neurons behave in the part of the brain which regulates appetite. Researchers hope the technique, which uses magnetic resonance imaging, will enable a far greater understanding of why certain people become obese when others do not, and why different people have different appetites.

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Fructose ‘missing link’ in obesity epidemic

Could the simple sugar responsible for putting the sweet in everything from bananas to root beer be the missing link in understanding what puts the fat on a person’s thighs? Yes, according to a book penned by a University of Florida researcher that was published today.In his book, “The Sugar Fix: The High-Fructose Fallout That Is Making You Fat And Sick,” Dr. Richard Johnson reviews the increasing evidence that fructose may play a role in the obesity epidemic and proposes a low-fructose diet he believes could help people lose weight and potentially prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

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Drug 'tricks body to lose weight'

French scientists say they have found a drug that tricks the body into burning off fat even when on a high-fat diet.

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New insight into the link between genetics and obesity

Scientists have acquired new insight into how the 'obesity gene' triggers weight gain in some individuals. Their findings, reported online today in Science Express, could have implications for the future treatment of obesity as well as adult-onset diabetes.

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Body-weight regulation scientists give perspective on obesity-related research

The health effects of obesity involve complex interactions between many body organs that can obscure insight into underlying mechanisms. A more complete understanding of the common underlying defects that occur at the cellular level might prove productive in uncovering the causes and consequences of obesity.

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Influence of 'obesity gene' can be offset by healthy diet

Children who carry a gene strongly associated with obesity could offset its effect by eating a low energy density diet, according to new research from UCL (University College London) and the University of Bristol published today in PLoS ONE. The study, based on data from a sample of 2275 children from the Bristol-based ALSPAC study (Children of the 90s) provides evidence that people might be able to avoid becoming obese if they adopt a healthier diet with a low energy density – even those who carry the FTO gene, identified as being a high risk gene for obesity. Dietary energy density (DED) refers to the amount of energy consumed per unit weight of food, or number of calories per bite. A low dietary energy density can be achieved by eating lots of water-rich foods like fruits and vegetables and limiting foods high in fat and sugar like chocolate and biscuits. The researchers looked at how DED affected the build up of fat in the body over a period of three years in children aged between 10 and 13 years old. They found that children with a more energy dense diet (more calories per bite) tended to have more fat mass three years later and also confirmed that those carrying the high risk gene had greater fat mass overall. When the researchers looked at whether children with the FTO gene had a stronger reaction to an energy dense diet than children with a lower genetic risk they found that they did not. These results indicate that if a child with a high genetic risk eats a diet with fewer calories per bite, they may be able to offset the effect of the gene on weight gain and so stay a healthy weight.

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Obesity research boosted by watching hunger in the brain

Scientists can now measure how full or hungry a mouse feels, thanks to a new technique which uses imaging to reveal how neurons behave in the part of the brain which regulates appetite. Researchers hope the technique, which uses magnetic resonance imaging, will enable a far greater understanding of why certain people become obese when others do not, and why different people have different appetites. The new study, led by researchers from Imperial College London, is described in a paper published today in the Journal of Neuroscience. It had previously been very difficult to measure satiety, which is the psychological feeling of being full and satisfied rather than physical fullness. To judge satiety scientists have relied on asking volunteers in trials how full they feel, or watching how much food is eaten, rather than using more objective measures.

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Is one diet as good as another? U of I study says no and tells you why

Any diet will do? Not if you want to lose fat instead of muscle. Not if you want to lower your triglyceride levels so you'll be less likely to develop diabetes and heart disease. Not if you want to avoid cravings that tempt you to cheat on your diet. And not if you want to keep the weight off long-term. "Our latest study shows you have a better chance of achieving all these goals if you follow a diet that is moderately high in protein," said Donald Layman, a University of Illinois professor emeritus of nutrition. The research was published in the March Journal of Nutrition. Layman's new study followed the weight-loss efforts of 130 persons at two sites, the U of I and Penn State University, during 4 months of active weight loss and 8 months of maintenance. Two previous studies had looked at short-term weight loss; this one was designed to look at long-term effects, he said. Although both plans were equal in calories, half the group followed a moderate-protein diet (40% carbohydrates, 30% protein, 30% fat) while the other followed a diet based on USDA's food-guide pyramid (55% carbohydrates, 15% protein, 15% fat). "Persons in the first group ate twice the amount of protein as the second group," said Layman. And the difference in protein made all the difference in improved body composition and body lipids, he said.

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Lower thyroid activity tied to weight gain

Lower thyroid activity tied to weight gainMiddle-aged adults whose thyroid gland is mildly underactive, but still functioning in the normal range, may be more prone to weight gain, a new study suggests. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that produces hormones that regulate the body's metabolism. In a disorder called hypothyroidism, the gland is underactive, causing symptoms such as fatigue, sensitivity to cold, dry skin and weight gain.

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The truth about summer diets

So what is the truth about summer diets? Here are 5 facts you need to know about summer diets.

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Adults who eat apples, drink apple juice have lower risk for metabolic syndrome

Adults who eat apples, apple juice and applesauce have a significantly reduced risk of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of health problems that are linked to numerous chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

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Long-term pharmacotherapy for obesity and overweight - updated meta-analysis

The study, which looked at the long-term effectiveness of anti-obesity medications, found that three drugs recommended for long-term use -- orlistat, sibutramine and rimonabant -- reduced weight by less than 5 kg (11 pounds). This equated to a loss of less than 5 percent of total body weight. Guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence recommend stopping the use of anti-obesity drugs if 5 percent of total body weight is not lost after three months.

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Healthy blood vessels may prevent fat growth

The cells lining blood vessels are known to be important for maintaining health, but researchers at the Indiana University School of Medicine believe these cells may perform an unsuspected task -- controlling the development of fat cells. Their findings are reported in the September issue of the journal Stem Cells. The researchers found that precursor or stem cells have a markedly reduced tendency to develop into fat cells when placed in direct contact with healthy endothelial cells, which are the cells that line blood vessels.

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Researchers note differences between people and animals on calorie restriction

calorie restriction, a diet that is low in calories and high in nutrition, may not be as effective at extending life in people as it is in rodents, according to scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Previous research had shown that laboratory animals given 30 percent to 50 percent less food can live up to 50 percent longer. Because of those findings, some people have adopted calorie restriction in the hope that they can lengthen their lives. But the new research suggests the diet may not have the desired effect unless people on calorie restriction also pay attention to their protein intake.

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Monell Researchers Find Metabolic Defect in Liver That Can Lead To Obesity

Researchers at the Monell Center have identified a genetically-transmitted defect that can lead to obesity. The defect may explain why some people become obese while others remain lean. The findings could open the door to the development of new drugs to curb appetite and promote weight loss.

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Research team discovers brain pathway responsible for obesity

University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers, for the first time, have found a messaging system in the brain that directly affects food intake and body weight.Reported in the Oct. 3 issue of Cell, the findings - from a study in mice - point to a completely new approach to treating and preventing obesity in humans. The discovery also offers hope for new ways to treat related disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases - the most prevalent health problems in the United States and the rest of the developed world. Led by Dongsheng Cai, an assistant professor of physiology at the UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, the researchers looked specifically at the hypothalamus - the brain structure responsible for maintaining a steady state in the body - and for the first time found that a cell-signaling pathway primarily associated with inflammation also influences the regulation of food intake. Stimulating the pathway led the animals to increase their energy consumption, while suppressing it helped them maintain normal food intake and body weight. The research stems from recent explorations into the problem called metabolic inflammation, a byproduct of too much food or energy consumption. Unlike the classical inflammation typically observed in infections, injuries and diseases such as cancer, the metabolic inflammation seen in obesity-related diseases is much milder, doesn't lead to overt symptoms or cause tissues damage. "Metabolic inflammation is a chronic, low-grade condition consisting of inflammatory-like responses at the molecular level. It has many downstream consequences," says Cai. "It causes cellular dysfunction, which can decrease the regulation of several physiological processes, including metabolism." Scientists believe that metabolic inflammation may be at the core of many chronic, obesity-related metabolic disorders that are so common today, he adds. Cai and his team zeroed in on NF-kappaB, a protein complex that can be activated specifically by IKKbeta to induce inflammatory reactions in many cell systems.

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A Two-Year Randomized Weight Loss Trial Comparing a Vegan Diet to a More Moderate Low-Fat Diet

A vegan diet was associated with significantly greater weight loss than the NCEP diet at 1 and 2 years. Both group support and meeting attendance were associated with significant weight loss at follow-up.

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Voedingstofarme voeding maakt dik

Kakkerlakken staan bekend om mogelijkheid door de kleinste scheurtjes in je woning te kunnen komen. Maar nu blijkt dat als je ze een ongezond dieet geeft ze vet opslaan. De andere groep die gezond en onbeperkt mocht eten bleef op gewicht. Hieruit blijkt maar weer dat een arm dieet voor overgewicht kan zorgen en dat niet de hoeveelheid eten de oorzaak is. Vaak bevatten ongezonde produkten wel veel caloriŽn maar zijn ze arm aan voedingsstoffen door de raffinage en ongezonde samenstelling.

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Body weight influenced by thousands of genes

Researchers from the Monell Center have for the first time attempted to count the number of genes that contribute to obesity and body weight. The findings suggest that over 6,000 genes -- about 25 percent of the genome -- contribute to help determine an individual's body weight. This high degree of complexity suggests that a quick fix to the obesity problem is unlikely.

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Exercise Suppresses Appetite By Affecting Appetite Hormones

A vigorous 60-minute workout on a treadmill affects the release of two key appetite hormones, ghrelin and peptide YY, while 90 minutes of weight lifting affects the level of only ghrelin, according to a new study. Taken together, the research shows that aerobic exercise is better at suppressing appetite than non-aerobic exercise and provides a possible explanation for how that happens. This line of research may eventually lead to more effective ways to use exercise to help control weight, according to the senior author, David J. Stensel of Loughborough University in the United Kingdom. The study, “The influence of resistance and aerobic exercise on hunger, circulating levels of acylated ghrelin and peptide YY in healthy males,” appears in the online edition of The American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, published by The American Physiological Society. The authors are David R. Broom, James A. King and David J. Stensel of Loughborough University, and Rachel L. Batterham of University College, London.

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Weight gain induced by antipsychotic drugs can be avoided

A research team from Universite Laval's Faculty of Medicine and Robert-Giffard Hospital has demonstrated that weight gain induced by the use of antipsychotic drugs -- which in extreme cases can be as high as 30 kilos in only one month -- can be avoided through a specially designed weight control program. The researchers report the details of their findings in a recent edition of the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry.

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Key to 'curing' obesity may lie in worms that destroy their own fat

A previously unknown mutation discovered in a common roundworm holds the promise of new treatments for obesity in humans, McGill University researchers say. Their study was published Dec. 3 in the journal Nature, and was funded by the Canadian Cancer Society and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. In lean times, a normal Caenorhabditis elegans worm goes into a form of suspended animation called "dauer" that slows its metabolism and allows it to survive for extended periods without food. "When they go into dauer, these worms radically alter their metabolism," said Dr. Richard Roy, a cancer researcher at McGill's Department of Biology specializing in the control of cell division. "They shut down everything energy-consuming, which includes foraging, cell division and reproduction." Unlike other "hibernating" organisms, C. elegans maintains a degree of mobility during dauer by stocking up on energy in the form of fats – or lipids – which they store in special cells or reserves. "This allows them to live up to six months without eating, instead of the two weeks they would otherwise have," Roy explained. A worm with the newly discovered mutation, however, will usually die within a week of going into dauer "These mutants somehow cannot shut down the process of cell division, which is why we noticed them in the first place," Roy said. "However, that's not what kills them. They cannot adjust their metabolism correctly. They store up their six-month lipid reserves, but as soon as they shift into dauer they use them up within a few days. This is because they lack an enzyme that blocks the activity of a very important triglyceride lipase. Without this regulation the lipase burns up all the fat it encounters and destroys the worm's energy reserves."

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Battle of the bulge - what controls how much we eat

In simple terms, individuals become obese if they eat more calories than they burn. However, the molecular pathways that control feeding behavior and cellular energy expenditure are highly complex and not completely understood. In a study that appears online on August 9 in advance of publication in the September print issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Clay Semenkovich and colleagues from Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, show that mice lacking a protein known as FAS in beta-islet cells in the pancreas and in the region of the brain known as the hypothalamus are lean because they eat less and move around more than normal mice. These effects on behavior were associated with decreased signaling in the hypothalamus through a protein known as PPAR-alpha. Administration of a PPAR-alpha agonist into the hypothalamus increased the amount mice lacking FAS specifically in the beta-islet cells and in the hypothalamus ate but did not increase the amount normal mice ate. This study therefore identifies FAS-mediated activation of PPAR-alpha as a molecular pathway controlling feeding behavior in mice.

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Research shows skeleton to be endocrine organ

Researchers at Columbia University Medical Center have now identified a surprising and critically important novel function of the skeleton. They've shown for the first time that the skeleton is an endocrine organ that helps control our sugar metabolism and weight and, as such, is a major determinant of the development of type 2 diabetes. The research is published in the Aug. 10 issue of Cell.

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Study explains how protein keeps hunger at bay

Diets high in protein may be the best way to keep hunger in check, U.S. researchers said on Thursday in a study that offers insight into how diets work.

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6 new genes suggest obesity is in your head, not your gut

New research suggests that genes that predispose people to obesity act in the brain and that perhaps some people are simply hardwired to overeat. An international research team co-led by the University of Michigan found six new genes that help explain body mass index and obesity, and all but one of the genes are tied to the brain rather than to metabolic functions, such as fat storage and sugar metabolism. In addition to the six new genes, the study also confirmed the role of two other genes previously associated with obesity, said co-principal investigator Goncalo Abecasis, an associate professor at the U-M School of Public Health. The study will appear online Dec. 14 in advance of print publication in the journal Nature Genetics. It's significant that five of the six new genes also impact brain function, because the findings suggest people could simply be programmed to overeat, said U-M postdoctoral researcher Cristen Willer, first author on the study. The brain, she said, has two main functions related to weight: appetite control and the regulation of one's total energy balance (whether you burn more calories or conserve more energy). "This research tells you a little about what kinds of drugs you want to develop and where you want them to act," Abecasis said.

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Brain Enzyme May Play Role In Controlling Appetite And Weight Gain

Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have found that overactivity of a brain enzyme may play a role in preventing weight gain and obesity. The findings were reported in Cell Metabolism. To understand what drives hunger and causes metabolic disease, many scientists have focused on the hypothalamus, an almond-sized structure located deep within the brain that controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst. Specialized nerve cells in the hypothalamus sense whether the body contains adequate amounts of nutrients and stored body fat. The cells then send out signals telling other parts of the brain to adjust food intake, metabolic rates, and physical activity accordingly — keeping the body's caloric intake in balance with calories burned. To learn more about these nutrient-sensing pathways and how they go awry in metabolic disorders, researchers at Einstein focused on an enzyme called p70 S6 Kinase 1, or S6K, which plays a role in regulating the growth and proliferation of all cells, including nerve cells.

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Einstein researchers - Do national dietary guidelines do more harm than good?

Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University raise questions about the benefits of federal dietary guidelines. The researchers, led by Paul Marantz, M.D., MPH, associate dean for clinical research education at Einstein, outline their argument in the Jan. 22 online edition of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Small protein may have big role in making more bone and less fat

A small protein may have a big role in helping you make more bone and less fat, researchers say.

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Weekends slow weight loss, researchers find

Saturday can be the worst enemy for our waistlines, according to researchers at the School of Medicine. They found that study subjects on strict diet and exercise programs tend to lose weight more slowly than expected because they eat more on weekends than during the week

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Another reason to avoid high-fat diet – it can disrupt our biological clock

Indulgence in a high-fat diet can not only lead to overweight because of excessive calorie intake, but also can affect the balance of circadian rhythms – everyone’s 24-hour biological clock, Hebrew University of Jerusalem researchers have shown. The biological clock regulates the expression and/or activity of enzymes and hormones involved in metabolism, and disturbance of the clock can lead to such phenomena as hormone imbalance, obesity, psychological and sleep disorders and cancer. While light is the strongest factor affecting the circadian clock, Dr. Oren Froy and his colleagues of the Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition at the Hebrew University’s Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment in Rehovot, have demonstrated in their experiments with laboratory mice that there is a cause-and-effect relation between diet and biological clock imbalance. To examine this thesis, Froy and his colleagues, Ph.D. student Maayan Barnea and Zecharia Madar, the Karl Bach Professor of Agricultural Biochemistry, tested whether the clock controls the adiponectin signaling pathway in the liver and, if so, how fasting and a high-fat diet affect this control. Adiponectin is secreted from differentiated adipocytes (fat tissue) and is involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. It increases fatty acid oxidation and promotes insulin sensitivity, two highly important factors in maintaining proper metabolism.

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Device blocking stomach nerve signals shows promise in obesity

A new implantable medical device, developed in collaboration with Mayo Clinic researchers, shows promise as a reversible and less extreme alternative to existing bariatric surgeries, according to findings published in the current issue of the journal Surgery.

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Watch out for the wrong kind of sugar - fructose

Suspicion is growing that fructose -- found in fresh fruit, fruit juice and preserves -- is fueling the obesity epidemic. A US study has found that overweight adults who were given large amounts of fructose in their diet had an alarming increase in intra-abdominal fat -- which causes a pot belly and has been linked to an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The study, announced at a meeting last week, did not find the same results with a test group consuming glucose instead.

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Revealing estrogen's secret role in obesity

Research on the effects of the female sex hormone estrogen in the brain lend credence to what many women have suspected about the hormonal changes that accompany aging: Menopause can make you fat. In animal experiments, researchers showed how estrogen receptors in the brain serve as a master switch to control food intake, energy expenditure and body fat distribution. The study will be presented in August at the American Chemical Society national meeting in Boston.

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Common virus may contribute to obesity in some people, new study shows

A common virus may cause obesity in some people, according to new evidence in a controlled laboratory study. Scientists showed that infection with human adenovirus-36, long recognized as a cause of respiratory and eye infections in humans, transforms adult stem cells obtained from fat tissue into fat cells. The study, which might lead to new treatments for obesity, will be reported in August at the American Chemical Society national meeting in Boston.

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Childhood BMI and Environmental Pollution

Verhulst et al. investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score and prenatal exposure to hexachlorobenzene, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dioxin-like compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a random sample of mother–infant pairs living in Flanders, Belgium. PCBs were associated with increased BMI during early childhood. Future studies are needed to confirm the findings and to assess possible mechanisms by which these pollutants could alter energy metabolism.

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Obesity starts in the head? Six newly discovered genes for obesity have a neural effect

Obesity is known to increase the risk of chronic disorders, such as diabetes (type 2). An international team of scientists with German participation through the Helmholtz Zentrum MŁnchen identified six new obesity genes. Gene expression analyses have shown that all six genes are active in brain cells.

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UF scientists reveal how dietary restriction cleans cells

Cutting calories helps rodents live longer by boosting cells' ability to recycle damaged parts so they can maintain efficient energy production, according to a University of Florida Institute on Aging study. Understanding how the process works at the cellular level in rodents could help scientists develop drugs that mimic the process in humans.

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Control of blood vessels a possible weapon against obesity

Mice exposed to low temperatures develop more blood vessels in their adipose tissue and metabolise body fat more quickly, according to a new study from Karolinska Institutet. Scientists now hope to learn how to control blood vessel development in humans in order to combat obesity and diabetes. The growth of fat cells and their metabolism depend on oxygen and blood-borne nutrients. A possible way to regulate the amount of body fat – in order, for instance, to combat obesity – can therefore be to affect the development of blood vessels in the adipose tissue. A team of researchers at Karolinska Institutet have now demonstrated the rapid development of blood vessels in the adipose tissue of mice exposed to low temperatures. This is followed in its turn by a transformation of the adipose tissue from 'white' fat to 'brown' fat, which has higher metabolic activity and which breaks down more quickly.

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Physical Activity May not be Key to Obesity Epidemic, Loyola Study Finds

A recent international study fails to support the common belief that the number of calories burned in physical activity is a key factor in rising rates of obesity. Researchers from Loyola University Health System and other centers compared African American women in metropolitan Chicago with women in rural Nigeria. On average, the Chicago women weighed 184 pounds and the Nigerian women weighed 127 pounds. Researchers had expected to find that the slimmer Nigerian women would be more physically active. To their surprise, they found no significant difference between the two groups in the amount of calories burned during physical activity. "Decreased physical activity may not be the primary driver of the obesity epidemic," said Loyola nutritionist Amy Luke, Ph.D., corresponding author of the study in the September 2008 issue of the journal Obesity. Luke is an associate professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology at Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine.Physical activity is defined as anything that gets your body moving. U.S. government guidelines say that each week, adults need at least 2 Ĺ hours of moderate aerobic activity (such as brisk walking) or 75 minutes of vigorous activity (such as jogging). Adults also should do muscle-strengthening activities, such as weight-lifting or sit-ups, at least twice a week.

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Obesity - Reviving the promise of leptin

The discovery more than a decade ago of leptin, an appetite-suppressing hormone secreted by fat tissue, generated headlines and great hopes for an effective treatment for obesity. But hopes dimmed when it was found that obese people are unresponsive to leptin due to development of leptin resistance in the brain. Now, researchers at Children's Hospital Boston report the first agents demonstrated to sensitize the brain to leptin: oral drugs that are already FDA-approved and known to be safe. Findings were published January 7 by the journal Cell Metabolism. In 1995, researchers reported in Science that they had isolated a protein that is present in normal mice, but not in an obese strain of mice called ob/ob, which lacked a gene also called ob. When either obese or normal mice were directly injected with the protein – now called leptin – they ate less and lost weight. "Everyone in the field thought they would get the Nobel," says Umut Ozcan, MD, of Children's Division of Endocrinology. Unfortunately, when obese humans took the hormone, they lost weight only temporarily – then rebounded back. "Most humans who are obese have leptin resistance," says Ozcan. "Leptin goes to the brain and knocks on the door, but inside, the person is deaf."

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On a high-fat diet, protective gene variant becomes bad actor

New evidence in mice bolsters the notion that a version of a gene earlier shown to protect lean people against weight gain and insulin resistance can have the opposite effect in those who eat a high-fat diet and are heavier, reveals a report in the January 7th issue of the journal Cell Metabolism, a Cell Press publication. The findings suggest that the 12 percent of people who carry the so-called Ala12 version of the gene that serves as a master controller of fat differentiation will be more sensitive than most to the amount of fat in their diets. (That fat-moderating gene is called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 2, or Pparg2.) The Ala12 gene variant in question is less active and less efficient in driving fat cells' formation than the more common Pro12 version, the researchers explained. As a result, individuals carrying Ala12 are generally less obese and more sensitive to insulin, but that can change if they shift to a less sensible, fat-laden meal plan. Genetic testing for the variant might therefore be used as a diagnostic tool, said Johan Auwerx of Universitť Louis Pasteur in France and the Ecole Polytechnique Fťdťrale de Lausanne in Switzerland. "Through dietary counseling, carriers could be informed that they really need to watch out for high fat in their diets," he said. The findings also raise a potential caution about the long-term effects of drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs) now in use for the treatment of diabetes, he added. Those drugs stimulate activity of the Pparg2 receptor. The findings suggest it may be better—at least in some settings—to have a less active receptor.

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Understanding how obese fat cells work

In obese individuals, fat cells are bloated and inflamed because they receive too many nutrients, including lipids. In these cells, various components cannot work properly anymore and, instead, they activate new proteins to cope with the situation. One of the most challenged organelles in obese fat cells is a maze-like compartment called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that makes proteins and lipid droplets and senses the amount of nutrients that enter the cell. Margaret F. Gregor and Gokhan S. Hotamisligil review current knowledge about how the ER works in fat cells and is modified in obesity. They show that when a fat cell receives too many nutrients, the ER is overwhelmed and triggers a process called the unfolded protein response (UPR). This process is one of many cellular responses that activate proteins that increase inflammation and can even result in the death of the cell. UPR also causes insulin resistance, a condition in which the production and function of insulin – a hormone produced by the pancreas – is impaired and blood sugar is too high. The scientists show that by better understanding how the ER works, it may be possible to devise a therapy that enhances the function of the ER and maybe improve the health of obese people. Already, two molecules that protect the ER from obesity-related stress have shown some success in mice. Called PBA and TUDCA, the molecules decreased blood sugar and insulin levels and improved overall response to insulin production.

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Disabling enzyme allows mice to gorge without becoming obese, new study finds

Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have identified a new enzyme that plays a far more important role than expected in controlling the breakdown of fat. In a new study to be published Jan. 11 in the journal Nature Medicine, researchers report that mice that have had this enzyme disabled remained lean despite eating a high-fat diet and losing a hormone that suppresses appetite."We have discovered a new enzyme within fat cells that is a key regulator of fat metabolism and body weight, making it a promising target in the search for a treatment for human obesity," said Hei Sook Sul, UC Berkeley professor of nutritional sciences and toxicology and principal investigator of the research. Sul's research team includes the three co-lead authors of the paper, all from UC Berkeley's Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology: Kathy Jaworski, former post-doctoral researcher; Maryam Ahmadian, graduate student; and Robin Duncan, post-doctoral fellow. The enzyme in the spotlight, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 (AdPLA), is found in abundance only in fat tissue. AdPLA sets off a chain of events that increases levels of a signaling molecule called prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which suppresses the breakdown of fat. Mice that have no AdPLA have lower PGE2 levels and a higher rate of fat metabolism. "When levels of PGE2 are decreased because of the lack of AdPLA, fat breakdown proceeds unchecked, resulting in leanness even in animals that eat all day long," said co-lead author Duncan. In the study, mice that had the gene for AdPLA expression knocked out were compared with a control group of normal mice. As soon as the mice were weaned at about 3 weeks of age, researchers began offering the two groups of mice an all-you-can-eat buffet of tasty, high-fat foods.

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Herbal remedy reduces obesity and heart disease?

Scientists from Germany have recently discovered that extracts of a traditional herbal remedy derived from Tabebuia impetiginosa can act to delay the absorption of dietary fat in animal models. They believe that the extract could be incorporated into a food supplement which may not only reduce obesity, but also lessen the risk of development of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease.

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You're likely to order more calories at a 'healthy' restaurant

An important new study from the Journal of Consumer Research explains the "American obesity paradox": the parallel rise in obesity rates and the popularity of healthier food. In a series of four studies, the researchers reveal that we over-generalize "healthy" claims. In fact, consumers chose beverages, side dishes, and desserts containing up to 131 percent more calories when the main dish was positioned as "healthy."

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The lowdown on low fat

many of the flavoured yoghurts touting themselves as lite or low fat actually give you more kilojoules per serve than plain, full-fat yoghurt, because of the amount of sugar they contain.

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Regular meals important for the health

It is obvious to most people that our health is affected by what we eat; now, however, scientists have shown that it is also a matter of how often we eat. People who eat at irregular times run a greater risk of developing insulin resistance and what is known as metabolic syndrome, according to a study from the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet. Metabolic syndrome is a condition whereby multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes accumulate in one and the same individual. The chances of developing the components of the syndrome – abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance – are affected by several lifestyle factors, of which diet is thought to be one of the most important. Scientists at Karolinska Institutet have now, for the first time, showed that the frequency of meals, regardless of their content, affects the chances of developing metabolic syndrome. The study, which was based on a survey and medical examination of over four thousand 60-year old men and women, shows that irregular eating is associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome.

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Study suggests link between obesity, poor bone health

Being overweight is a known risk factor for heart disease, diabetes and a host of other health conditions. Now, a University of Georgia study published in the November issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition finds that obesity may also be bad for bone health.

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Excessive weight loss can be a bad thing

Doctors are not doing enough to pick up on problems with excessive weight loss, says a Saint Louis University physician who helped draft recent guidelines to diagnose the condition called "cachexia" (kuh-kex-ee-uh). "In sick people, weight loss is an important indicator of disease and potentially impending death," said John Morley, M.D., an endocrinologist and director of the division of geriatric medicine at Saint Louis University School of Medicine. "Cachexia is an extraordinary problem for people who are having other health problems, yet this is something that many physicians don't pay attention to." A group of physicians and scientists agreed on a definition of cachexia, which was published in the December edition of the medical journal, Clinical Nutrition. "The definition is important because it gives physicians the guidelines to make a diagnosis and treat the condition," Morley said. "A definition of cachexia also makes it easier for scientists to conduct research and potentially develop new therapies for the problem." About half of hospitalized patients and between 10 and 15 percent of sick patients who see a doctor have cachexia. The condition accompanies diseases such as cancer, congestive heart failure, HIV, diabetes, kidney failure and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

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Mediterranean diet reduces obesity risk

The scientists performed a 10-year follow-up study with healthy participants (206) aged 15-80 years at baseline in 1994, who participated in a nutrition survey in Valencia, Spain. Data on diet, lifestyle factors, and body weight were obtained in 1994 and 2004 using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and direct measurements. The average WG over the study period was 3.41 kg. The data analysis of this study was limited by the number of participants. The researchers did not perform separate analyses for men and women and groups for statistical reasons (lack of sufficient statistical power). Concerning gender differences there are some studies which have demonstrated different associations between food group intake and weight changes among men and women. In conclusion, the researchers found that increased fruit and vegetable intake was associated with significantly lower risk of a medium WG (3,41 kg) over 10 years among adults of a Spanish Mediterranean population. Dietary strategies to increase fruit and vegetable intake to prevent and control overweight and obesity should be promoted more vigorously. The researchers concluded that dietary patterns associated with a high intake of fruits and vegetables in Mediterranean populations may reduce long-term risk of subsequent WG and obesity among adults.

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Slow Starch Diet Helps With Weight, Diabetes

Troxler's diet is simple. It's based on low-fat, low-glycemic foods, which he said leaves people feeling full without the large amounts of sugar and fat other foods contain.

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Limiting fructose may boost weight loss, UT Southwestern researcher reports

One of the reasons people on low-carbohydrate diets may lose weight is that they reduce their intake of fructose, a type of sugar that can be made into body fat quickly, according to a researcher at UT Southwestern Medical Center.

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Dr. George Troxler’s Slow Starch Diet

Dr. Troxler has invested hundreds of hours educating others about this Slow Starch Diet, also known as the Low Glycemic Index Diet. His lectures are designed to teach people how to eat low-glycemic index foods. Glycemic Index is a measure of how fast the starch we eat changes into blood sugar. Slow starch has a low glycemic index and causes only a slow rise in blood sugar.

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Obesity predisposition traced to the brain's reward system

New research links overeating and obesity with the brain system implicated in pleasure and addictive behaviors strengthening the argument that obesity could be approached as an addictive disorder. This is the first study to demonstrate that obesity predisposition is associated with impairments in all mid-brain dopamine systems that are in place early in postnatal life.

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Study suggests 86 percent of Americans could be overweight or obese by 2030

Most adults in the US will be overweight or obese by 2030, with related health care spending projected to be as much as $956.9 billion, according to researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.

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Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum

In the short term, high-protein, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets reduce hunger and lower food intake significantly more than do high-protein, medium-carbohydrate nonketogenic diets.

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Obesity Linked to Gum Disease

The obesity epidemic may be linked to high worldwide rates of gum disease, according to a new study conducted by researchers at Boston University and published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Japanese diet to help Scottish business

THE Japanese have had a reputation as the world leaders in business. Now a group of Scottish businessmen have taken a leaf out of the books of their eastern counterparts – to see if the Japanese diet and way of life improves their professional performance.

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Disrupted genetic regulation causes common disturbance in metabolism of fat

The disease familial combined hyperlipidemia is a common cause of disturbed metabolism of fat and early heart attacks. Swedish scientists have now developed a pioneering method and can show for the first time what genes are regulated by the gene USF1, which is known to cause the disease.

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Obesity may be wired in the brain, rat study suggests

A predisposition for obesity might be wired into the brain from the start, suggests a new study of rats in the February issue of Cell Metabolism, a publication of Cell Press.Rats selectively bred to be prone to obesity show abnormalities in a part of the brain critical for appetite control, the researchers found. Specifically, the researchers show that the obese rats harbor defects in neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARH) of the hypothalamus, which leaves their brains less responsive to the hunger-suppressing hormone leptin. “The neurodevelopmental differences in these animals can be seen as early as the first week,” said Sebastien Bouret of the University of Southern California. “The results show that obesity can be wired into the brain from early life. The three-million-dollar question now is how to get around this problem.”

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Scientists measure connection between the built environment and obesity in baby boomers

Results showed significant associations among built-environment factors and the prevalence of overweight/obesity and various forms of physical activity in middle-aged and older adults. These findings suggest the need for public health and city planning officials to consider how modifiable neighborhood-level, built-environment characteristics can create more livable residential communities and promote active, healthy lifestyles.

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Obesity 'may be largely genetic'

Becoming overweight as a child is more likely to be the result of your genes than your lifestyle, claims a study.

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Overeating and obesity triggered by lack of BDNF

Neuroscience researchers demonstrate for the first time that brain-derived neurotrophic factor is an essential component of neural circuits which regulate body weight in adult mice and that its expression in two particular brain regions is required to suppress appetite.

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NZ study finds way to stay thin after dieting

A New Zealand researcher has devised an antidote for the over-indulgence of Christmas that will be weighing heavily on many tummies today.

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Vitamin status in morbidly obese patients

The morbidly obese women and men had significantly lower concentrations of vitamin B-6, vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and lipid-standardized vitamin E than did the healthy controls (P <0.01 for each). The status of these vitamins was inadequate in a substantial proportion of the patients (11Ė38%). The status of vitamins A, B-1, B-2, and B-12 and of folic acid was adequate in most of the patients (95Ė100%). A moderately elevated C-reactive protein concentration was associated with lower vitamin A, B-6, and C concentrations. In a multiple regression analysis, concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (inverse relation) and vitamin C were the strongest determinants of serum vitamin B-6 concentrations.

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A Human Hormone Blocker Is Found To Help Prevent Obesity And Diabetes During Animal Testing

A new study finds that a chemical found in the body is capable of promoting weight loss, improving insulin resistance and reversing diabetes in an animal model. The hormone is gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor blockade.

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Molecular Partnership Controls Daily Rhythms, Body Metabolism, According to Penn Study

A research team led by Mitchell Lazar, MD, PhD, Director of the Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, has discovered a key molecular partnership that coordinates body rhythms and metabolism. Lazar and his colleagues, including the study’s first author, Penn Veterinary Medicine doctoral student Theresa Alenghat, studied a protein called NCoR that modulates the body’s responses to metabolic hormones. They engineered a mutation into mice that prevents NCoR from working with an enzyme that is normally its partner, HDAC3. These animals showed changes in the expression f clock and metabolic genes, and were leaner, more sensitive to insulin, and on different sleep-wake cycles than controls. The role of the NCoR-HDAC3 partnership in regulating the body’s internal clock was previously unknown. HDAC3 is an enzyme that affects gene expression by binding to receptors in the cell nucleus to affect genes' activity, but not by directly changing DNA. The findings suggest that HDAC via NCoR controls the body’s internal clock, and therefore metabolism, through this epigenetic change. Their findings are reported in this week’s issue of Nature. “In the fight against the obesity and diabetes epidemics, disruption of NCoR and its enzyme partner, might be a valuable new weapon,” says Lazar.

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Route to obesity passes through tongue

Obesity gradually numbs the taste sensation of rats to sweet foods and drives them to consume larger and ever-sweeter meals, according to neuroscientists. Findings from the Penn State study could uncover a critical link between taste and body weight, and reveal how flab hooks the brain on sugary food. "When you have a reduced sensitivity to palatable foods, you tend to consume it in higher amounts," said Andras Hajnal, associate professor of neural and behavioral sciences at Penn State College of Medicine. "It is a vicious circle." Previous studies have suggested that obese persons are less sensitive to sweet taste and crave sweet foods more than lean people. However, little is known about the specific differences between obese and lean individuals in their sense of taste and the pleasure they derive from sweet foods. Hajnal and his Penn State colleague Peter Kovacs, a post-doctoral fellow, investigated these differences by studying the taste responses of two strains -- OLETF and LETO rats. Compared to the lean and healthy LETO rats, the taste responses in OLETF rats mirror those in obese humans. These rats have normal body weight at first, but they tend to chronically overeat due to a missing satiety signal, become obese and develop diabetes. The obese rats also show an increased preference for sweet foods and also are willing to work harder to obtain sweet solutions as a reward for their learning. "When you have excess body weight, the brain is supposed to tell you not to eat more, or not choose high caloric meals" said Hajnal. "But this control apparently fails and thus the obesity epidemic is rising, and we want to find out how the sense of taste drives up food intake."The researchers implanted electrodes in the rodents' brains to record the firing of nerve cells when the rats' tongues were exposed to various tastes -- salt, citric acid, plain water and six different concentrations of sucrose.

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Molecule shuts down food intake and turns on 'siesta mode'

Researchers have identified a molecule that tells your brain your stomach is full – signaling that it's time to say no to a second piece of pumpkin pie and push back from the Thanksgiving table. In studies with mice and rats, researchers have found that a chemical messenger called NAPE is made in the small intestine after the animals ate a greasy meal. After eating, NAPE – N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine, a mouthful in itself -- enters the blood and travels to the brain, where it quashes hunger signals. Rats treated with extra NAPE for five days ate less and lost weight, hinting that studying NAPE could help researchers design better appetite suppressants or obesity drugs. Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Gerald Shulman at Yale School of Medicine led the research team, which reported its findings in the November 26, 2008, issue of the journal Cell. Shulman's research group is well known for its work on understanding how insulin resistance develops and leads to diabetes. In the course of that research, his team developed a sensitive system to identify and measure lipids in tissue samples. After seeing the power of that system in his diabetes research, Shulman was eager to see if it might also be applied to understanding obesity. Some 300 million adults worldwide are severely overweight and at risk for life-threatening illnesses such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. But obesity is difficult to treat. "We do not have good medical therapies for obesity," Shulman says, noting that the small number of diet drugs on the market now come with intolerable side effects and have only modest impacts on weight. "It's very important to find other targets that might affect food intake." Despite many years studying the physiology of appetite and hunger, researchers still do not have a clear picture of how the brain keeps tabs on fat consumption. Fat is effective at satisfying hunger, so Shulman and his colleagues at Yale and the University of Cincinnati decided to see if they could find out whether the brain senses lipid intake directly. If they could learn how that happens, they suspected, their findings might point toward a new treatment for obesity. The team used Shulman's lipid analysis system to investigate what happens to fat that enters the blood after ingesting a high-fat meal. The scientists reasoned that the fat derivatives that enter the bloodstream might themselves serve as messengers to signal the brain that the body has been fed. They used this approach to compare the lipids present in blood plasma from rats that had fasted or eaten, and they zeroed in on NAPE.They found only low levels of NAPE in the blood of rats that had fasted for 12 hours. The level of NAPE shot up 40 to 50 percent in animals that had dined on high-fat chow. Furthermore, NAPE didn't increase in rodents that ate only protein or carbohydrate, suggesting that NAPE levels reflect the amount of fat eaten in a meal.

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Yale researchers enlist a new recruit in battle of the bulge

In the battle against obesity, Yale University researchers may have discovered a new weapon — a naturally occurring molecule secreted by the gut that makes rats and mice less hungry after fatty meals. The findings are published in the Nov. 26 issue of the journal Cell. The report suggests the molecule may help regulate how much animals and people eat, according to the team headed by Gerald I. Shulman, Yale professor of medicine and cellular & molecular physiology and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. Shulman's team studied a family of lipids called   N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines, or NAPEs, which are synthesized and secreted into the blood by the small intestine after fatty foods are eaten. The team found that mice and rats injected regularly with NAPEs ate less food and lost weight. In addition, treatment with NAPEs appeared to reduce the activity of "hunger" neurons in the brain while stimulating activity in neurons that are believed to play a role in reducing appetite. In the last two decades, scientists have made great inroads toward understanding how the body communicates with the brain to control food intake. So far, hormones such as leptin that act as regulators of this complex system have proved disappointing when tested as potential weight-loss treatments in humans. The researchers are now planning to investigate how the findings in the Cell paper apply to humans. They will first study non-human primates to determine if NAPE concentrations increase in a similar fashion after fat ingestion. Then, says Shulman, "If chronic NAPE treatment is well tolerated and can cause weight loss by a reduction of food intake, we would have strong impetus to move forward with human NAPE trials."

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Adiponectin is a metabolic link between obesity and bone mineral density

Researchers at the University of Toronto, faculty of medicine, Toronto, Canada, have discovered that adiponectin, a protein secreted from adipocytes, is a metabolic link that can explain, in part, the known positive relationship between obesity and both bone mineral density and reduced susceptibility to fractures.

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How Do Individuals React to Metabolic Stress? - Genetic Variation in Metabolism Identified

Metabolic diseases – in particular the increasingly prevalent type 2 diabetes – are caused by a complex interaction between genetic disposition and unfavorable lifestyle, above all unbalanced diet and too little physical exercise. Researchers at the Helmholtz Zentrum MŁnchen have now for the first time been able to show a relationship between the genetic make-up of an individual and differences in his/her metabolism. The team of Professor Karsten Suhre of the Institute for Bioinformatics and Systems Biology at the Helmholtz Zentrum MŁnchen and the Ludwig-Maximilians Universitšt MŁnchen (LMU) and Dr. Christian Gieger and Thomas Illig of the Institute for Epidemiology in cooperation with the Innsbruck company Biocrates Life Sciences AG determined the blood test results of several hundred metabolites synchronously with more than 100 000 DNA variants (SNPs) of 284 adult test subjects. Their research was based on blood samples of participants of the population-based KORA study (Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg [Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg] which is headed by Professor H.-Erich Wichmann).

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Overweight people may not know when they've had enough

Researchers at the US Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory have found new clues to why some people overeat and gain weight while others don't. Examining how the human brain responds to "satiety" messages delivered when the stomach is in various stages of fullness, the scientists have identified brain circuits that motivate the desire to overeat. Treatments that target these circuits may prove useful in controlling chronic overeating.

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Persistent pollutant may promote obesity

A persistent pollutant, tributyltin, has effects on gene activity in a wide range of animal species at concentrations of parts per billion. Tributyl tin and its chemical relatives bind to nuclear receptors that in turn activate genes influencing the formation of fat storage cells. This and other evidence suggests a possible role for tributyl tin in the obesity epidemic.

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Diet may regulate obesity health risks, but genes decide, says new research

The risk of obese people developing the metabolic syndrome that leads to diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease, can not be solved by a one-size-fits-all diet programme, according to new scientific findings. The results of Lipgene, a five year EU research programme, show that personalised nutrition diets based on peoples genetic make-up will be the way of the future when tackling obesity and its associated health risks. Currently, obesity costs the EU an estimated €32.8 billion each year. And, at current rates, it is estimated that 50% of Europeans will be obese by 2050. Obesity results when excess calories are consumed and insufficient energy is spent (physical inactivity). Obesity is a major health hazard worldwide, it is directly linked to several common diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and some cancers. “We analysed the findings from 500 volunteers across Europe who took part in a dietary programme to measure the effects of different diets on the development of the metabolic syndrome associated with obesity,” says Professor Helen Roche from the Institute of Food and Health at University College Dublin, one of the principal scientists on the Lipgene programme.

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Parathion Linked to Metabolic Effects in Rats

Parathion and other organophosphate pesticides, the most widely used class of insecticides, have long been known as neurotoxicants but were only recently linked to metabolic disorders. A new study adds to the growing evidence that parathion may be contributing to epidemics of obesity and diabetes.

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Apple or pear shape is not main culprit to heart woes — it's liver fat

For years, pear-shaped people who carry weight in the thighs and backside have been told they are at lower risk for high blood pressure and heart disease than apple-shaped people who carry fat in the abdomen. But new findings from nutrition researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis suggest body-shape comparisons don't completely explain risk. In two studies, they report excess liver fat appears to be the real key to insulin resistance, cholesterol abnormalities and other problems that contribute to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Having too much fat stored in the liver is known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

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Pediatric obesity may alter thyroid function and structure

In addition to its strong associations with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, pediatric obesity may induce alterations in thyroid function and structure, according to a new study accepted for publication in The Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM). Thyroid hormones drive metabolism, however demonstration of a direct or strong correlation of obesity with deficient thyroid function has been controversial, and previous studies provide conflicting conclusions. While some studies have found that thyroid disorders may lead to obesity, this recent study shows that in some cases, it is the obesity that may cause the disorder. "Our study shows that alterations in thyroid function and structure are common in obese children and we may have uncovered the link," said Giorgio Radetti, M.D., of the Regional Hospital of Bolzano in Italy and lead author of the study. "We found an association between body mass index and thyroid hormone levels which suggests that fat excess may have a role in thyroid tissue modification." This study evaluated 186 overweight and obese children over a period of nearly three years. Researchers measured subjects' thyroid hormone levels and thyroid antibodies and also performed a thyroid ultrasound. The presence of thyroid antibodies would suggest a diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, an autoimmune disease of the thyroid where T-cells attack the cells of the thyroid. In this study, 73 children did not show these antibodies, yet their ultrasound pattern was still suggestive of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

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Secreted protein sends signal that fat is on the way

After you eat a burger and fries or other fat-filled meal, a protein produced by the liver may send a signal that fat is on the way, suggests a report in the December issue of the journal Cell Metabolism, a Cell Press publication. Researchers have found in mice that the liver produces a protein called adropin, which rises in response to high-fat foods and falls after fasting. The protein seems to play a role in governing the activity of other metabolic genes, particularly those involved in the production of lipids from carbohydrates. Studies of the protein in obese animals suggest that it also plays a role in insulin response and in preventing the buildup of fat in the liver (a condition known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease), the researchers said."What is remarkable is that it appears that this factor is specifically regulated by the fat content of the diet," making it one of the first such factors ever discovered, said Andrew Butler of Pennington Biomedical Research Center, part of the Louisiana State University System. (The findings follow another report in the November 26th issue of the journal Cell of a phospholipid produced by the gut that rises after a fatty meal, signaling the brain to eat less.) The new results suggest that treatments designed to deliver adropin or otherwise boost its levels may hold promise in the war against obesity and associated metabolic disorders, including fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, Butler's team found that animals that become obese after eating a high-fat diet for a period of 3 months or due to a genetic mutation don't produce adropin normally. However, obese animals that are manipulated to produce excess adropin or that are given the protein show less fat in their livers and become more responsive to insulin. The mice also ultimately eat less and lose weight, but the other metabolic improvements do not depend on the animals' shrinking waistlines, Butler said.

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